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Full-Text Articles in Education

Urban Public Middle School Teachers And Their Response To High Student Mobility, Maria J. Ortiz Aug 2020

Urban Public Middle School Teachers And Their Response To High Student Mobility, Maria J. Ortiz

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

This study examined the teachers’ perspective of student mobility in urban public middle schools in the northeast state of the country. Thirty middle school teachers in an urban public-school system were interviewed about their prior years’ classroom experience with student mobility. They included those teaching English as a Second Language, Special Education, Science, Math and Language Arts, and Social Studies. In addition, student achievement data on standardized tests were studied. The research study concluded that teachers reported that they experienced frustration and anxiety, and that student mobility and its classroom consequences were relegated to the “undiscussable” aspects of the profession ...


The Influence Of English Language Arts Instructional Minutes On Student Achievement In Grades 6, 7, & 8, Franklin Goulburn Jun 2020

The Influence Of English Language Arts Instructional Minutes On Student Achievement In Grades 6, 7, & 8, Franklin Goulburn

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The purpose of this quantitative, non-experimental study was to examine if a relationship existed between allocated English Language Arts (ELA) instructional minutes within a school’s bell schedule for Grades 6, 7, and 8 and its corresponding mean PARCC score for that grade. Furthermore, the study also sought to detect the presence of an interaction effect regarding time, socioeconomic status, and student performance. The study controlled for other student, faculty, and school variables as well. Data for ELA instructional time were obtained from school personnel and also through school websites. Additional variable were obtained through the New Jersey School Performance ...


Faculty Role In Student Career Development: A Qualitative Study, Marianne Jacullo Brosnan May 2020

Faculty Role In Student Career Development: A Qualitative Study, Marianne Jacullo Brosnan

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

As chief architects of curriculum, faculty are largely responsible for student learning outcomes. Given the cost of higher education and the amount of debt students incur, higher education stakeholders want to know if higher education is worth the investment.

Student career preparedness is an important goal of higher education. While research has been dedicated to college student development, career decision-making, and student-faculty interaction from a student perspective, little is known about the faculty perspective and their role in student career preparedness in a specific articulated way.

In this study, the phenomenological perspective provided a framework for data collection and analysis ...


Teacher Perceptions Of Digital Gaming And 21st-Century Skills In The Middle School Classroom, Elizabeth Omegna Mar 2020

Teacher Perceptions Of Digital Gaming And 21st-Century Skills In The Middle School Classroom, Elizabeth Omegna

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Teacher Perceptions of digital gaming and 21st-century skills in Middle School classrooms

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research was to capture teacher perceptions on the use of digital gaming in the learning environment of middle school classrooms. Additionally, to speak to perceptions on learning of 21st-century skills such as communication, collaboration and critical thinking.

This study of two middle schools in the same district in suburban New Jersey was utilized for capturing the ideas of teachers who employed a variety of digital games in the classroom as part of their learning objectives.

An interview protocol was utilized to direct questions ...


The Type Of Questions Being Promoted In A 10th Grade Social Studies Textbook, Christie A. Vanderhook Feb 2020

The Type Of Questions Being Promoted In A 10th Grade Social Studies Textbook, Christie A. Vanderhook

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The importance of questioning is a crucial skill for the 21st century learner. The importance of having questioning designed to develop higher order thinking is critical. Much of today’s educational research notes the importance of the competitive skills and knowledge students must obtain in order to be successful academically in college entry courses, in vocational training programs, and ultimately, when navigating the real world. Questioning within the classroom setting can help students develop critical thinking ideas, scaffold classroom discussions, and guide students to an advanced level of cognition. Through the skillful art of questioning, teachers can establish students’ prior ...


A Case Study On The Implementation Of Common Core State Standards In An Urban Charter School Of New Jersey And Its Influence On College Readiness Of High School Students, Mursel Gunes Feb 2020

A Case Study On The Implementation Of Common Core State Standards In An Urban Charter School Of New Jersey And Its Influence On College Readiness Of High School Students, Mursel Gunes

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

For this research, four college readiness metrics were examined with the aim of analyzing the effects that implementing the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in an urban charter school in New Jersey will have on the college readiness of the school’s high school students. These metrics used were (a) participation rates in PSAT/PLAN, SAT, and AP/IB tests; (b) percentage of students who took SAT and scored 1,550 or above; (c) percentage of students who took AP/IB tests and scored three or more; and (d) schoolwide post-secondary program enrollment rates. Using a sequential mixed methods design ...


Students' Performance, Satisfaction And Retention In A Hybrid And Traditional Face-To-Face Science Course, Principles Of Biology I, In A Community College, Abdallah Mohammad Matari Feb 2020

Students' Performance, Satisfaction And Retention In A Hybrid And Traditional Face-To-Face Science Course, Principles Of Biology I, In A Community College, Abdallah Mohammad Matari

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Hybrid teaching, comprised of both in-class and online teaching, is rapidly becoming a favorite mode of teaching and learning. Online and hybrid courses on have become more and more appealing to both higher education institutions and the students they serve. In particular, hybrid teaching has an increase appeal to community colleges as they serve a diverse student population with varied academic levels, cultural background, and personal responsibilities. Hybrid courses promotes flexibility in course scheduling options for students and enables institutions to accept more students without worrying about physical classroom space concerns. This study explored and compared students’ learning outcomes, satisfaction ...


The Influence Of A Phonics-Based Program, Wilson Fundations®, On Primary Children's Reading Skills, Teresa Debrito Feb 2020

The Influence Of A Phonics-Based Program, Wilson Fundations®, On Primary Children's Reading Skills, Teresa Debrito

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

This case study focused on the experiences of teachers who utilized a reading program, Wilson Fundations®, to teach phonics-based instruction to primary age children at an urban elementary school. Face-to-face interviews and a review of preliminary data verified for this community of educators that the phonics-based program was leading to significant improvements in reading for their students.

Based on brain imaging and significant intervention research, children with reading difficulties do benefit greatly from multisensory phonics-based instruction. Although the research is clear, children in the United States continue to struggle with reading. The National Association of Educational Progress (NAEP) results reveal ...


A Study Of Curriculum Customization In The Era Of Standardization Of Education, Sylvia A. Dixon Mcinerney Aug 2019

A Study Of Curriculum Customization In The Era Of Standardization Of Education, Sylvia A. Dixon Mcinerney

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The turn of the 19th Century in the United States was a period of immense economic, social and political growth. The Progressive Era was born out of this rapid change and led to a shift in educational theory creating a debate over curriculum. Curriculum has been a fervent point of discussion among educational theorists and practitioners with politicians and businessmen having all had something to add to the fray. The current movement in curriculum content has been at the forefront since 2010 where education has been besieged by a strong impetus toward standardization. This has taken the form of the ...


The Effect Of Coaching On Teachers’ Instructional Technology Use In A 1:1 Environment, Michael L. Mitchell Jun 2019

The Effect Of Coaching On Teachers’ Instructional Technology Use In A 1:1 Environment, Michael L. Mitchell

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Current research has reported the benefits of integrating technology into the learning experience for students to promote greater engagement and collaboration. Schools across the country have begun implementing one-to-one learning environments in which each student uses a mobile computing device. However, use of technology in the classroom has failed to produce the expected transformational benefits. In order for technology to be integrated effectively, current research suggests that teacher pedagogy must adjust to the one-to-one classroom approach, and requires professional development to facilitate growth in their instructional practices while integrating technology. Research shows that coaches working one-to-one with teachers can be ...


How Does The High School Redesigned Learning Space Influence Collaboration, Communication, Creativity, And Critical Thinking, P. Erik Gundersen May 2019

How Does The High School Redesigned Learning Space Influence Collaboration, Communication, Creativity, And Critical Thinking, P. Erik Gundersen

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

This study examined the affect that redesigned learning spaces might have on student engagement levels, specifically the extent to which redesigned learning spaces facilitate the 21st Century Learning and Innovation Skills known as communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and creativity. Using David Ross’s work with the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the study observes the efforts of a suburban high school that has redesigned traditional classrooms into progressive and innovative learning spaces. This qualitative study utilized seventeen, face-to-face interviews with teachers who are teaching in redesigned classrooms to collect their impressions of how such learning spaces influenced engagement ...


Preparing Students For The Real World: Analyzing Public Relations (Pr) Education For Entry-Level Practice In The Health Industry, Olivia Maria Lason May 2019

Preparing Students For The Real World: Analyzing Public Relations (Pr) Education For Entry-Level Practice In The Health Industry, Olivia Maria Lason

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Public relations (PR) agencies are often called upon to service the needs of niche industry areas of practice. These areas include healthcare communication which generates over 15% of firm revenue alone. Agencies are also top-employers of PR graduates, yet literature shows students are not meeting the skills and abilities expected of an entry-level practitioner. This study examined whether entry-level foundational skills and abilities (FSAs) are taught to PR students interested in the health field. Through a content analysis of undergraduate health communication syllabi in PR programs, the study found most FSAs were addressed; however, some areas were lacking. As such ...


The Influence Of An Abstinence-Only Intervention On The Risk Behaviors Of Urban Middle School Students, Alison J. Wakefield May 2019

The Influence Of An Abstinence-Only Intervention On The Risk Behaviors Of Urban Middle School Students, Alison J. Wakefield

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

In this dissertation, findings on the factors that influence risk-avoidance behaviors among Hispanic and African American middle-school students are presented. The findings were based on a randomized study in which middle-school students were randomly assigned to receive either an abstinence-only curriculum or a comprehensive health curriculum.

Initial findings suggest that middle-school students and their attitudes toward sexual activity were closely associated with their relationships with both their parents and peers. The pivotal indicator for student engagement research indicated that the higher the level of engagement between teen and parent, the more likely the teen is to follow the interventions. Should ...


A Comparison Of Complex Thinking Required By The Elementary New Jersey Student Learning Standards And Past New Jersey Curriculum Standards, Gerald Fitzhugh Ii May 2019

A Comparison Of Complex Thinking Required By The Elementary New Jersey Student Learning Standards And Past New Jersey Curriculum Standards, Gerald Fitzhugh Ii

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Academic learning standards define the necessary skills and knowledge that students need to master in order to become college and career ready. The best 21st century learning standards are those that provide the opportunity to develop complex thinking skills including creativity, strategic thinking, and critical thinking. The learning standards that provide an insight into complex thinking are identified as critical thinking, creativity in practice, and strategic thinking. This dissertation’s intent was to examine the language of complex thinking of the newly adopted New Jersey Student Learning Standards (NJSLS) in Grades 4 & 5 Mathematics as compared to the language of ...


Comparison Of National Assessment Of Educational Progress (Naep) Reports And State Physical Education Mandates, Erick Alfonso May 2019

Comparison Of National Assessment Of Educational Progress (Naep) Reports And State Physical Education Mandates, Erick Alfonso

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

There have been several studies that analyzed the relationship between physical education and academic achievement at a local level, but a longitudinal analysis across the United States has not been done. An understanding of the relationship between physical education policies across the United States and academic achievement at the state level may provide insight into best practices to ensure that comprehensive physical education policies are adopted in all states. Using data from the Society of Health and Physical Educators and The National Assessment of Educational Progress, I investigated the relationship between physical education policies and academic achievement. Minor relationships with ...


Understanding The Co-Teaching Experience Of Teachers: Negotiating Choice And Efficacy, Mary A. Garofalo May 2019

Understanding The Co-Teaching Experience Of Teachers: Negotiating Choice And Efficacy, Mary A. Garofalo

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Co-teaching, a main strategy of the inclusionary movement, has been widely researched over the last 25 years. Although there is much research in the way of student outcomes and best practices, the research on teachers’ perceptions of co-teaching on the secondary level is non-existent. Although all of the research on best practices of co-teaching suggests that voluntary participation and choice of partner is important when implementing a co-teaching program, school administration tend to veer away from giving teachers a choice due to scheduling or financial constraints.

Using qualitative, case-study research methods, including teacher and administrative interviews, survey and field observations ...


The Effect Of A Supplemental, Web Based Program On Student Achievement In A Suburban New York State School District, Matthew Younghans Mar 2019

The Effect Of A Supplemental, Web Based Program On Student Achievement In A Suburban New York State School District, Matthew Younghans

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Since the inception of the Common Core, school districts have sought to implement effective and fiscally responsible ways to support under-performing general education students. The need for supplemental assistance for struggling learners has emerged, particularly when tied to high-stakes testing. To offer appropriate assistance, school districts analyzed the possible ways through which they could support students and boost achievement. One popular method for providing intervention services and supplemental instruction is web-based learning. This study examined the effect of one particular supplemental web based program on student performance. It examined students who used the Castle Learning Online Program at a suburban ...


The Effect Of Mandating Algebra For All Students In Grade 8 Versus Grade 9 In A Small Suburban K-12 School District In New Jersey, Peter Crawley Dec 2018

The Effect Of Mandating Algebra For All Students In Grade 8 Versus Grade 9 In A Small Suburban K-12 School District In New Jersey, Peter Crawley

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The traditional sequencing of the ninth- to twelfth-grade math curriculum in the United States has students taking Algebra 1 in the ninth grade, Geometry in the tenth grade, Algebra 2 in the eleventh grade and an optional advanced math course (e.g. pre-calculus, statistics) in the twelfth grade. In this traditional setup, talented math students are given the opportunity to take Algebra 1 in the eighth grade, which allows them to take two or more years of advanced math before graduating from high school. In an effort to create more equitable access to advanced math courses, many districts are considering ...


Practices That Attribute To The Success Of Boys: A Study Of Title I Middle Schools In Texas, Laura L. Duhon Dec 2018

Practices That Attribute To The Success Of Boys: A Study Of Title I Middle Schools In Texas, Laura L. Duhon

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

While it is commonly believed that boys are more successful than girls academically, research shows that boys are failing to thrive, academically, behaviorally, and socially. Boys comprise 70% of school suspensions as well as 80% of high school dropouts along with other alarming statistics. The purpose of this research study was to investigate approaches that contribute to the success of boys within six Title I middle schools located in various regions of Texas. These schools were selected based on state assessment (STAAR) scores where their male population was achieving the same or greater success as the females as measured by ...


Chicago Public School Administrators' Experiences Implementing The Special Education Addendum, Aaron Rucker Oct 2018

Chicago Public School Administrators' Experiences Implementing The Special Education Addendum, Aaron Rucker

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

This qualitative case study examined the insights, thoughts, and perspectives that administrators in Chicago Public Schools experienced when implementing the district’s new Special Education Addendum. A strong emphasis was placed on the perceptions, feelings, and thoughts that principals and assistant principals employed when utilizing the addendum to evaluate teachers. Teacher evaluation is an essential component of teacher practice, providing a common language, expectations, and standards to improve teachers’ practice (Danielson & McGreal, 2000). This research provides narrative accounts that policymakers, politicians, and district supervisors can use to consult with principals as conversation starters to improve special education teachers' practice and ...


Theme-Based Lessons: Teacher Perceptions Of A Theme-Based Approach And Its Influence On Student Engagement In Grades 3-8, Robin Penna-Baskinger Aug 2018

Theme-Based Lessons: Teacher Perceptions Of A Theme-Based Approach And Its Influence On Student Engagement In Grades 3-8, Robin Penna-Baskinger

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The purpose of this study was to explore how teachers in Grades 3-8 in one New Jersey school district perceive theme-based lessons on student level of engagement and teaching pedagogy when using their own initiatives to develop a theme-based approach. Research was conducted using a qualitative design to investigate the perceptions and observations of those directly involved in developing theme-based lessons in the classroom. Twelve participants, all experienced teachers within the district of study, participated in a pre-selection questionnaire and an interview process. Increased student engagement, good teaching practices, and teaching pedagogy were dominant themes in this study. The study ...


Content Complexity In High School English: An Analysis Of Common Core State Standards And Past Massachusetts Curriculum, Mark Jarmon May 2018

Content Complexity In High School English: An Analysis Of Common Core State Standards And Past Massachusetts Curriculum, Mark Jarmon

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

There has been much debate about having standardized curricula content standards for all. Some have criticized state curriculum content standards for varying in quality by state. The purpose of this study was to compare content complexity as it appears within the high school English Language Arts Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and the former state standards of Massachusetts, the Massachusetts English Language Arts Curriculum Framework (2001), in Grades 9–12. Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DOK) was the framework through which the analysis for this study was conducted. Webb described four levels of DOK as they apply to English language ...


Perceptions Of Middle School Math And Language Arts Teachers On High-Stakes Testing Cultures In Public Schools, Robert Daniello May 2018

Perceptions Of Middle School Math And Language Arts Teachers On High-Stakes Testing Cultures In Public Schools, Robert Daniello

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Instruction in public schools today is highly prescribed to meet state standards, which, in turn, prepare students for success on standardized assessments. Teachers in language arts and mathematics are being held accountable for standardized assessment results in their end-of-year, summative evaluations. The development of curriculum and delivery of instruction is being impacted and, most specifically, revised and paced according to skills required to demonstrate levels of proficiency on standardized assessments. No Child Left Behind (2001) changed the game for teachers and started the mandate of placing teacher accountability and evaluation on high-stakes tests. However, it was difficult to place a ...


An Analysis Of The Higher Order Thinking Requirements Of A Grade 8 Online-Based English Language Arts Skills Program, Paige D. Sydoruk May 2018

An Analysis Of The Higher Order Thinking Requirements Of A Grade 8 Online-Based English Language Arts Skills Program, Paige D. Sydoruk

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Higher order thinking skills have been embedded into state teaching standards, including Standard 9 of the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards (NJCCCS) for 21st Century Life and Careers. These standards aim to encourage problem solving, critical thinking, reasoning, and real-world application in order to prepare students for the workplace and are expected to be embedded consistently in classroom practice and learning. With the promotion of Standard 9 in New Jersey schools, technology has become a paramount tool because of its multitude of capabilities. Over the years, private companies have begun developing online-based programs catered to building content area skills ...


The Effectiveness Of Additional Guided Reading Instruction On Fourth Grade Reading Achievement In A Nj Urban School District Measured By Renaissance Star Reading And The Parcc, Wanda Kopic May 2018

The Effectiveness Of Additional Guided Reading Instruction On Fourth Grade Reading Achievement In A Nj Urban School District Measured By Renaissance Star Reading And The Parcc, Wanda Kopic

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

This study examined if additional Guided Reading instruction increased the oral reading fluency and comprehension of fourth-grade students as measured by the Renaissance Star Reading and PARCC state assessment in a low-socioeconomic school district located in northern New Jersey. Propensity score matching was utilized to select the sample to provide a balanced sampling technique. The final sample was comprised of 12 participating schools which consisted of 374 fourth-grade students during the 2016-2017 school year. Three out of the 12 schools provided additional Guided Reading instruction in addition to the mandatory Guided Reading instruction during the literacy block. The variables that ...


Black Mothers' Counter-Narratives Of Agency: A Pulse On Racism And Parent Involvement Strategies In Twenty First Century Schools, Sharnee N. Brown May 2018

Black Mothers' Counter-Narratives Of Agency: A Pulse On Racism And Parent Involvement Strategies In Twenty First Century Schools, Sharnee N. Brown

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

This qualitative study examined African American mothers’ perceptions of their children’s schools (public, charter, and private) within the context of institutional, structural, and individual racism. Employing qualitative techniques, interviews and focus groups of middle to lower working class Black mothers were conducted to explore their lived experiences with individual, institutional, and structural racism within American schools. The goal of this study was to learn how these mothers make meaning of the educational institutions that serve their children, the racial barriers they encountered and the strategies of contestation they employed in order to address these perceived barriers.

The results of ...


The Influence Of Mathematical-Instructional Minutes On The Percentage Of Proficient And Advanced Proficient Scores In Mathematics On The New Jersey Assessment Of Skills And Knowledge For Grades 6-8, Eric Walter Kosek May 2018

The Influence Of Mathematical-Instructional Minutes On The Percentage Of Proficient And Advanced Proficient Scores In Mathematics On The New Jersey Assessment Of Skills And Knowledge For Grades 6-8, Eric Walter Kosek

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The purpose of this non-experimental, cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine the influence, if any, of mathematical-instructional minutes on academic achievement as measured by the 2014 New Jersey Assessment of Skills and Knowledge (NJ ASK) 6, 7, and 8 mathematics scores. Additionally, the study accounted for other factors that influence student achievement, including selected metrics and variables listed on the 2013-2014 New Jersey School Performance Report. The variable of interest, mathematical-instructional minutes, was obtained via survey from all schools in New Jersey that educated students in Grades 6-8. The survey data were then matched with each responding school’s New ...


A Case Study: The Perceptions Of Teachers Of Urban Eighth-Grade At-Risk Students, In One Nj School District, Regarding The Classroom Factors That Facilitate And Inhibit At-Risk Student Motivation To Excel Academically, Tabina H. Adam Mar 2018

A Case Study: The Perceptions Of Teachers Of Urban Eighth-Grade At-Risk Students, In One Nj School District, Regarding The Classroom Factors That Facilitate And Inhibit At-Risk Student Motivation To Excel Academically, Tabina H. Adam

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of teachers of urban eighth-grade at-risk students in one New Jersey school district regarding the classroom factors that facilitate and inhibit at-risk student motivation to excel academically.

An interview protocol that included semi-structured, open-ended questions was utilized to capture the perceptions of 18 teachers of at-risk students in core content areas. Interview questions were designed in consultation with seminal research in the area of student motivation as well as Maslow’s (1943) Hierarchy of Needs. The latter also provided the conceptual framework through which the study’s findings were ...


The Relationship Between Student Participation In A 1:1 Laptop Initiative And Academic Achievement In A 9-12 Upper Middle Class Suburban New Jersey Public School District, Brian P. Gatens Dec 2017

The Relationship Between Student Participation In A 1:1 Laptop Initiative And Academic Achievement In A 9-12 Upper Middle Class Suburban New Jersey Public School District, Brian P. Gatens

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The use of laptop computers in 1:1 settings is becoming increasingly prevalent in America’s schools. As greater numbers of students are using this technology, establishing its benefits and costs is paramount, especially in light of so many demanding fiscal situations. This study used quantitative research and analysis to measure the benefits and costs of such an expansive distribution of technology. It seeks to answer the question of the worth of such a large-scale adoption.

This study explored the relationship between the use of a laptop computer on a 1:1 basis for the purpose of academic instruction ...


A Comparison Of Complex Thinking Required By The Middle School New Jersey Student Learning Standards And Past New Jersey Curriculum Standards, Clifford R. Burns Aug 2017

A Comparison Of Complex Thinking Required By The Middle School New Jersey Student Learning Standards And Past New Jersey Curriculum Standards, Clifford R. Burns

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Learning standards define what knowledge and skills students need to master in order to be prepared for college and careers. The acquisition of knowledge and skills is essential for the 21st century learner as students are required to think, problem solve, create, and communicate for future employers. The best 21st century learning standards are those that provide the opportunity to develop complex thinking skills including creativity, strategic thinking, and critical thinking. This dissertation sought to examine the cognitive complexity of the newly adopted New Jersey Student Learning Standards (NJSLS) in Grades 6–8 mathematics as compared to the cognitive complexity ...