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Theses/Dissertations

Dissertations and Theses

2015

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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Effects Of An Overnight Environmental Science Education Program On Students' Attendance Rate Change For Middle School Years, Jennifer Elizabeth Basham Dec 2015

The Effects Of An Overnight Environmental Science Education Program On Students' Attendance Rate Change For Middle School Years, Jennifer Elizabeth Basham

Dissertations and Theses

Programs that engage middle students in participatory, real-world, and hands-on field based instruction can be a powerful asset to the educational experiences for students; motivating and inspiring some to appreciate and value school in a different way. Overnight environmental science programs have a unique opportunity to support students by creating experiences where students can participate in learning in vastly different ways from what they may engage with in the traditional 4-walled classroom, while concurrently developing a relationship with the natural world. Decreasing educational budgets and increased need to substantiate educational programs in terms of their impact on students has added ...


Isn’T Citizen Science A Hoot? A Case-Study Exploring The Effectiveness Of Citizen Science As An Instrument To Teach The Nature Of Science Through A Local Nocturnal Owl-Monitoring Project, Tess Marie Kreofsky Dec 2015

Isn’T Citizen Science A Hoot? A Case-Study Exploring The Effectiveness Of Citizen Science As An Instrument To Teach The Nature Of Science Through A Local Nocturnal Owl-Monitoring Project, Tess Marie Kreofsky

Dissertations and Theses

Citizen science projects present a distinctive opportunity for professional and volunteer scientists to coordinate their efforts to gather unique sets of data that can benefit the scientific and local communities. These projects are assumed to be an effective educational tool to teach nature of science (NOS) to participants (Brossard, Lewenstein, Bonney, 2005). This case study evaluates the effectiveness of participation in a citizen science project as a way to learn about NOS. Through enhancement of the Tryon Creek Owl Monitoring Project the researcher reviewed the characteristics of a citizen science project that were thought to be necessary to impact the ...


Exploring Relationships Between Entrepreneurship Education And Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Mixed Method Study Of Entrepreneurial Pedagogies At Chilean Universities, Paulina Andrea Gutierrez Zepeda Dec 2015

Exploring Relationships Between Entrepreneurship Education And Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Mixed Method Study Of Entrepreneurial Pedagogies At Chilean Universities, Paulina Andrea Gutierrez Zepeda

Dissertations and Theses

Entrepreneurs play a major role in the 21st century economy, especially in developing countries such as Chile. Entrepreneurial individuals generate innovative ideas, create jobs, and push older businesses to improve competitiveness. To encourage entrepreneurial skills and mindset among the next generation of students, different public and private initiatives have started to include entrepreneurship education (EE) in all levels of education, especially in higher education.

Nowadays, EE is not only about business creation, it is about educating individuals to be capable of creating opportunities using entrepreneurial skills to deal with complex and uncertain environments. Yet, while much is known about ...


Principal Leadership Practices In High Poverty K-5 Model Schools In Oregon, Janice Marie Adams Oct 2015

Principal Leadership Practices In High Poverty K-5 Model Schools In Oregon, Janice Marie Adams

Dissertations and Theses

Children living in poverty in the United States face some of life's greatest challenges, including achieving academic success in school. Evidence is also emerging of a growing income disparity in America that affects families, communities and local labor markets in ways that can undermine the effectiveness of schools serving disadvantaged populations (Duncan & Murnane, 2011). Evidence exists, however, that high academic performance is within the reach of all children in high poverty schools, and that principal leadership is a contributing factor.

This study examined principal leadership practices in three high poverty K-5 elementary schools in Oregon identified as Model schools under the Oregon ESEA waiver to No Child Left Behind. This study identified themes of leadership practices including 1) high expectations, 2) meeting children's basic needs, 3) shared leadership and teamwork, 4) use of data, and 5) personal attributes of the principal. Other themes considered important to one or more groups of respondents but not necessarily to all included 1) caring, 2) positive support, 3) addressing biases about children and families in poverty, 4) principal's elementary teaching experience, and 5) pride in the local school. As such, the findings of this study support the knowledge base in educational leadership regarding principal leadership as a factor in schools that impact the academic growth of children (Hallinger, 2005; Hallinger, Bickman, & Davis, 1996; Hallinger & Heck, 1998; Hattie, 2009; Jacobson et al., 2004; Leithwood & Jantzi, 2012; Leithwood & Louis, 2012; Leithwood et al., 2004; Lyman & Villani, 2004; Marks & Printy, 2003; and, Water, Marzano, & McNulty, 2003).

This study has implications for district hiring and planning for principal succession, teacher hiring, resource allocation, community engagement, and district support for schools serving students ...


Effective Technology Implementation In Schools: Differing Perceptions Of Teachers, Administrators, And Technology Staff, Joseph Stephen Morelock Oct 2015

Effective Technology Implementation In Schools: Differing Perceptions Of Teachers, Administrators, And Technology Staff, Joseph Stephen Morelock

Dissertations and Theses

This study examined the connection between perceptions of teacher self-efficacy, professional development, and leadership practices and attitudes as it relates to successful implementation of technology for student learning in K-12 schools. As external pressures exhort schools to transform the learning environment and to include more meaningful applications of technology in the learning experiences for all students, issues which create barriers to a successful implementation of new practices must be examined.

This study examined the responses of teachers, school and district administrators, and technology support personnel in a stratified random sample from 37 school districts in the state of Oregon to ...


Language Policy And Bilingual Education For Immigrant Students At Public Schools In Japan, Naomi Asakura Sep 2015

Language Policy And Bilingual Education For Immigrant Students At Public Schools In Japan, Naomi Asakura

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis discusses the current Japanese language (nihongo) education for immigrant students at public schools in Japan and provides recommendations through the study of language policy and the comparison of bilingual education in the United States. The current situation of a decreasing birth rate and increasing aging population in Japan has led to the acceptance of more foreign workers. Due to this change, language education in Japan has increasing development. The focus of chapter 1 is on the theories of language policy. This paper particularly focuses on the ideas of Wright (2004), Neustupný (2006), Spolsky (2004), and Cooper (1989), and ...


Perspectives On The College Readiness And Outcome Achievement Of Former Intensive English Language Program (Ielp) Students, Meghan Oswalt Sep 2015

Perspectives On The College Readiness And Outcome Achievement Of Former Intensive English Language Program (Ielp) Students, Meghan Oswalt

Dissertations and Theses

Program evaluation (PE) is important for ESL programs but also difficult. As the scope of PE has grown, student voices have increasingly been included. Alumni provide unique perspectives, but Portland State University's (PSU) Intensive English Language Program (IELP) currently has no exit survey. Furthermore, little research uses alumni data, so this constructivist, mixed-methods study used data triangulation to compare the perceptions of former IELP students with those of three other stakeholder groups -- the topic: IELP student preparedness for PSU. Both online surveys and interviews were conducted, and participants included 63 former and 33 current IELP students, 27 IELP faculty ...


School Reform And Coaching: Identifying Structures For Successful Implementation Of A Data Informed Decision-Making Program, Kristan D. Parman Aug 2015

School Reform And Coaching: Identifying Structures For Successful Implementation Of A Data Informed Decision-Making Program, Kristan D. Parman

Dissertations and Theses

During the past 50 years, the landscape of education shifted from a rank order model to a system where all students are expected to achieve at a minimum level. This led to reforms in the way schools operate and teachers teach. One change to teaching is the use of data to inform instructional practices and student groupings. The need for teachers to increase their data use and change their instruction has prompted the need for professional development practices to be more effective. Coaching has been shown to be an effective professional development strategy to help teachers transfer new skills into ...


The Design And Validation Of A Group Theory Concept Inventory, Kathleen Mary Melhuish Aug 2015

The Design And Validation Of A Group Theory Concept Inventory, Kathleen Mary Melhuish

Dissertations and Theses

Within undergraduate mathematics education, there are few validated instruments designed for large-scale usage. The Group Concept Inventory (GCI) was created as an instrument to evaluate student conceptions related to introductory group theory topics. The inventory was created in three phases: domain analysis, question creation, and field-testing. The domain analysis phase included using an expert consensus protocol to arrive at the topics to be assessed, analyzing curriculum, and reviewing literature. From this analysis, items were created, evaluated, and field-tested. First, 383 students answered open-ended versions of the question set. The questions were converted to multiple-choice format from these responses and disseminated ...


Ninth Grade Student Responses To Authentic Science Instruction, Michael Steven Ellison Jul 2015

Ninth Grade Student Responses To Authentic Science Instruction, Michael Steven Ellison

Dissertations and Theses

This mixed methods case study documents an effort to implement authentic science and engineering instruction in one teacher's ninth grade science classrooms in a science-focused public school. The research framework and methodology is a derivative of work developed and reported by Newmann and others (Newmann & Associates, 1996). Based on a working definition of authenticity, data were collected for eight months on the authenticity in the experienced teacher's pedagogy and in student performance. Authenticity was defined as the degree to which a classroom lesson, an assessment task, or an example of student performance demonstrates construction of knowledge through use ...


Leadership And Decision-Making Skills Of High Poverty Elementary School Principals In An Era Of Reduced Resources, Kevin Eugene Spooner Jul 2015

Leadership And Decision-Making Skills Of High Poverty Elementary School Principals In An Era Of Reduced Resources, Kevin Eugene Spooner

Dissertations and Theses

Recently, a great deal of interest has been generated around the role of principal and its effectiveness, especially its impact on improving teacher instruction and student learning. Waters, Marzano, and McNulty (2003) concluded that one quarter of all "school effects" on achievement can be attributed to principals. While there is general agreement on the principal's importance and affect, do we understand how principals have adapted to changes in schools with reduced resources and increased learning needs of students? How have principals made decisions in an environment where resources have been reduced over time? Given the stories of retired principals ...


A Critical Race Analysis Of Travel For Transformation: Pedagogy For The Privileged Or Vehicle For Socio-Cultural Transformation?, James Arthur Gambrell Jul 2015

A Critical Race Analysis Of Travel For Transformation: Pedagogy For The Privileged Or Vehicle For Socio-Cultural Transformation?, James Arthur Gambrell

Dissertations and Theses

Transformative learning theory (TLT) describes the process of reframing discriminative, untenable worldviews with a more inclusive, permeable, and reflective epistemology. Although TLT has been around for more than 50 years, few studies empirically engage critical theoretical frameworks to move beyond personal learning to identify the impacts of transformation on society. Through a critical race theory (CRT) framework, this study analyzed how the participants' socio-cultural identities (race, class, gender, sexuality, and heritage language) impacted the transformative learning of eight study-abroad students from a medium-sized, rural Midwestern university. Focusing on the extent to which the participants experienced the elements of transformative learning ...


Focus On A Stem, Based In Place, Watershed Curriculum: A Confluence Of Stormwater, Humans, Knowledge, Attitudes, And Skills, Lecia Molineux Schall Jun 2015

Focus On A Stem, Based In Place, Watershed Curriculum: A Confluence Of Stormwater, Humans, Knowledge, Attitudes, And Skills, Lecia Molineux Schall

Dissertations and Theses

This case study investigated the potential of a place-based watershed curriculum, using STEM principles, to increase watershed literacy and knowledge of human impacts on stormwater in the environment. A secondary goal was to examine whether the place-based connection and increased exposure to issues within their local watershed impacted the students' environmental attitudes and sense of place. Over 500 sixth graders participated in this localized curriculum, where they learned the science behind watershed issues on their own school campuses. They focused on ways humans can monitor and mitigate their impacts on stormwater, through engineering investigations. The mixed-method research study investigated the ...


Empowering All Who Teach: A Portrait Of Two Non-Native English Speaking Teachers In A Globalized 21st Century, Rosa Dene David Jun 2015

Empowering All Who Teach: A Portrait Of Two Non-Native English Speaking Teachers In A Globalized 21st Century, Rosa Dene David

Dissertations and Theses

One of most prevalent issues surrounding English education internationally is the differentiation between Native English-Speaking Teachers (NESTs) and Non-native English-Speaking Teachers (NNESTs). What is sometimes termed the "Native speaker fallacy" is the notion that in order to be a proficient teacher of the English language one must either be a native speaker or possess native like fluency (Phillipson, 1992). This position is furthered by Hollidays Native Speakerism (Holliday, 2006) which suggests that within the field of English Language Teaching (ELT) there is an assumption that NESTs are better equipped to teach English language learners due to language proficiency and Western ...


Localized Ecological And Educational Effects Of Environmental Service-Learning In Portland, Oregon, Steven Matthew Braun Jun 2015

Localized Ecological And Educational Effects Of Environmental Service-Learning In Portland, Oregon, Steven Matthew Braun

Dissertations and Theses

Environmental service-learning is an intentional educational experience(s) wherein learners engage in meaningful activities designed to serve the environment. Environmental service-learning activities vary according to their learning and service goals and include ecomanagement, persuasion, legal action, economic action and political action. The purpose of this mixed methods research was to explore the ecological and educational impacts of grades 6-12 environmental education, with special attention to environmental service-learning throughout Portland, Oregon.

Ecological impacts considered restoration and conservation outcomes of several environmental service-learning programs including plant communities, soils, litter removal and trail maintenance. Educational outcomes considered aspects of environmental literacy including locus ...


Gifted Black And Biracial Students At A Predominantly White Gifted School, Clair Elizabeth Pople Jun 2015

Gifted Black And Biracial Students At A Predominantly White Gifted School, Clair Elizabeth Pople

Dissertations and Theses

The underrepresentation of gifted Black and Biracial students is a pervasive problem in and of itself, and indicates a much larger struggle of disproportionality of Black and Biracial students who are not called upon or supported in efforts to meet their academic potential. Therefore, an evaluation of the inequity generated by gifted education is warranted. It is true that the majority of gifted programs are often predominantly White. Accordingly, Black and Biracial students who qualify for gifted programs may face unique challenges in their development of racial identity and their socio-emotional health.

Using ethnographic techniques, this case study explored the ...


The Cognitive Development Of Expertise In An Esl Teacher: A Case Study, Lyndsey Roos Jun 2015

The Cognitive Development Of Expertise In An Esl Teacher: A Case Study, Lyndsey Roos

Dissertations and Theses

This case study investigated how an English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher's cognition has both changed and stayed constant over a period of eight years and the factors to which the teacher attributes changes or lack of changes. The study followed the teacher over the course of a 10-week period and compared videos of the participant's teaching from eight years ago to her current teaching. Interviews, observations, and stimulated recall were used to investigate development over the eight year span. It was found that the teacher did indicate several areas in which she demonstrated change: Teaching with ...


Use Of Role And Power In Parent-Teacher Relationships: Perceptions From The Parent Perspective, Sonja Taylor Jun 2015

Use Of Role And Power In Parent-Teacher Relationships: Perceptions From The Parent Perspective, Sonja Taylor

Dissertations and Theses

Studies have increasingly shown that more parent involvement leads to higher academic achievement for kids. However, studies have also shown a difference in the ability of parents to effectively further their children's interest based on social class. Middle-class parents are described as being able to activate their cultural and social capital in order to further their interests, while working-class and low-income parents have been described as frustrated and marginalized- lacking the ability to activate their capital in a way that benefits themselves and their children.

The intent of this study is to explore how parents understand their role in ...


Staying On Script: Sexual Scripts And Sex Education, Elizabeth Carol Hauck Jun 2015

Staying On Script: Sexual Scripts And Sex Education, Elizabeth Carol Hauck

Dissertations and Theses

Existing research suggests that men and women develop differing sexual scripts that influence their behavior, interactions and emotions regarding sex. The objective of this project is to examine the experiences of men and women with formal sex education programs, especially in regards to information about: anatomy and biology, sexual responsibility and risk taking, sexual desire, virginity and abstinence, as well as to explore sources of sex education outside of school. Several studies suggest masculine sexual scripts dictate that men generally construct a more body-focused approach to sex, with an emphasis on competition, aggression and achievement. Conversely, emphasized feminine sexual scripts ...


Stem Education In The Foreign Language Classroom With Special Attention To The L2 German Classroom, Sarah Danielle Schoettler Jun 2015

Stem Education In The Foreign Language Classroom With Special Attention To The L2 German Classroom, Sarah Danielle Schoettler

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis tackles the issues of foreign language education, with special attention to German as a foreign language, and STEM education in the K-12, and in some cases K-16, educational system. After exploring the societal and national need for improved STEM and foreign language education programs, this thesis suggests methods of integrating STEM education elements and principals in the foreign language classroom. These methods are provided in chapters about integrating state and national education standards in the STEM fields, core academic subject fields, and foreign language teaching, and finally in chapters about the most appropriate and effective pedagogies for successful ...


An Investigation Of The Role Of Alternate Numeration Systems In Preservice Teacher Mathematics Content Courses, Jodi I. Fasteen Jun 2015

An Investigation Of The Role Of Alternate Numeration Systems In Preservice Teacher Mathematics Content Courses, Jodi I. Fasteen

Dissertations and Theses

Alternate numeration systems are common in preservice teacher (PST) mathematics curricula, but there is limited research on how to leverage alternate systems to promote the development of mathematical knowledge for teaching. I analyzed the role of alternate numeration systems in three ways. I conducted a thematic analysis of current PST textbooks to consider the role of alternate numeration systems in written curricula. I conducted a teaching experiment to analyze PSTs' mathematical activity as they engaged with a base five task sequence to reinvent an algorithm for multiplication. And I introduced problematizing mathematical contexts as a design heuristic, situating this within ...


Engineering Professional Development: Elementary Teachers' Self-Efficacy And Sources Of Self-Efficacy, Donna Louise Webb Jun 2015

Engineering Professional Development: Elementary Teachers' Self-Efficacy And Sources Of Self-Efficacy, Donna Louise Webb

Dissertations and Theses

Currently, STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) is a popular buzz word in P -12 education as it represents a means to advance American competitiveness in the global economy. Proponents of the engineering component of STEM advocate additional benefits in teaching engineering, such as its capacity to engage students in collaboration, and to apply critical thinking, systems thinking, negotiation, and communication skills to solve real-life contextual problems. Establishing a strong foundation of engineering knowledge at a young age will provide students with internal motivation as it taps into their curiosity toward how things work, and it also prepares them for ...


The Role Of Emotional Support Consistency And Child Risk Factors In Predicting Pre-K Cognitive And Social-Emotional Development, Amy Lynn Cannell-Cordier May 2015

The Role Of Emotional Support Consistency And Child Risk Factors In Predicting Pre-K Cognitive And Social-Emotional Development, Amy Lynn Cannell-Cordier

Dissertations and Theses

The quality of children's daily experiences in preschool classrooms is predictive of their school readiness and later achievement (Duncan et al., 2007; La Paro & Pianta, 2000). One particularly important aspect of these experiences is the quality of emotional support provided by teachers and peers in the classroom (Hamre & Pianta, 2005; Howes et al., 2008; Mashburn, 2008; National Center on Quality Teaching and Learning, 2012). Traditionally, emotional support quality has been calculated as the average of ratings taken across the school year and is meant to represent children's average daily experience, without regard to any variability which exists within the ratings over time.

The bioecological model of development (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998; 2006) points out the necessity of considering in what ways learning experiences occur over time when ...


The Scholarship Of Student Affairs Professionals: Effective Writing Strategies And Scholarly Identity Formation Explored Through A Coaching Model, Lisa Janie Hatfield May 2015

The Scholarship Of Student Affairs Professionals: Effective Writing Strategies And Scholarly Identity Formation Explored Through A Coaching Model, Lisa Janie Hatfield

Dissertations and Theses

Student affairs professionals work directly with university students in various programs that provide services to these students. From these experiences, they collect daily valuable insights about how to serve students successfully. Yet, in general, they are not publishing about their work even though dissemination of such knowledge through publication could positively impact programs and services across many institutions. My dissertation explored what happens when mid-level student affairs professionals pursue scholarly writing during a structured program intended to help participants produce manuscripts for publication. In working with five professionals in student services at a large urban institution in the Pacific Northwest ...


Using Socratic Questioning As An Instructional Tool To Help High School Students At Grade Twelve Improve Their Perceptions Of The Writing Process, Rana Houshmand May 2015

Using Socratic Questioning As An Instructional Tool To Help High School Students At Grade Twelve Improve Their Perceptions Of The Writing Process, Rana Houshmand

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine whether Socratic questioning, an approach that builds critical thinking skills and fosters learning by constructing new knowledge, was an effective tool for improving student perceptions of the writing process. The main research question that was examined in this study was: How can Socratic questioning improve students' perceptions of writing and the writing process? Qualitative research methods were used as a framework for the design of this study as well as purposeful student sampling, triangulation of three data sources, and an extensive coding process. Findings from the study support that Socratic questioning can ...


Developing Key Sustainability Competencies Through Real-World Learning Experiences: Evaluating Community Environmental Services, Erin Lorene Anderson May 2015

Developing Key Sustainability Competencies Through Real-World Learning Experiences: Evaluating Community Environmental Services, Erin Lorene Anderson

Dissertations and Theses

This study focuses on sustainability in higher education and the competencies essential to address sustainability issues. Because sustainability issues are complex, "wicked", and dynamic, sustainability education programs need to reflect the interdisciplinary and collaborative nature of the field. Graduates who are competent in sustainability research and problem solving will have the knowledge, skills, and attitude necessary to analyze a sustainability problem systemically and comprehensively, then will construct and implement interventions to reach optimal sustainability solutions. To prepare graduates, sustainability education programs should facilitate the development of key sustainability competencies (Wiek, Withycombe, & Redman, 2011). Such programs provide an interdisciplinary approach that ...


Intersections Of Critical Systems Thinking And Community Based Participatory Research In Developing A Web Site For Autistic Adults, Dora Madeline Raymaker Mar 2015

Intersections Of Critical Systems Thinking And Community Based Participatory Research In Developing A Web Site For Autistic Adults, Dora Madeline Raymaker

Dissertations and Theses

People with disabilities, including those on the autism spectrum, comprise the world's largest minority and experience significant inequities in Internet use. Existing standards for accessible web sites are necessary but not sufficient without the direct engagement of end users in identifying access needs. Yet little is known about methods for effective engagement, and there are no systematically derived Web accessibility guidelines for autistic end users. Here I explore a hybrid approach to direct engagement using critical systems thinking (CST) and community based participatory research (CBPR) during the co-development of a healthcare-focused web site by the Academic Autism Spectrum Partnership ...


A Corpus Based Analysis Of Noun Modification In Empirical Research Articles In Applied Linguistics, Jo-Anne Hutter Feb 2015

A Corpus Based Analysis Of Noun Modification In Empirical Research Articles In Applied Linguistics, Jo-Anne Hutter

Dissertations and Theses

Previous research has established the importance of the nouns and noun modification in academic writing because of their commonness and complexity. However, little is known about how noun modification varies across the rhetorical sections of research articles. Such a perspective is important because it reflects the interplay between communicative function and linguistic form.

This study used a corpus of empirical research articles from the fields of applied linguistics and language teaching to explore the connection between article sections (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion; IMRD) and six types of noun modification: relative clauses, ing-clause postmodifiers, ed-clause postmodifiers, prepositional postmodifiers, premodifying nouns, and ...


School Culture And The Affective Learning Needs Of Latino Long-Term English Learners, Maureen Ray Feb 2015

School Culture And The Affective Learning Needs Of Latino Long-Term English Learners, Maureen Ray

Dissertations and Theses

The US Department of Education projects that by the year 2030 the total English Learner (EL) population in US schools will exceed 40 percent. Currently, by the time ELs make it to high school, after 6 or more years in English Language Development (ELD) programs, the majority (59 percent), are Long Term English Learners (LTEL). LTEL students represent a variety of ethnicities and language groups, but the focus of this qualitative study is LTEL students who identify as Latino LTEL. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe and explain recently graduated Latino LTEL's perceptions of the impact ...


Developmental Perspectives On Motivational Resilience: Predictors Of Eighth-Grade At-Risk Students' Academic Engagement And Achievement, Heather Anne Brule Jan 2015

Developmental Perspectives On Motivational Resilience: Predictors Of Eighth-Grade At-Risk Students' Academic Engagement And Achievement, Heather Anne Brule

Dissertations and Theses

This study uses the concept of stage-environment fit (Eccles et al., 1993) in conjunction with self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) to guide an investigation of at-risk eighth graders' motivational and academic resilience. A developmentally-calibrated method was used to divide students into motivational and academic resilience groups based on their resilient, average, or stress-affected levels of academic engagement and GPA. Data from 167 eighth graders and 155 sixth graders were used to examine the extent to which students' ratings of autonomy, teacher support, peer support, and engagement in garden-based education were related to resilience group membership, and whether these four resources ...