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Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Elementary Education

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Exploring Kindergarten Teachers' Self-Perceptions Of Writing Instruction: An Appreciative Phenomenological Approach, Elizabeth Auguste May 2018

Exploring Kindergarten Teachers' Self-Perceptions Of Writing Instruction: An Appreciative Phenomenological Approach, Elizabeth Auguste

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Current data point to the need for more research on writing instruction. The latest National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) results showed that 73% of students in Grade 8 and Grade 12 scored basic or below on writing assessments, a trend reflected in college students’ writing. These data co-exist with research that reported teachers’ low self-efficacy with writing instruction .The most effective way to address these troubling statistics is to take a proactive approach that looks at writing instruction from its genesis—kindergarten. This post-intentional phenomenological study (Vagle, 2014) explored two aspects of kindergarten teachers’ self-perceptions of writing instruction (SPWI ...


Fostering Parental Engagement In A Rural Title I Elementary School, Joyce R. Mcdowell Jan 2014

Fostering Parental Engagement In A Rural Title I Elementary School, Joyce R. Mcdowell

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The major purpose of this study was to find out how to encourage Title I family engagement as the school funds were decreasing in the next school year. I wanted to determine how to continue, as well as increase, parental engagement at a Title I elementary school in a rural setting.;The Title I program focuses on assisting students who are economically disadvantaged in order to raise their academic skills in the areas of reading and math. The parents of the children eligible for Title I reading services at the time of the study were the participants. I used the ...


Investigating The Relationships Among Primary Teachers' Math Profile, Math Teaching Efficacy, And Math Content Pedagogical Knowledge, Theresa Marie Roettinger Jan 2014

Investigating The Relationships Among Primary Teachers' Math Profile, Math Teaching Efficacy, And Math Content Pedagogical Knowledge, Theresa Marie Roettinger

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Kindergarten, first and second grade teachers play an important role in the development of a student's understanding of mathematics. Consequently, in order to improve student achievement in mathematics, it is important to investigate the relationships that may exist among primary teachers' math profile, math teaching efficacy, and math pedagogy and content knowledge. Participants completed an online survey that included the Math Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (MTEBI) and Math Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) items. Participants provided math profile data through academic demographic questions.;Two-hundred seven respondents completed the survey. Analysis of the data included descriptive statistics, chi-square test of independence ...


Successful Pedagogical Practices Of Elementary Teachers Of Homeless Students: A Case Study, Kimberly Owen Pickles Jan 2014

Successful Pedagogical Practices Of Elementary Teachers Of Homeless Students: A Case Study, Kimberly Owen Pickles

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The purpose of this research study is to examine the instructional practices of teachers who are currently teaching homeless students in their classroom. This study identified eight teachers in two suburban elementary schools that have students in their current classrooms that are experiencing homelessness. In addition, the research study explored the needs considered and strategies that teachers use to differentiate and accommodate their instructional practices to maximize achievement for these students. Qualitative data was collected by a study of teacher interviews through collective ethnographic case studies. Additionally, quantitative data was collected through evaluator observations of the selected classrooms to observe ...


Math Talent Development Of Elementary School Students: The Relationship Of Gender, Math Motivation, And Goal Orientation To Math Achievement, Ann Haimburger Colorado Jan 2014

Math Talent Development Of Elementary School Students: The Relationship Of Gender, Math Motivation, And Goal Orientation To Math Achievement, Ann Haimburger Colorado

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Research has established that motivation is an important factor of student achievement. Many researchers in the field of gifted education consider motivation to be a crucial component of giftedness, yet the literature base for motivation and math talent development within gifted populations is scarce. This descriptive study used a within-group design to measure the math motivation, math achievement, and goal orientation of high-ability 5 th grade math students to elucidate the relationships among motivation, achievement, goal orientation, and gender. Findings indicated that math achievement, math motivation, and goal orientation were similar for both genders; students had high math achievement yet ...


Dispositions And Practices That Promote Teacher-Student Relationships With African-American Male Elementary Students, Karyn Mitchell Yeldell Jan 2013

Dispositions And Practices That Promote Teacher-Student Relationships With African-American Male Elementary Students, Karyn Mitchell Yeldell

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This research study was focused on teacher dispositions and practices that create positive teacher-student relationships with African-American elementary male students. Robert Pianta's work on relationships between teachers and students, over the past decade, provided a conceptual framework for this specific study. A review of the literature on this topic evidenced practices that positively and negatively impact teacher-student relationships. Through classroom observations and interviews, the perceptions of elementary teachers were examined on how they actually create teacher-student relationships with their African-American male students. These perceptions were insightful and often supported in the research literature. Effective teachers understand the need for ...


An Evaluation Of The Implementation Fidelity And Outcomes Of The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program In Three Elementary Schools In Virginia, Barbara F. Wood Jan 2013

An Evaluation Of The Implementation Fidelity And Outcomes Of The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program In Three Elementary Schools In Virginia, Barbara F. Wood

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Bullying continues to be a major concern in schools today. Many schools have implemented some type of bullying prevention program. The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program is one of these programs. Evaluation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program is typically done through the administration of the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire to students and produces numerical data for its report. Results have been mixed, but often show some type of decrease in bullying activity.;This study evaluated the implementation fidelity and outcomes of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program in three elementary schools in Virginia. These schools were recommended as having a successful Olweus ...


Student Trust In Teachers And Its Relationship To Student Identification With School, Student Perceptions Of Academic Press, And Achievement, Regina A. Bankole Jan 2011

Student Trust In Teachers And Its Relationship To Student Identification With School, Student Perceptions Of Academic Press, And Achievement, Regina A. Bankole

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Research has documented a plethora of evidence that children's perceptions of their relationships with caregivers, specifically teachers, impacts learning outcomes, including academic engagement and achievement (Furrer & Skinner, 2003; Owens & Johnson, in press; Stipek, 2002; Wentzel, 1997), identification with school (anderman, 2003; Bonich, 2007; Goodenow, 1993; McGannon, 2003; Meloro, 2006; Mitchell, 2004;) and academic press (Bonich, 2007; Lee & Smith, 1999; Middleton & Midgley, 2002). Yet the research base from the student perspective on the pertinent elements that influence meaningful relationships between students and teachers, namely trust, is largely missing.;The purpose of this study was to examine the construct of student trust in teachers and its relationship to student identification with school, student perceptions of academic press, and achievement in math and reading in an urban elementary school district. An additional aim of this reserach ...


Student And Faculty Perceptions Of Trust And Their Relationships To School Success Measures In An Urban School District, Dennis M. Moore Jr. Jan 2010

Student And Faculty Perceptions Of Trust And Their Relationships To School Success Measures In An Urban School District, Dennis M. Moore Jr.

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

U.S. merchants and traders helped sustain Spanish imperial commercial networks in Venezuela and the Spanish Caribbean. Shipping foodstuffs, arms, re-exported European manufactures, and slaves to the Spanish colonies were profitable enterprises for neutral U.S. traders. Through private negotiations and even Spanish-government contracts, partnerships between Venezuelan and U.S. merchants provided the shipping tonnage and merchandise that Spanish officials and colonial elites needed most to maintain their rule and to fend off the challenges of economic and environmental crises, slave conspiracies, and revolutionary plots before 1810.


The Professional Learning Community And Its Effect On African American Students' Achievement, Anthony Eugene Copeland Jan 2010

The Professional Learning Community And Its Effect On African American Students' Achievement, Anthony Eugene Copeland

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The purpose of this correlational study was to quantify the degree to which teachers believe their school adheres to professional learning community (PLC) practices and determine to what extent PLC practices are related to student achievement. The study also attempted to determine to what extent PLCs were related to African American students' achievement and closing the achievement gap.;Schools were the unit of analysis and participants were elementary school teachers from 25 schools in a large diverse school district located in the mid-Atlantic region. They were administered Hord's School Professional Staff as Learning Community survey to compute their school ...


The Impact Of The Academic Component Of Response To Intervention On Collective Efficacy, Parents' Trust In Schools, Referrals For Special Education, And Student Achievement, Lisa Lee Pennycuff Jan 2010

The Impact Of The Academic Component Of Response To Intervention On Collective Efficacy, Parents' Trust In Schools, Referrals For Special Education, And Student Achievement, Lisa Lee Pennycuff

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The purpose of this study was to determine the implementation status of Response to Intervention (RtI) in the elementary schools (N = 35) in one urban school district in Virginia. The relationship between the implementation of the academic components of RtI, collective efficacy, parents' trust in schools, the number of referrals for special education, and student achievement was also investigated. The factor analysis revealed that RtI for Academics included Universal Screening, Effective Instruction/Tiered Interventions, and Progress Monitoring. Family Involvement was determined to be a separate construct made up of two factors, Family Engagement and Physical Presence. The implementation status of ...


Survey Of Physical Activity In Elementary School Classrooms In The State Of Virginia, Gail Smith Elmakis Jan 2010

Survey Of Physical Activity In Elementary School Classrooms In The State Of Virginia, Gail Smith Elmakis

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Elementary school age children engage in levels of physical activity that are well below recommended guidelines. It has been suggested that classroom teachers can assist in remedying the problem by providing physical activity breaks and physical activity embedded in instruction. This study utilized the instrument, Physical Activity in the Classroom, to investigate the level of physical activity used in classrooms and to discover whether teachers differed in the amount of activity based on grade level and their own perceived level of personal fitness. It explored academic and behavioral benefits related to incorporating physical activity in the classroom and discovered what ...


An Evaluation Study Of The Curriculum And Instructional Approaches Employed In The Norfolk Public Schools Gifted Program, Katie A. Dolph Jan 2009

An Evaluation Study Of The Curriculum And Instructional Approaches Employed In The Norfolk Public Schools Gifted Program, Katie A. Dolph

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which the Norfolk Public Schools, Virginia, district elementary gifted grouping model was aligned with the National Association for Gifted Children Standards and its Local Plan for the Education of Gifted Students in regards to curriculum and instruction, as well as to provide data on classroom instruction techniques and the curriculum currently being used to provide gifted education services in the district.;The evaluation questions were (1) to what degree has the eighth recommendation of the 2005-06 evaluation study been implemented in the Norfolk Public Schools (NPS) district in regards ...


The Power Of African American Parent Perceptions On Student Achievement, Melody Luretha Camm Jan 2009

The Power Of African American Parent Perceptions On Student Achievement, Melody Luretha Camm

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

With the implementation of No Child Left Behind, schools have been challenged to maintain Annual Yearly Progress (AYP) for low achieving subpopulations. Current research supported by historical data suggests that African American parent involvement could possibly be the missing link to African American student achievement. This study explores the possible connection between African American parent perceptions of their school involvement and student achievement. It surveyed 738 fourth grade parents from five Title I and five Non-Title I schools to see if there was a significant difference between the parent involvement perceptions of African American Parents and Non-African American Parents, as ...


Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, Collective Teacher Efficacy, And Student Achievement In Elementary Schools, Jeffrey C. Jackson Jan 2009

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, Collective Teacher Efficacy, And Student Achievement In Elementary Schools, Jeffrey C. Jackson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This study sought to examine relationship between teacher organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB), collective teacher efficacy (CTE), and student achievement in urban elementary schools. A convenience sample of 1,327 teachers from 35 elementary schools from a single urban school district completed surveys designed to measure OCB and CTE. Student achievement data were based on performance on the Virginia Standards of Learning exams for grade 3 and 5 mathematics and reading.;Pearson correlation statistics revealed a significant positive relationship between OCB and CTE. Significant positive relationships were found between OCB and student achievement scores in grade 3 mathematics, grade 5 mathematics ...


Self -Efficacy Beliefs Of Elementary General Education Teachers In Inclusive Classrooms And The Role Of Professional Development, Sheila S. Ashley Jan 2009

Self -Efficacy Beliefs Of Elementary General Education Teachers In Inclusive Classrooms And The Role Of Professional Development, Sheila S. Ashley

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In an effort to provide greater access and progress in the general education curriculum and higher levels of standards proficiency for students with disabilities, school districts across the nation have substantially increased placements in inclusive classroom settings. This thrust has significantly challenged and frustrated general educators due to their perceptions of incompetence related to meeting the needs of students with disabilities in the absence of appropriate training and support.;This study used mixed-methods research to explore differences in general educators' self-efficacy beliefs based on IEP-identified students' learning or behavioral challenges; variation in classroom practice between high and low self-efficacy teachers ...


The Assistant Principal's Role In Special Education: An Inquiry Into The Supervision Of Special Education At The Building Level, Valerie Walton Jan 2008

The Assistant Principal's Role In Special Education: An Inquiry Into The Supervision Of Special Education At The Building Level, Valerie Walton

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The purpose of this study was to examine the roles and responsibilities of elementary level assistant principals in the supervision of special education at the building level. Elementary assistant principals in Virginia (N = 219) were surveyed to identify delegated roles and responsibilities, perceptions of level of preparedness to perform assigned duties, and formal preparation for these duties. The survey addressed five leadership domains---Organization, Collaboration, Instruction, Program Evaluation, and Professional Development. Findings indicate that assistant principals fulfill organization duties more often than duties in the other domains, and felt more prepared for this area of responsibility as well. Knowledge and skills ...


A Study Of The Relationship Between The Mathematics And Reading Achievement Of Students With Disabilities And Inclusive Practice In Elementary Schools, Sharon E. Siler Jan 2008

A Study Of The Relationship Between The Mathematics And Reading Achievement Of Students With Disabilities And Inclusive Practice In Elementary Schools, Sharon E. Siler

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The AYP (Adequate Yearly Progress) provision of NCLB requires schools to close the achievement gap so that students with disabilities perform at the same proficiency level as students without disabilities in mathematics and reading. This stringent requirement challenges school leaders to examine traditional exclusionary delivery practices and their outcomes and replace them with inclusive practices that hold promise for improving the academic performance of students with disabilities. This study examined the relationship between inclusive education in Virginia elementary schools and the attainment of No Child Left Behind's AYP performance targets in mathematics and reading for students with disabilities.;A ...


An Exploratory Study Of Teachers' Critical Thinking In Elementary Language Arts Classrooms, Susan Mcgowan Jan 2007

An Exploratory Study Of Teachers' Critical Thinking In Elementary Language Arts Classrooms, Susan Mcgowan

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This exploratory study examined how well elementary language arts teachers participating in a federal project to raise students' critical thinking abilities scored on tests of critical and creative thinking. Furthermore, it investigated the ways in which these teachers of the language arts have developed their understanding of critical thinking skills, what types of training they bring to the classroom which might enhance the teaching of critical thinking skills, and the methods by which they foster critical thinking in the classroom. Finally, this study examined the relationship among teacher scores on critical and creative thinking tests, their professional development hours, and ...


Teacher Self -Efficacy Beliefs And Their Impact On Recommendations For Student Retention At Grades K--2, Nicole Pearce Rummel Jan 2007

Teacher Self -Efficacy Beliefs And Their Impact On Recommendations For Student Retention At Grades K--2, Nicole Pearce Rummel

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a statistically significant relationship between teacher self-efficacy beliefs and teacher recommendations for student retention. An online survey served as the data source for this study. The survey link was emailed to 236 kindergarten, first, and second grade teachers in an urban Virginia school district. Teachers were asked to report the number of students recommended for retention over a two year period as well as information regarding the characteristics of the children actually retained (e.g., race, gender, SES status, etc.) over that same two year period. In addition to ...


The Relationship Of Organizational Health And School Safety To Student Achievement, Harriet Ling Jaworowski Jan 2003

The Relationship Of Organizational Health And School Safety To Student Achievement, Harriet Ling Jaworowski

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Educators are compelled by federal and state legislation to investigate multiple aspects of the school organization to address factors that may increase student achievement. This study addressed this issue by investigating organizational health and school safety in urban elementary schools and their relationships to student achievement. The study explored elementary school teachers' perceptions regarding organizational health and school safety. These data were correlated to student achievement on the Virginia Standards of Learning Tests in English and mathematics for fifth grade.;The Organizational Health Inventory (OHI) for elementary schools was used to survey teachers' perceptions of institutional integrity, collegial leadership, resource ...


An Investigation Of The National Staff Development Council's Standards Of Staff Development, Wendy Clark Krickovic Jan 2002

An Investigation Of The National Staff Development Council's Standards Of Staff Development, Wendy Clark Krickovic

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The major purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teaching practice, student achievement, and the degree to which professional development in low-achieving elementary schools in one suburban Virginia district met the National Staff Development Council (NSDC) standards. Research methods included a self-assessment survey developed by NSDC, teacher interviews, and analyses of student achievement scores using the Virginia Standards of Learning assessments. According to survey results, participating teachers agreed that the NSDC standards were reflected in professional development activities. The standards of Equity and Quality Teaching were reported to be implemented to the greatest degree in professional development ...


A Study Of Professional Development At Three Midwestern, Urban, Public, Elementary Schools With Increased Student Achievement In Reading, Valerie Hastings Gregory Jan 2002

A Study Of Professional Development At Three Midwestern, Urban, Public, Elementary Schools With Increased Student Achievement In Reading, Valerie Hastings Gregory

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This study investigated principals' and teachers' perceptions about professional development and conditions for change. Specifically, the following research questions were answered: (1) How do principals describe professional development at their schools? (2) What professional development experiences did teachers report as having an effect on their teaching practice? and (3) What common factors or conditions did teachers at the three schools report as influencing whether they change their classroom practices after participating in professional development initiatives?;Data collection incorporated both qualitative and quantitative methodologies using principal interviews and teacher surveys. Simple descriptive statistics were used to analyze and describe professional development ...


The Impact Of A Health Promotion Program On Student Health Concerns, Grace Elizabeth Stay Jan 1999

The Impact Of A Health Promotion Program On Student Health Concerns, Grace Elizabeth Stay

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological impact of a health promotion program on fourth and fifth grade students. Other research has demonstrated that this same program was associated with physiological improvements in elementary children, and this investigation explored whether students experienced positive changes in attitude and awareness which may suggest that improved behaviors will be sustained over time.;Two schools in rural Virginia were sites for this study. In each school one fourth grade and one fifth grade class was randomly assigned to the treatment program, and one fourth and one fifth grade class were control ...


A Comparative Analysis Of School-Based Performance Of Mobile And Nonmobile Students, Yvonne Darcel Smith-Jones Jan 1997

A Comparative Analysis Of School-Based Performance Of Mobile And Nonmobile Students, Yvonne Darcel Smith-Jones

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The primary purpose of this study was to determine the impact of mobility on fifth grade students in an urban elementary school environment during the 1994-95 and 1995-96 school years. The significance of the study lay in its intent to assess the impact of mobility. Specifically, the study analyzed the demographic characteristics of mobile students and investigated the impact of mobility on student achievement, attendance, discipline referrals, and retention.;The sample consisted of 244 fifth graders. Archival data were obtained from the students' scholastic and directory information records for the 1994-95 and 1995-96 school years. The results were analyzed by ...


The Characteristics And Degrees Of De Facto Consensus Concerning The Mission Of K-12 Public Education In Virginia, Christopher Ryan Gareis Jan 1996

The Characteristics And Degrees Of De Facto Consensus Concerning The Mission Of K-12 Public Education In Virginia, Christopher Ryan Gareis

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The history of public education in the United States is replete with attempts to define the purpose, aims, or mission of K-12 public education at the local, state, and national levels. However, given the historical precedent of the local control of schools and the legal precedent of state-level governance of public education, this study sought to address the more limited question of the purpose of K-12 public education in the state of Virginia. Specifically, within the context of the contemporary educational planning theory of strategic planning, this study sought to determine what content characteristics concerning the mission of public education ...


Principals As Managers And Leaders: A Qualitative Study Of The Perspectives Of Selected Elementary School Principals, Dean S. T. Cascadden Jan 1996

Principals As Managers And Leaders: A Qualitative Study Of The Perspectives Of Selected Elementary School Principals, Dean S. T. Cascadden

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The primary purpose of this study was to explore how selected elementary school principals described and defined their world in terms of leadership and management. There were three sub-areas of investigation under this primary purpose: (a) exploring the principals' conceptions about the constructs of leadership and management, (b) exploring the principals' beliefs about the role of their personal philosophies, goals, or values in relation to their practice, and (c) using content analysis to explore the language that principals use to describe themselves, their work and their schools. The theoretical perspective adopted for this study was that organizations are constructed human ...


The Relationship Between A Locality's Fiscal Capacity And Its Per-Pupil Expenditure In The Commonwealth Of Virginia As A Result Of The 1988 Funding Formula Change, Mary Messer Mehaffey Jan 1993

The Relationship Between A Locality's Fiscal Capacity And Its Per-Pupil Expenditure In The Commonwealth Of Virginia As A Result Of The 1988 Funding Formula Change, Mary Messer Mehaffey

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

For the first time in 15 years in the Commonwealth of Virginia, a major restructuring in the elementary and secondary education finance formula was enacted during the 1988 General Assembly and revenue for education was increased by {dollar}576 million for the upcoming biennium. The overriding purpose of these modifications was to reduce disparities between more and less affluent school systems. The problem of educational disparity is not unique to Virginia. Over the last 20 years, between 60 and 70 individual pieces of litigation have been filed, contesting the constitutionality of public school finance systems in 41 of the United ...


A Study Of The Relationship Of Territoriality And Teacher Sense Of Efficacy To Job Satisfaction Of Elementary School Teachers, Barbara Elizabeth Smith Jan 1992

A Study Of The Relationship Of Territoriality And Teacher Sense Of Efficacy To Job Satisfaction Of Elementary School Teachers, Barbara Elizabeth Smith

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of teachers' perceptions of territoriality and sense of efficacy to job satisfaction.;Method. A sample of 350 public school elementary teachers teaching in Virginia was selected to complete four instruments. The Teacher Territory Questionnaire was used to measure three factors, including control of resources, responsibility for students, and openness of teaching. The Teacher Efficacy Scale measured two efficacy factors, personal efficacy and teaching efficacy. Job satisfaction was measured by the facet scores of the Job Descriptive Index and the global score of the Job in General scale. Demographic data ...


Selected Personality Characteristics As Correlates Of Effective School Principals, Elizabeth Jean Shahmouradian Jan 1992

Selected Personality Characteristics As Correlates Of Effective School Principals, Elizabeth Jean Shahmouradian

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The purpose of this study was to examine selected personality characteristics of commitment, control, and challenge as correlates of effective school principals. Twenty-five Directors of Personnel were selected to identify 100 effective school principals. Two to eight principals rated as effective were selected for this research from each of the 25 school systems throughout the Commonwealth of Virginia. It was hypothesized that there is a correlation between selected identified personality characteristics and principals rated as more effective by personnel directors. It was concluded that the selected personality characteristics of commitment, control, and challenge are not correlates of effective principals and ...