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Western Michigan University

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Psychological Effects And Treatment Of An Injury On An Athlete: Suggested Treatment Plan For Athletic Trainers And Physical Therapist, Odell Miller Dec 2018

Psychological Effects And Treatment Of An Injury On An Athlete: Suggested Treatment Plan For Athletic Trainers And Physical Therapist, Odell Miller

Honors Theses

Injuries that force athletes to lose participation in their sport and or training have a tremendous impact on their mental health. Mental health issues can be detrimental, but often times go unnoticed. For example in 2010, Kenny McKinley, a wide receiver for the Denver Broncos, was found dead after killing himself with a gun. After suffering a knee injury, he had become progressively depressed. Investigators reported that there are statements saying that McKinley didn’t know what he would do without football. According to NCAA’s Sports Science Institute (2017), the psychological response to injury can trigger mental health issues ...


The Effects Of Exercise On The Cognitive Function Of Patients With Alzheimer’S Disease, Amanda Savitski Dec 2018

The Effects Of Exercise On The Cognitive Function Of Patients With Alzheimer’S Disease, Amanda Savitski

Honors Theses

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is America’s most common neurodegenerative disease affecting over 5.4 million Americans (Fernández et al., 2017). A literature review was completed to assess the possible relation between physical activity and the progression of AD. Articles were collected from various peer-reviewed, published journals using the available databases of Western Michigan University library which included PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the National Institute of Health (NIH). Keywords used for the database searches included “Alzheimer”, “Alzheimer’s Disease”, “neurodegeneration”, “aging brain”, “exercise”, and “physical activity”. Based upon the literature reviewed, aerobic exercise appears to slow the progression of AD ...


The Importance Of Athletic Trainers At The High School Level And Barriers To Hire, Nathan Southerington Dec 2018

The Importance Of Athletic Trainers At The High School Level And Barriers To Hire, Nathan Southerington

Honors Theses

The goal of the study is to unveil the significance of the athletic training profession at the high school level and identify any barriers that restrict high schools from employing athletic trainers (ATs). While ATs are a commodity in collegiate and professional sports, many high schools around the nation struggle to employ these health care professionals. Surveys were sent to both superintendents and athletic directors (ADs) throughout the state of Michigan, to establish common hindrances to hiring athletic trainers in secondary schools. The survey covered topics such as common barriers to hiring ATs, reasons they prefer to hire ATs, school ...


Mirror Therapy, A Pain Management Therapy, Gabriella Andrews Dec 2018

Mirror Therapy, A Pain Management Therapy, Gabriella Andrews

Honors Theses

This project was undertaken to explore the use of mirror therapy (MT) as a palliative for stroke patients and amputees experiencing phantom limb pain. MT is a relatively new treatment and while it has limited research, it is starting to be used more within the rehabilitation setting. Research suggests MT has beneficial effects occur with phantom limb pain as well as post-stroke patients. This study will explain the history, uses, and research behind MT not only as a form of therapy but also a non-medicinal pain reliever.

Included are interviews from physical therapists (PT) and occupational therapists (OT) along with ...


High School Science Teachers’ Professional Development And Self-Efficacy In Using Technology Tools In The Classroom, Zahrah Hussain Aljuzayri Dec 2018

High School Science Teachers’ Professional Development And Self-Efficacy In Using Technology Tools In The Classroom, Zahrah Hussain Aljuzayri

Dissertations

Few studies have considered the relationship between professional development (PD) and self-efficacy with technology tool use, especially for high school science teachers. There is also a lack of research that considers relationships between teachers' demographic factors and teachers' self-efficacy, use of technology tools in the classroom, or their professional development. The goal of this quantitative study was to attempt to correlate science teacher self-efficacy, the PD science teachers have had for classroom technology, and how often they use that technology in the classroom. We also wanted to identify possible impacts of teachers' demographic factors on efficacy, use, and PD. Participants ...


Assessing The Supports And Variables Needed For Graduation Of Students Receiving Special Education Service: A Longitudinal Study, Jennifer Dewaard Dec 2018

Assessing The Supports And Variables Needed For Graduation Of Students Receiving Special Education Service: A Longitudinal Study, Jennifer Dewaard

Dissertations

Graduation from high school is an important measure of success for both schools and individuals. While requirements for graduation change, the rate at which students receive a diploma within four years is on the rise. But students who receive special education services continue to have a lower graduation rate than the general population. It is imperative for both schools and individual students to increase this rate and close the gap for those receiving a diploma.

The purpose of this study is to examine that gap between graduation rates for the total population of a high school in West Michigan compared ...


Understanding The Experiences Of Students Re-Admitted After Academic Suspension As Part Of A University-Initiated Process: A Qualitative Study, Gary L. Versalle Dec 2018

Understanding The Experiences Of Students Re-Admitted After Academic Suspension As Part Of A University-Initiated Process: A Qualitative Study, Gary L. Versalle

Dissertations

Student persistence and retention continues to be a major issue facing most institutions of higher education. With ever more diverse student populations, researchers studied a multitude of groups and sub-groups of students based on ethnicity, sex, socioeconomic status, or age. These studies looked at how these various student groups can be supported and retained. Students who returned to school after having been academically dismissed are one group which has been consistently underreported. Reentry practices remained largely unchanged and still require the student to initiate the process. This phenomenological study examined the experiences of students accepted into the Reclaim the W ...


Are Experienced Principals More Likely To Implement The Attributes Of The Three-Minute Walkthrough Program Than Less-Experienced Principals?, Trent Mosley Dec 2018

Are Experienced Principals More Likely To Implement The Attributes Of The Three-Minute Walkthrough Program Than Less-Experienced Principals?, Trent Mosley

Dissertations

Today, in this era of accountability, school improvement rests heavily on the shoulders of building principals. Apart from being managers of school operations, disciplinarians, and community leaders, these individuals are also expected to be strong instructional leaders (Crum & Sherman, 2008). Principals now must engage in strategies that will lead the cycle of continuous improvement. One such strategy that has emerged is classroom walkthroughs (Cervone & Martinez, 2007). Classroom walkthroughs serve as a vehicle through which principals can engage teachers in a process that can lead to positive effects on teaching strategies through instructional conferences (Blasé & Blasé, 1998; King, 1991).

Approximately 2,000 principals in the continental United States were identified as having been trained in the Three-Minute Walkthrough Program during the 2010-2016 school years. With support from the Three-Minute Walkthrough Program developer, Dr. Carolyn Downey, and the International office of Phi Delta Kappan (PDK), the names of program participants were identified and requested to participate in a study that ...


The Effect Of Item Stem And Response Option Length On The Item Analysis Outcomes Of A Career And Technical Education Multiple Choice Assessment, Tina M. Koepf Dec 2018

The Effect Of Item Stem And Response Option Length On The Item Analysis Outcomes Of A Career And Technical Education Multiple Choice Assessment, Tina M. Koepf

Dissertations

Critical decisions in Career and Technical Education (CTE) can be based on assessment outcomes, requiring an essential focus on continuous improvement initiatives to provide increased multiple choice (MC) assessment validity. Previous research has determined that the presence of flawed test items negatively impacts student success; therefore, an MC taxonomy has been established and used in the assessment industry. While rigorous and successful Career and Technical Education (CTE) programs that enroll high-level academic students exist, many CTE programs enroll students with a wide spectrum of academic ability. Because many CTE students often have inferior reading skills, it is necessary to take ...


Looking Inward: Higher Education Public Relations And Internal Communication, Kelly A. Campbell Dec 2018

Looking Inward: Higher Education Public Relations And Internal Communication, Kelly A. Campbell

Dissertations

There has been a decline in public good will toward institutions of higher education for nearly four decades. Resultantly, the public, media, and politicians call for greater transparency. It would be beneficial for institutions of higher education to utilize strategic means to communicate their stories, successes and brand directly to various publics. A critical, albeit often an overlooked public, are the employees of the university. They can serve as ambassadors for the university interacting with outside publics. In this capacity, not only do employees need to know information about their organization to function well at their positions, they also need ...


Asd Program Development In Special Education Teacher Preparation: An Exploratory Study, Christine Dewildt Aug 2018

Asd Program Development In Special Education Teacher Preparation: An Exploratory Study, Christine Dewildt

Dissertations

The process of developing a program for an endorsement in a teacher preparation program is complex, with various influences and requirements involved. Regulatory compliance, standards for practice, and university influences are key considerations within program development. Curricular factors and content delivery must also be considered. This study explored the process of program development leading to an endorsement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at a university, shedding light on what some of the key aspects to program develop entail.

This study explored the complex process of teacher preparation program development in ASD through inquiry rooted in a qualitative approach. At the ...


Using Mindset Pedagogy To Promote Growth And Increase Efficacy In Student Writers, Sara Hoeve Aug 2018

Using Mindset Pedagogy To Promote Growth And Increase Efficacy In Student Writers, Sara Hoeve

Dissertations

This dissertation offers four in-depth, vivid profiles of twelfth grade writers and the ways in which writing mindsets impact self-beliefs and inform the writing process. The multiple case study explores the impact of a mindset pedagogy, which is defined as an instructional paradigm that emphasizes the malleable nature of writing, as an ability that can be developed with effort, learning, and dedication over time. This belief contrasts the notion that writing ability is fixed trait that cannot be significantly developed over time.

Derived from Dweck's mindset theory, my dissertation argues for a discipline-specific construct of the "writing mindset,” which ...


Counselor Educators’ Perceptions Of Nontraditional Master’S-Level Counseling Students And How Those Perceptions Shape Teaching Practices, Pamela J. Jordan Aug 2018

Counselor Educators’ Perceptions Of Nontraditional Master’S-Level Counseling Students And How Those Perceptions Shape Teaching Practices, Pamela J. Jordan

Dissertations

Graduate students age 40 and older, defined as “nontraditional” for this study, consistently represent approximately 20% of the graduate student population (United States Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics, 2015). Master’s degree programs in counseling may attract a higher percentage of these students, as some studies suggest that careers in fields such as counseling are sought out by adults changing careers at midlife and later (Bluestone & Melnik, 2010; Schaefers, 2012). These nontraditional students bring to the classroom their own characteristics of age, life stage, and experience, and they have distinct strengths and challenges that set them apart from traditional ...


The Lived Experience Of New Community College Student Affairs Professionals, Eric L. Mullen Jun 2018

The Lived Experience Of New Community College Student Affairs Professionals, Eric L. Mullen

Dissertations

This qualitative study explores the experiences of new student affairs professionals who have begun their careers at community colleges. Research in the field of higher education has examined the preparation and socialization of new professionals within the field of higher education student affairs. However, this body of research has primarily focused on the experiences of those who go on to work in four-year colleges and universities. Little has been examined regarding those who graduate from these programs and whose first professional role is in a community college setting.

Through this phenomenological inquiry, the participants share rich details about their socialization ...


Instructor Sense Of Community And Instructional Practices As Predictors Of Student Sense Of Community: A Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analysis, Laurie K. Burgess Jun 2018

Instructor Sense Of Community And Instructional Practices As Predictors Of Student Sense Of Community: A Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analysis, Laurie K. Burgess

Dissertations

A positive sense of community (SoC) in the college classroom supports student learning and increases student engagement and motivation. While previous research has examined SoC, studies have typically investigated students’ perceptions. This quantitative cross-sectional study investigates both instructor and students’ perceptions of SoC in traditional undergraduate classrooms. Study participants include full-time instructors, and students from 36 undergraduate classes in three institutions located in a Midwestern state. Students completed Rovai’s (2002a) Classroom Community Scale; instructors completed a remodified Classroom Community Scale and the Postsecondary Instructional Practices Survey (Walter, Henderson, Beach, & Williams, 2016).

This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to analyze both student and class-level variables that explain variability of the three constructs of student SoC: Connectedness, Learning, and Total Classroom Community. At the student level, class level is a significant predictor of student SoC in all three constructs. More specifically, seniors experience less SoC than freshmen. Results from the final HLM models provide support that this study identified class-level variables responsible for the variation in student SoC between classes. The construct Connectedness accounts for 67% of variance in student perceptions of SoC between classes; Total Classroom Community resulted in 60% and Learning, 33%. Instructor ...


The Effects Of Peer Observation On Teacher Intervention Integrity, Garrett D. Warrilow Jun 2018

The Effects Of Peer Observation On Teacher Intervention Integrity, Garrett D. Warrilow

Dissertations

The observer effect is a term used to describe a process during which an observer's behavior changes as they measure the behavior of another individual. The observer effect has been widely studied in organizational behavior management but has limited research with teachers in schools. The current study sought to use the observer effect as part of a teacher training package by evaluating the effects of peer observations on an observing teacher's implementation integrity of components of a Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) system. Participants were four middle school teachers of students in general education classrooms. The primary ...


Effective Teaching And Learning: Flipped Learning In The Classroom, Mohammed Fahad Alsobaie Jun 2018

Effective Teaching And Learning: Flipped Learning In The Classroom, Mohammed Fahad Alsobaie

Dissertations

It is important that adequate knowledge concerning how flipped learning can be implemented in a classroom to support students learning in elementary schools (Backlund, Hirsh & Segolsson, 2017). This is a qualitative study, which used a general qualitative approach to explore teachers’ perspectives and their experiences about flipped learning effectiveness in classrooms at the elementary school level. The population and sample in this study were five elementary school teachers in urban locations in the Midwest region of the United States who utilize flipped learning in their classrooms. The data on the use and impact of flipped learning on teaching and learning ...


Ten Elementary School Teachers’ Voices: How They Build Effective Literacy Learning In The Lives Of Their 2nd Grade Children, Merfat Ayesh Alsubaie Jun 2018

Ten Elementary School Teachers’ Voices: How They Build Effective Literacy Learning In The Lives Of Their 2nd Grade Children, Merfat Ayesh Alsubaie

Dissertations

It is important to support teachers to adapt and apply effective literacy instruction strategies. Teachers may receive support from many sources, such as pre-service developers, principals, supervisors, literacy coaches, parents, colleagues and peer teachers. Perhaps most importantly, the teaching of literacy requires the support of the principal, literacy coach, and others who can collaborate with the classroom teacher to implement effective literacy instruction and strategies (Vallejo & Wren, 2009; Cole, 2008). All of these supports play a role in effectively achieving high literacy levels among students (Cole, 2008). Thus, teachers should work to maximize the benefit they receive from these supports.

This is ...


Positive Discipline As A Part Of Effective Classroom Management, Allison Stevens Apr 2018

Positive Discipline As A Part Of Effective Classroom Management, Allison Stevens

Honors Theses

This study was driven by the researcher’s interest in learning more about classroom management, and in particular, how experienced teachers thought about positive discipline as part of a management system. The researcher was a teaching intern in an elementary suburban school, where she interviewed 5 teachers and the building principal about classroom management and positive discipline. Interviews were transcribed, and patterns across responses were sought. Findings revealed common pieces of effective classroom management: 1) setting clear expectations and rules, 2) consistency in applying rules and expectations, and 3) having good parent communication. All teachers used tangible extrinsic rewards to ...


Inter-Professional Education: A Literature Analysis And Description Of Pacer Study At Western Michigan University, Kari Scholten Apr 2018

Inter-Professional Education: A Literature Analysis And Description Of Pacer Study At Western Michigan University, Kari Scholten

Honors Theses

Inter-professional education is a topic that is widely gaining popularity throughout the healthcare field. Because inter-professional practice in the hospital and beyond has proven its value time and time again, universities must take it upon themselves to train their healthcare students to work efficiently and communicate effectively with other disciplines in the healthcare field. Through a thorough literature review, it was demonstrated that inter-professional education studies and simulations that were performed in a range of settings have had positive effects on a variety of factors, including communication, quality of care given, and perceptions of professional roles. A study performed at ...


The Lived Experiences Of Veteran And Military Students In The Context Of A “Military Friendly” Institution: A Phenomenological Case Study, Gail Y. Rouscher Apr 2018

The Lived Experiences Of Veteran And Military Students In The Context Of A “Military Friendly” Institution: A Phenomenological Case Study, Gail Y. Rouscher

Dissertations

There have been many studies of military and veteran students attending a higher education institution after a period of time on active duty. The studies on this population can be divided into four categories: (a) stopping out (Belch, 2004; Cavote & Kopera-Frye, 2007; DiRamio & Spires, 2009; Schnoebelen, 2013), (b) financial (Winston, 2010), (c) enrollment, (Hassan, Jackson, Lindsay, McCabe, & Sanders, 2010) and (d) programming (APSCU, 2013; Burnett & Segoria, 2009; DiRamio, Ackerman, & Mitchell, 2008; Lokken, Pfeffer, McAuley & Strong, 2009; Mangan, 2009). There is limited research on completion rates for veteran and military students who have the opportunity to use specific veteran and military services and attend a “‘Top 100’ Military Friendly” institution. What has yet to be explored or revealed ...


Effective Reading Strategies For Increasing The Reading Comprehension Level Of Third-Grade Students With Learning Disabilities, Nouf Rashdan Almutairi Apr 2018

Effective Reading Strategies For Increasing The Reading Comprehension Level Of Third-Grade Students With Learning Disabilities, Nouf Rashdan Almutairi

Dissertations

This qualitative study identified the common reading problems that negatively impact reading comprehension of third graders with learning disabilities. It also investigated the effective reading strategies that special education teachers have utilized to improve reading comprehension levels of the students in resource room settings. For the purpose of this study, “effective reading comprehension strategies” are defined as any strategies that have been found by the special education teachers as beneficial for improving reading comprehension levels of third graders with learning disabilities in the resource room setting. Importantly, a particular reading comprehension strategy could be beneficial based on these teachers’ experiences ...


Impacts Of Cohort Membership On Teacher Candidates In An Alternative Certification Program, Katherine Eaton Apr 2018

Impacts Of Cohort Membership On Teacher Candidates In An Alternative Certification Program, Katherine Eaton

Dissertations

Post baccalaureate teacher education programs are an effective way to increase the teaching pool with candidates who are content experts (Beijaard et al. 2004; Brantlinger, A., & Smith, B., 2013; Zeichner, K. M., & Schulte, A. K., 2001; Schultz, K., & Ravitch, S. M. 2013; Humphrey et al., 2008). Many of these programs utilize a cohort model design where students progress through the program together as a group (Maher, M. A. 2005; Jorissen, K. T., 2002; Ross et al., 2006; Mandzuk, D. et al., 2005). In his book, Deep Knowledge (2013), Larkin describes the complex nature of preparing candidates for teaching and calls on the need for research to consider how the nature of ...


Experiences Of Underrepresented Minority Students In Health Professions Programs, And Their Journeys To The Programs, Alisha L. Davis Apr 2018

Experiences Of Underrepresented Minority Students In Health Professions Programs, And Their Journeys To The Programs, Alisha L. Davis

Dissertations

Classified as a public health concern, the lack of underrepresented minorities (URMs) in the U.S. health care workforce is still prominent today, even with the increase of URM groups having reached historic numbers of representation within the United States. It is projected that by 2050, URM groups will replace Whites as the majority, yet Whites currently make up the majority of the health care workforce. URM health professionals are more likely to provide accessible and culturally competent health services, and practice in racially and ethnically diverse communities. This helps to eliminate health care disparities, and reduces inequities found in ...


Response Shift Bias: An Examination Of Measurement Invariance In Self-Reported Change, Katherine Nelson Daniels Apr 2018

Response Shift Bias: An Examination Of Measurement Invariance In Self-Reported Change, Katherine Nelson Daniels

Dissertations

Traditional pre-test (TpT)/post-test (PT) and retrospective pre-test (RpT)/post-test (PT) designs are used to collect data on self-reported measures to assess the magnitude of change that occurs from interventions. If measurement invariance does not exist across the measurement occasions within these research designs, it is inappropriate to compare mean group differences that result from the intervention and derive inferences about change. The theory of response-shift suggests a subject’s understanding of a subject matter at TpT may not be the same as their understanding of a subject matter at PT, and that as a result, the construct measured at ...


Application Of Response-To-Intervention In A Pre-Kindergarten Special Education Classroom, Justin J. Daigle Apr 2018

Application Of Response-To-Intervention In A Pre-Kindergarten Special Education Classroom, Justin J. Daigle

Dissertations

Lovaas (1987) applied behavior analysis to the treatment of autism and demonstrated a 47% “recovery” rate. He also reported that around 10% of the population that received his services made little-to-no improvement. The present study used a response-to-intervention framework to systematically identify and treat students in an early childhood, special-education classroom who were in danger of falling within that 10%. This study set out to identify, classify, and differentiate the treatment based on the student’s response to the standard classroom intervention. Improvements in multiple students’ rates of acquisition based on this system were recorded. This indicated a possibility of ...


A Model For Propagating Educational Innovations In Higher Stem Education: A Grounded Theory Study Of Successfully Propagated Innovations, Raina Khatri Apr 2018

A Model For Propagating Educational Innovations In Higher Stem Education: A Grounded Theory Study Of Successfully Propagated Innovations, Raina Khatri

Dissertations

A critical problem in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is the slow uptake of innovative teaching strategies and materials. Developments from the STEM education research community can be shown to improve learning and retention outcomes, but the majority of new teaching strategies go unused by instructors. This problem is increasingly acknowledged by funding agencies such as the National Science Foundation, which now calls for “transferability and propagation” to be addressed throughout a project’s lifetime in the request for proposals. However, few publications synthesize what is known about propagating innovations into usable, actionable recommendations for developers in ...


Apology Not Accepted: The Impact Of Executive Rhetoric, Communication Strategies, Media Coverage And Time On Crisis Management And Public Perception During Major Oil Spills, Todd D. Harcek Apr 2018

Apology Not Accepted: The Impact Of Executive Rhetoric, Communication Strategies, Media Coverage And Time On Crisis Management And Public Perception During Major Oil Spills, Todd D. Harcek

Dissertations

This research builds upon the scholarship in crisis communication strategies and apologia employed by companies during a crisis. Within the expansive domain of crisis management, this work evaluates the media coverage and crisis communication strategies during three major oil spills: the Exxon Valdez, the American Trader, and the BP Gulf oil spill. The purpose of this study is to provide practitioners, researchers and others additional insight into the impact of media coverage on prior, current and future crises and how this coverage, coupled with the communication strategies of companies during a crisis, can influence public awareness or perception. Furthermore, this ...


The Role Of Arts Education In Closing The Achievement Gap In High Poverty Schools, Deanne Basse Apr 2018

The Role Of Arts Education In Closing The Achievement Gap In High Poverty Schools, Deanne Basse

Master's Theses

This paper will review research that identifies different types of poverty and how brain development may be affected as a result of living in poverty. Although research reflects support and understanding by the American people that arts education is important to the well roundedness of youth and, in fact, correlates with higher standardized test scores, arts programs continue to be cut especially in areas of poverty. There is an achievement gap in educational success when it comes to students that live in poverty and that of students in higher socioeconomic situations. Students of poverty are working with increased internal and ...


Teaching The Soft Skills Through The Arts: A Supplementary Art Curriculum, Brittany Boverhof Apr 2018

Teaching The Soft Skills Through The Arts: A Supplementary Art Curriculum, Brittany Boverhof

Master's Theses

Soft skills are the ability to work with, for, and among other people, yet we can no longer expect students to develop these skills organically. This research builds on the knowledge that if we want the students we are educating to be successful in employing their own soft skills, then they must be taught. This paper defines soft skills, shows their importance, and introduces practices that are proven to build soft skill ability. I have constructed twelve lesson plans that teach the soft skills through experientialism, working in groups, art, critique, classroom management, and problem solving. This supplementary curriculum provides ...