Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 73

Full-Text Articles in Education

Use Of The Isolated Elements Effect To Teach Observational Gait Analysis : The Effects On Cognitive Load And Learning Outcomes, Kelly J. Sass May 2016

Use Of The Isolated Elements Effect To Teach Observational Gait Analysis : The Effects On Cognitive Load And Learning Outcomes, Kelly J. Sass

Theses and Dissertations

The analysis of human walking gait is a complex skill for physical therapy students to learn. As a result, students are at risk for a cognitive overload when confronted with these materials. Cognitive load consists of both intrinsic and extraneous loads as well as the germane processes that are required by the learners to process the information in working memory. As working memory is limited in its capacity to process new information, it is necessary to manage the cognitive load experienced by the learners. Intrinsic cognitive load is related to the complexity of the materials that must be learned and ...


Historical Book Structures And Artists' Books As A Teaching Tool, Islam Mahmoud Mohamed Aly May 2016

Historical Book Structures And Artists' Books As A Teaching Tool, Islam Mahmoud Mohamed Aly

Theses and Dissertations

This study focuses on developing a book arts curriculum as a tool for teaching about creativity and problem solving. The curriculum's ultimate goal is to introduce and emphasize book arts as an expressive and powerful medium to future teachers and artists.

Book arts will be used to offer potentialities for collaborative, learner-centered instruction. Students will create structures and artists' books from their experience, their learning will emerge from personal interactions with the structures and artists' books presented.

The curriculum is planned into three modules, each module containing a different set of projects and activities organized to scaffold students learning ...


The Effect Of Using A Tablet And A Meta-Cognitive Strategy To Improve Reading Comprehension Skills For Students With Sld, Saeed Saad S. Alqahtani May 2016

The Effect Of Using A Tablet And A Meta-Cognitive Strategy To Improve Reading Comprehension Skills For Students With Sld, Saeed Saad S. Alqahtani

Theses and Dissertations

Students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have difficulty with most reading skills, including reading comprehension (Hulme & Snowling, 2011). Improving reading comprehension skills requires efficient interventions that consider both meaning- and code-based skills simultaneously. Using a single-subject multiple-baseline design across participants, with alternating treatment design, this study compared two reading interventions (repeated reading vs. tablet text-to-speech) combined with a meta-cognitive strategy (question generation).

Three fourth-grade and third-grade students who had been diagnosed by their school as having reading difficulties (reading one to two grades behind their expected reading levels) participated in the study. Using the index of narrative complexity (Labov, 1973; Petersen, Gillam, & Gillam, 2008) as a major dependent variable, two participants showed improvement in reading comprehension skills as measured by visual analysis and the effect size between means. However, there were slight differences for the RAAC intervention over the tablet intervention for one participant. The time required to administer the tablet intervention was shorter than the time required to administer the RAAC intervention (an average of 12.73 minutes for the RAAC vs. 5.45 minutes for the tablet), which is an important consideration ...


Psychometric Properties Of Technology-Enhanced Item Formats: An Evaluation Of Construct Validity And Technical Characteristics, Ashleigh R. Crabtree May 2016

Psychometric Properties Of Technology-Enhanced Item Formats: An Evaluation Of Construct Validity And Technical Characteristics, Ashleigh R. Crabtree

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to provide information about the psychometric properties of technology-enhanced (TE) items and the effects these items have on the content validity of an assessment. Specifically, this research investigated the impact that the inclusion of TE items has on the construct of a mathematics test, the technical properties of these items, and the influence these item types have on test characteristics. An empirical dataset was used to investigate the impact of including TE items on a multiple-choice (MC) assessment. The test used was the Iowa End-of-Course Algebra I (IEOC-A) assessment. The sample included 3850 students ...


Subscore Equating With The Random Groups Design, Euijin Lim May 2016

Subscore Equating With The Random Groups Design, Euijin Lim

Theses and Dissertations

There is an increasing demand for subscore reporting in the testing industry. Many testing programs already include subscores as part of their score report or consider a plan of reporting subscores. However, relatively few studies have been conducted on subscore equating. The purpose of this dissertation is to address the necessity for subscore equating and to evaluate the performance of various equating methods for subscores.

Assuming the random groups design and number-correct scoring, this dissertation analyzed two sets of real data and simulated data with four study factors including test dimensionality, subtest length, form difference in difficulty, and sample size ...


Instructional Leadership In Elementary Science : How Are School Leaders Positioned To Lead In A Next Generation Science Standards Era?, Kathleen Mary Winn May 2016

Instructional Leadership In Elementary Science : How Are School Leaders Positioned To Lead In A Next Generation Science Standards Era?, Kathleen Mary Winn

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Science poses a unique challenge to the elementary curriculum landscape, because traditionally elementary teachers report low levels of self-efficacy in this subject. Instructional leadership in elementary science therefore, becomes important for a successful integration of a new science education agenda. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are K-12 science content standards available for adoption by states and school districts in the U.S. Principals are important actors during policy implementation since they are charged with assuming the role of an instructional leader for their teachers in all subject areas.

Purpose: This study gathered self-reported survey data from public elementary ...


School Engagement And The Mother-Child Relationship, Elizabeth Ann Brown Ackerson May 2016

School Engagement And The Mother-Child Relationship, Elizabeth Ann Brown Ackerson

Theses and Dissertations

In the present study, I examined how the quality of relatedness (operationalized as Mutually Responsive Orientation) in the mother-child relationship in kindergarten students affects the association between the mother's values about school and the child's emotional engagement in school. Relatedness, as described by Self-Determination Theory, posits when a child feels a sense of relatedness—supported, respected, and connected with another individual—the child will be more likely to integrate that person's values into their own belief system. Sixty-six mother-child dyads were observed and videotaped doing four everyday activities (mother worked while child played independently, mother and child ...


The Relationship Between Suicide Assessment Knowledge And Self-Efficacy Among Practicing School Counselors, Laura L. Gallo May 2016

The Relationship Between Suicide Assessment Knowledge And Self-Efficacy Among Practicing School Counselors, Laura L. Gallo

Theses and Dissertations

Suicide is the second leading cause of death in the 14-24 year age group in the United States. However, awareness and discussions regarding suicides for this age group are not widely heard or found. In addition, many practitioners are not adequately trained to assess suicide risk. School counselors are often on the front lines of identifying students at risk for emotional issues and possible suicidal ideation (ASCA, 2010). The following research questions guided this study: a) Does a school counselor's knowledge in identifying students at risk for suicide affect their willingness to conduct suicide risk assessments? b) Does a ...


The Lived Experiences Of Queer Identified Couple/Marriage And Family Therapists : A Qualitative Study, Tracie Ann Yeckley May 2016

The Lived Experiences Of Queer Identified Couple/Marriage And Family Therapists : A Qualitative Study, Tracie Ann Yeckley

Theses and Dissertations

In the history of this country queer-identified individuals have faced discrimination and harassment in their places of school and work for many years. Research has found that exposure to these experiences can have a negative impact on mental health. Prior to this study, no data were available as to whether or not queer-identified Couple and Family Therapists (C/MFTs) also have faced discrimination and harassment within the field of C/MFT. This study explored the lived experiences of queer-identified C/MFTs in an attempt to identify what unique struggles this population faces, and if these struggles include coping with discrimination ...


Using A Revised Theory Of Student Departure To Understand Student Athlete Persistence, Scot Hugh Reisinger May 2016

Using A Revised Theory Of Student Departure To Understand Student Athlete Persistence, Scot Hugh Reisinger

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the relationship between intercollegiate participation and persistence in college. In addition, it explored the different factors that influenced student athletes' persistence patterns as compared to non-student athletes at residential liberal arts schools. Using data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (WNS), I first examined if student athletes were more likely to persist while controlling for background characteristics. Next, using Braxton's revised theory of student departure as a theoretical lens, I examined how eight factors (ability to pay, commitment of the institution to student welfare, communal potential, institutional integrity, proactive social adjustment, psychosocial engagement ...


Examining Teacher Epistemic Orientations Toward Teaching Science (Eots) And Its Relationship To Instructional Practices In Science, Jee Kyung Suh May 2016

Examining Teacher Epistemic Orientations Toward Teaching Science (Eots) And Its Relationship To Instructional Practices In Science, Jee Kyung Suh

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify essential features of Epistemic Orientation toward Teaching Science (EOTS) and to explore the relationships between EOTS and instructional practices. This study proposes a new concept, EOTS: defined as a teacher's set of interrelated beliefs that are developed and used when teaching science, and are shaped by the Nature of Knowing in General, the Nature of Knowing in Science, the Nature of Learning, and the Nature of Teaching. The essential elements of EOTS were identified through a comprehensive literature review and refined through a multiple-case study.

The participants of the study were ...


Investigating The Effects Of Missing Data Treatments On Item Response Theory Vertical Scaling, Ah-Young Shin May 2016

Investigating The Effects Of Missing Data Treatments On Item Response Theory Vertical Scaling, Ah-Young Shin

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate if different ways of treating missing responses affects the IRT item parameters and vertical scales. An empirical study was conducted with the verbal test and quantitative test of a large-scale ability test for grades 4 through 12.

Five commonly used methods for scoring missing responses were investigated: Listwise deletion (LW), scoring as incorrect (IN), scoring as not-presented (NP), treating omitted items as incorrect and not-reached items as not-presented (INNR), and assigning a partial score (BN). In addition, three multiple imputation methods that show promising results outside of IRT were investigated: multiple imputation ...


Perceptions And Experiences Of Friendship And Loneliness In Adolescent Males With High Cognitive Ability And Autism Spectrum Disorder, Amanda Jean Berns May 2016

Perceptions And Experiences Of Friendship And Loneliness In Adolescent Males With High Cognitive Ability And Autism Spectrum Disorder, Amanda Jean Berns

Theses and Dissertations

The most common comorbid disorder for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is depression, with more severe symptoms demonstrated in those with high cognitive ability. Feelings of loneliness are associated with depression. There is a dearth of information regarding pertinent variables for loneliness of friendship quality, friendship motivation, and social skills in high ability adolescents with ASD.

This study employs a multiple case study design with 10 twice-exceptional adolescent males with high cognitive ability and ASD (ages 13-9 to 18-11) to investigate these variables. Adolescent, parent, and teacher interviews were completed, transcribed, and analyzed using Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR).

Results ...


The National Minimum Drinking Age Law And Student Alcohol Use : A Case Study Of The University Of Iowa Residence Halls, 1980-1995, Angela Aileen Reams May 2016

The National Minimum Drinking Age Law And Student Alcohol Use : A Case Study Of The University Of Iowa Residence Halls, 1980-1995, Angela Aileen Reams

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation study was to critically examine college student alcohol use in the context of the microenvironment of residence halls, the transition of the national minimum legal drinking age, and the attitudes and experiences of University of Iowa students who lived on campus from 1980 to 1995. The following research questions guided this study: 1) What were the attitudes and experiences of students living in the University of Iowa residence halls before, during, and after the change in the national minimum legal drinking age? 2) What were the individual experiences of students in the residence halls, in ...


Productive Discomfort: A Case Study Of Service-Learning In A First-Year Composition Course, Heather Theresa Draxl May 2016

Productive Discomfort: A Case Study Of Service-Learning In A First-Year Composition Course, Heather Theresa Draxl

Theses and Dissertations

Service-learning is the combination of traditional teaching methods with field-based learning and critical reflection (Hurd, 2008) and is popular in first-year composition (Deans, 2001). However, academic research on service-learning in first-year composition is relatively scarce and the most frequently-cited scholarship is at least a decade old (Adler-Kassner, Crooks & Watters, 1997; Deans, 2001; Haussamen, 1997). This study seeks to contribute to the scholarship on service-learning in first-year composition by exploring how stakeholders, including the instructor, the students, and the community partner, perceive the project's purposes and outcomes. To complete the service-learning requirement for the course in this study, students conduct a bystander ...


Exploring Depth Of Vocabulary Knowledge Among Cfl Learners Of Higher Proficiency Levels, Tingting Chen May 2016

Exploring Depth Of Vocabulary Knowledge Among Cfl Learners Of Higher Proficiency Levels, Tingting Chen

Theses and Dissertations

L2 (second or foreign language) research indicates that vocabulary knowledge is not only the “single best predictor of text comprehension,” but also a strong indicator of listening, speaking, and writing proficiency (Alderson, 2000, p. 35). Understanding the development of vocabulary knowledge, including both vocabulary size and vocabulary depth, or quality of vocabulary knowledge—is therefore essential to the building of an overall insight into L2 proficiency.

This study aims to explore the developmental status of vocabulary depth among postsecondary CFL (Chinese as a foreign language) learners of higher proficiency levels who have studied Chinese for over four years. In particular ...


A Self-Determination Theory-Based Analysis Of The Effects Of Clinical Instructor Behavior On Student Clinical Engagement, Anthony Wayne Knight May 2016

A Self-Determination Theory-Based Analysis Of The Effects Of Clinical Instructor Behavior On Student Clinical Engagement, Anthony Wayne Knight

Theses and Dissertations

Although the link between classroom instructor behavior and student engagement has been well documented, the same cannot be said for instructors and students interacting with one another in clinical settings. Given the relatively close nature of the student-clinical instructor (CI) relationship and the considerable differences between the structured environment of the classroom and the unpredictable and often stressful environment of the healthcare clinic, classroom-based assumptions of what constitutes effective or ineffective teaching behavior may or may not be valid for the clinic. This study applied self-determination theory to investigate the degree to which CI psychological need-supporting/thwarting behaviors affect student ...


Intersecting Literacy Beliefs And Practices With Heritage And Non-Heritage Learners' Instruction: A Case Study Of A Novice Korean Language Instructor, Ho Jung Choi May 2016

Intersecting Literacy Beliefs And Practices With Heritage And Non-Heritage Learners' Instruction: A Case Study Of A Novice Korean Language Instructor, Ho Jung Choi

Theses and Dissertations

Many researchers have explored teachers’ beliefs in literacy and found that teachers’ literacy beliefs affect their instructional practices in foreign language (FL) or second language (SL) classrooms. Researchers have demonstrated that teachers’ literacy beliefs and instructional practices are generally consistent. There have been many studies regarding teachers’ literacy beliefs and classroom instruction in the context of FL/SL and more recent studies on teachers’ literacy beliefs presenting an increasing interest in heritage language (HL) such as Spanish and Chinese. However, less is known about Korean language teachers’ literacy beliefs and practices in the mixed classroom of heritage and non-­‐heritage ...


Predicting Reasons For Living Among Chronically Ill And Depressed Middle Aged And Older Adults Enrolled In A Randomized Clinical Trial, Domonique Renee Casper Dec 2015

Predicting Reasons For Living Among Chronically Ill And Depressed Middle Aged And Older Adults Enrolled In A Randomized Clinical Trial, Domonique Renee Casper

Theses and Dissertations

The American older adult population is rapidly growing and projected to double by 2030. There is high proportion of completed suicides in later life subsequent to several biopsychosocial variables. Medical populations, particularly Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Heart Failure (HF), have greater risk of depression, suicidality, and lower quality of life. Current geropsychology suicide research tends to focus on risk factors, a deficit approach. In contrast, the present study utilized a strength-based approach to study late life suicide by predicting life sustaining cognitions, reasons for living (RFL). This study explored the influence of physical health related quality of life ...


A Formative Program Evaluation Of A Postsecondary Support Program For Students With High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder, Kelly Lee Wise Dec 2015

A Formative Program Evaluation Of A Postsecondary Support Program For Students With High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder, Kelly Lee Wise

Theses and Dissertations

Adults with a diagnosis of High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HF ASD) are becoming a significant presence on college campuses across the United States. A number of colleges have created programs to provide services to support accommodations for these students under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA); the first was created in 2002. The creation of these programs does not guarantee success. The use of the logic model in the formative evaluation process has been found to be a key foundation for the establishment of an effective program. The logic model provides a visual representation of the defined problem, the ...


Exploring The Establishment Of The Office Of The Chief Diversity Officer In Higher Education: A Multisite Case Study, Eugene T. Parker Dec 2015

Exploring The Establishment Of The Office Of The Chief Diversity Officer In Higher Education: A Multisite Case Study, Eugene T. Parker

Theses and Dissertations

Our nation is experiencing a demographic shift. The proportion of racial minorities will significantly increase during the next several decades. Institutions of higher education will have to navigate issues of multiculturalism on campus. Issues of diversity, equity and inclusion are, and continue to be, significant matters for colleges and universities. A significant for the higher education community is who will be responsible for the oversight of diversity and furthering diversity goals at institutions of higher education.

The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the emergence of the chief diversity office, present day conceptions of diversity and the ...


Exploring Rural Latino/A Middle School Student Perceptions Of Their Futures And Careers, Mollie Katherine Burke Dec 2015

Exploring Rural Latino/A Middle School Student Perceptions Of Their Futures And Careers, Mollie Katherine Burke

Theses and Dissertations

The population of Latino/a individuals and students in the United States continues to rise (US Census Bureau, 2012). Moreover, Latino/a students have been shown to have increased concern for dropping out, and for not believing they can achieve positive career outcomes (Pew Hispanic Center Report, 2009). As a result of these concerns in this increasing population, it is important to further explore the career-related concerns, specifically supports and barriers, among Latino/a students. The present study utilized qualitative interviews as a means of gaining a greater understanding of how rural middle school Latino/a students perceive their futures ...


Counseling Psychology Doctoral Trainees' Satisfaction With Clinical Methods Training, Kristen Ann Menke Dec 2015

Counseling Psychology Doctoral Trainees' Satisfaction With Clinical Methods Training, Kristen Ann Menke

Theses and Dissertations

Counseling psychology doctoral trainees’ satisfaction with their clinical methods training is an important predictor of their self-efficacy as counselors, persistence in graduate programs, and probability of practicing psychotherapy in their careers (Fernando &Hulse-Killacky, 2005; Hadjipavlou &Ogrodniczuk, 2007; Morton &;Worthley, 1995). Much of the extant literature related to assessing psychology graduate students’ satisfaction with their training has focused on supervision processes and has not adequately assessed other elements of training such as coursework, clinical experiences, and the learning contexts of practicum sites and program settings. Additionally, the available research is largely quantitative data based on geographically restricted samples that does not adequately explain reasons for ...


The Experiences Of Gay, Military Men And The Impact On One's Sense Of Masculinity, Marcus Christopher Alt Dec 2015

The Experiences Of Gay, Military Men And The Impact On One's Sense Of Masculinity, Marcus Christopher Alt

Theses and Dissertations

Literature has offered insight into aspects of traditional masculine gender norms in shaping expectations of soldiers (Arkin & Dobrofsky, 1978; Green et al., 2010; Johnson, 2010; Lorber & Garcia, 2010; Shawver, 1995), yet there has been little consideration of how these norms affect gay identified servicemen. For centuries, military policies have made efforts to restrict gay individuals from serving openly or at all, leading to inquiry about the effectiveness of these individuals as service members and the impact on unit cohesion (Burrelli, 2012; Parco & Levy, 2010; Shawver, 1995; Zellman, 1996). The current study examines the experiences of gay service men and the impact on the expression of their ...


An Analysis Of Teacher Question Types In Inquiry-Based Classroom And Traditional Classroom Settings, Sungho Kim Dec 2015

An Analysis Of Teacher Question Types In Inquiry-Based Classroom And Traditional Classroom Settings, Sungho Kim

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the differences and patterns for three categories between an argument-based inquiry group and a traditional group over the period of the SWH (Science Writing Heuristic) project: (1) teacher talk time, (2) structure of questions (question types), and (3) student responses. The participating teachers were chosen randomly by a convenient sampling method because the data were collected previously from the SWH project. Each group had thirty teachers. A total of sixty teachers participated in the study. Student responses were part of the study to evaluate the effect of open-ended question types but students were not direct participants in ...


Okay, Seminoles, Take Over From Here: Native American Mascot As Organization Builders At Florida State University, Dong Hyuk Shin Dec 2015

Okay, Seminoles, Take Over From Here: Native American Mascot As Organization Builders At Florida State University, Dong Hyuk Shin

Theses and Dissertations

Intercollegiate athletics is a very important part in American higher education both financially and symbolically. One of the most distinct features of college sports is athletic mascots and nicknames of colleges and universities represent not only the athletic programs but also the whole institutions and communities. As they were deeply ingrained in American culture, some colleges and universities maintained Native-American themed mascots. Scholars and activists criticized the use of these mascots due to offensiveness and racial stereotyping. After the criticisms and the sanctions by the National Collegiate Athletics Association in 2005, many abandoned or modified the mascots in a more ...


Effects Of An Ipad-Based Early Reading Intervention With Students With Complex Needs, Kristin Goodwin Lucas Dec 2015

Effects Of An Ipad-Based Early Reading Intervention With Students With Complex Needs, Kristin Goodwin Lucas

Theses and Dissertations

Early reading literacy is foundational to all other academic learning. It is imperative that elementary students with and without disabilities be provided with evidence-based reading instruction. Elementary students with developmental disabilities (DD) and complex communication needs (CCN) benefit from evidence-based reading instruction that incorporates individualized, explicit instruction and appropriate assistive technology. Research to identify evidence-based practices for students with DD and CCN is necessary to assist teachers to close the gap in overall achievement for this group of learners. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the early reading program Go Talk Phonics (Ahlgrim-Delzell, Browder, &Wood ...


On Measuring Student-Teacher Relationships: Sorting Out Predictors, Outcomes, And Schematic Structure Of Students’ Internal Relationship Representations, Jon Craig Barch Dec 2015

On Measuring Student-Teacher Relationships: Sorting Out Predictors, Outcomes, And Schematic Structure Of Students’ Internal Relationship Representations, Jon Craig Barch

Theses and Dissertations

Student-teacher relationships have been studied by numerous researchers from a variety of perspectives. Evidence consistently suggests that the quality of student-teacher relationships can have a profound impact on children’s social and cognitive development. Although researchers seem to agree on this point, their theoretical conceptualizations of the relationships and how they measure them are often quite different. This study provides empirical insights for both measurement integration and theory integration regarding students’ internal relationship representations.

Items from 14 different student-teacher relationship instruments were systematically combined and administered as a composite instrument to 628 college students. The participants responded to all items ...


A Developmental Study Examining The Value, Effectiveness, And Quality Of A Data Literacy Intervention, Michelle Antoinette Rogers Dec 2015

A Developmental Study Examining The Value, Effectiveness, And Quality Of A Data Literacy Intervention, Michelle Antoinette Rogers

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research indicates that pre- and in-service teachers are not receiving adequate training to implement data-informed instructional decision making. This is problematic given the promise this decision making process holds for improving instruction and student learning. At the same time, many educators do not see the value of different types of assessment data (e.g. accountability data), and lack the knowledge, skills, and confidence to use available data to guide instructional decisions.

The purpose of this study was to conduct a formative evaluation of an online training designed to improve Iowa pre- and in-service teachers’ perceptions about data, data knowledge ...


Combining Quality And Curriculum-Based Measurement : A Suggested Assessment Protocol In Writing, Paula Ganzeveld Dec 2015

Combining Quality And Curriculum-Based Measurement : A Suggested Assessment Protocol In Writing, Paula Ganzeveld

Theses and Dissertations

Curriculum-Based Measures in writing (CBM-W) assesses a variety of fluency-based components of writing. While support exists for the use of CBM measures in the area of writing, there is a need to conduct further validation studies to investigate the utility of these measures within elementary and secondary classrooms. Since only countable indices are used in CBM-W, this study explored the possibility of using an assessment that measured writing quality in conjunction with the CBM metric. To accomplish this, three pieces of data were used in this study. The CBM metrics of total words written, words spelled correctly, correct word sequences ...