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Full-Text Articles in Education

Low-Income High-Ability Black Female Students’ Perceptions Of Experiences That Have Influenced Their College Readiness: A Qualitative Analysis, Janice Arlene Byrd Dec 2016

Low-Income High-Ability Black Female Students’ Perceptions Of Experiences That Have Influenced Their College Readiness: A Qualitative Analysis, Janice Arlene Byrd

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the experiences of high-ability, Black, female college freshmen when preparing for college to identify influences from various family, school, and community environments. Using a theoretical framework, which incorporates both Kimberlé Crenshaw’s intersectionality and Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory in an orientational manner as a guide to examine literature related to the multiple identities and experiences potentially shared by the participants and to generate the interview questions to collect data and explore their experiences as broadly as possible. To explore these experiences, the researcher conducted in-depth individual interviews of ...


A Terror Management Theory Based Intervention For Anxiety In Spouses Of Cancer Patients: A Multiple-Baseline Study, Adam Michael Lewis Dec 2016

A Terror Management Theory Based Intervention For Anxiety In Spouses Of Cancer Patients: A Multiple-Baseline Study, Adam Michael Lewis

Theses and Dissertations

As the U.S. population ages the number of family caregivers is expected to rise. Family caregivers are a valuable source of informal healthcare services for patients and the public, in terms of reducing healthcare costs. However, research suggests family caregiving is not only financially costly for individuals, but associated with a number of medical and mental health risks, with spouses at higher risk for negative outcomes compared to other family members. Traditional evidence-based therapies for stress in family caregivers have been shown to be minimally efficacious with spouses. No therapies take into account the existential nature of spouse caregiver ...


Exploring Science And Mathematics Teachers' Fidelity Of Implementation Of Project Lead The Way Curriculum: A Case Study On How Teachers' Knowledge And Beliefs Influence Their Enactment Of The Curriculum, Mary Nyaema Dec 2016

Exploring Science And Mathematics Teachers' Fidelity Of Implementation Of Project Lead The Way Curriculum: A Case Study On How Teachers' Knowledge And Beliefs Influence Their Enactment Of The Curriculum, Mary Nyaema

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study aimed at gaining a better understanding of how the intended Project Lead the Way (PLTW) curriculum differs from the enacted curricula and what factors impact this. This understanding is important to make the professional development program more meaningful to the immediate needs of the teacher in the classroom. Identifying the factors that contribute to any emerging differences between the curricula helped fill the gap in research on teacher knowledge and beliefs about the use of science and mathematics content in the PLTW classroom. PLTW is an innovative hands-on pre-engineering curriculum designed for K-12 students based ...


Enhancement Of Decision-Making Performance In Older Adults, Christopher Minh Nguyen Dec 2016

Enhancement Of Decision-Making Performance In Older Adults, Christopher Minh Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

Older adults are faced with many complex and critical decisions regarding retirement, health care, finances, and living situation, and their ability to make such decisions successfully has a profound impact on the individual and society as a whole. Numerous neurologically and psychiatrically healthy older adults do not make advantageous decisions: they get swindled and make poor financial choices. The vulnerability of such older adults has been postulated to be the result of disproportionate aging of the frontal lobes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether decision-making performance among older adults can be improved as a result of pharmacological ...


Teachers’ Pedagogical Beliefs About Using Computing Devices In One-To-One Technology Initiative Schools, Gary Steffensmeier Dec 2016

Teachers’ Pedagogical Beliefs About Using Computing Devices In One-To-One Technology Initiative Schools, Gary Steffensmeier

Theses and Dissertations

Using a qualitative multiple case study design, this study investigated the ways that teachers’ pedagogical beliefs about learning: 1) affect students’ access to and use of one-to-one technologies and 2) shape one-to-one learning environments. Results indicate that teachers’ pedagogical beliefs are not a predictor of student access to computing devices, but do impact how students use the devices in the classroom. Also, teachers’ use of technology resources reflects their pedagogical beliefs. Teachers in the study reported that the increased access to technology via a one-to-one program positively impacted the learning environment by: facilitating better communication with students; empowering students; providing ...


Growth Mindset And Fluency In The Art Classroom, Heather Michele Seibel Dec 2016

Growth Mindset And Fluency In The Art Classroom, Heather Michele Seibel

Theses and Dissertations

This research explores the relationship between mindsets and divergent thinking skills. Specifically, the research questions sought to answer whether there was a positive association between a higher presence of divergent thinking skills and a creative growth mindset, as well as the impact environment has on creative growth. A total of 184 second and sixth grade students from a larger urban school district were surveyed. Data collection included: student surveys, two divergent thinking assessments, direct observation of the students and teacher notes. Results indicate most students identify with a creative growth mindset, but are lacking specific strategies to demonstrate creative growth ...


Experiences With Masculinity Among Previously Homeless Male Veterans In A Permanent Housing Program: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis, Christopher F. Manlick Dec 2016

Experiences With Masculinity Among Previously Homeless Male Veterans In A Permanent Housing Program: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis, Christopher F. Manlick

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the meaning of formerly homeless Veteran’s male relationships to better understand their participation in intervention programs relying on interpersonal support. Interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to interpret five semi-structured interviews with previously homeless Veterans between the ages of 45-65 with serious mental illness. These men were participating in a peer-support based housing program. Analysis yielded the following five major themes and fourteen subordinate themes: Internalized Role Conflict i) internal conflict, Masculinity as a Barrieri) restricted emotions between men, ii) pride, iii) dominance, and iv) fear of other men, Building ...


Being A “Nǚ Tóngzhì” In The United States: The Sexual Orientation Identity Acculturation And Enculturation Processes Of Taiwanese International Sexual Orientation Minority Women, Angel Yiting Cheng Dec 2016

Being A “Nǚ Tóngzhì” In The United States: The Sexual Orientation Identity Acculturation And Enculturation Processes Of Taiwanese International Sexual Orientation Minority Women, Angel Yiting Cheng

Theses and Dissertations

Acculturation process has been associated with various mental health outcomes among Taiwanese/Chinese international students (Wang & Mallinckrodt, 2006; Zhang & Goodson, 2011), and those who also identify as sexual orientation minority may have unique acculturation processes compared to their heterosexual counterparts (Oba & Pope, 2013; Quach, Todd, Hepp, & Mancini, 2013). Limited understanding has been established on the impact of dual cultural exposures and the multiple marginalized identities may have on international sexual orientation minority’s sexual orientation identity development, particularly for women from countries with Chinese cultural heritages.

Using Consensual Qualitative Research method, this dissertation focuses on gaining understanding of the experiences of Taiwanese sexual orientation minority women (nǚ tongzhi) developing sexual orientation identity during their residence in the U.S. Results indicate the overall accepting social and ...


Preferred Contexts As Motivating Operations For Indices Of Happiness And Task Engagement, Jessica Emily Graber Dec 2016

Preferred Contexts As Motivating Operations For Indices Of Happiness And Task Engagement, Jessica Emily Graber

Theses and Dissertations

The current study investigated the effects of blending preferred stimuli with nonpreferred tasks in altering motivation to escape those tasks, during 90 minute outpatient appointments. For each participant, I first evaluated preferences for social stimuli (e.g., qualities of attention, activities, and tangible items) and then incorporated those preferences into the historically avoided, escaped, or nonpreferred demand. Participants were eight individuals referred to a tertiary-level outpatient clinic for severe challenging behavior involving noncompliance.

Consistent with previous research, I hypothesized that the presence of preferred stimuli within the demand context would alter the motivating operation (MO) for escape maintained challenging behavior ...


Perceived Barriers To Reporting Military Sexual Assault: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, Wendy Jo Rasmussen Dec 2016

Perceived Barriers To Reporting Military Sexual Assault: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, Wendy Jo Rasmussen

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes a qualitative study that explored the perceived barriers to reporting military sexual assaults that servicewomen experienced following a sexual assault while on active duty. The study aimed to answer the following research questions: (1) What barriers to reporting did servicewomen who survived sexual assault in a military setting perceive?; (2) What role did betrayal (the act of going against a promise) play in their decision? Semi-structured interviews with three servicewomen who were sexually assaulted while on active duty and did not report the assaults were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Four superordinate themes emerged from the data ...


Stronger Together : The Hull House Woman’S Club And Public Health Activism, Megan Lee Schwalm Dec 2016

Stronger Together : The Hull House Woman’S Club And Public Health Activism, Megan Lee Schwalm

Theses and Dissertations

Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr opened Hull House, Chicago’s first settlement house, in 1889 as a means of confronting poverty, poor housing conditions, disease, discouragement, and other ills that flourished in the predominately immigrant Halstead neighborhood. Because Hull House volunteers lived at the House, in the center of the community, they were well-equipped to respond knowledgeably to the neighborhood conditions. Hull House residents worked for reform in areas such as education, labor, juvenile protection, immigration, welfare, housing, and suffrage and they provided the community with a plethora of activities and services during the Progressive Era. As the community ...


A Behavioral Economic Analysis Of The Relationship Between Diet And Exercise In Adolescents Who Are Obese, Nicole Helen Lustig Aug 2016

A Behavioral Economic Analysis Of The Relationship Between Diet And Exercise In Adolescents Who Are Obese, Nicole Helen Lustig

Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is a substantial public health concern. One subgroup that has shown a large increase in prevalence of obesity is adolescents (12 - 19 years) (CDC, 2014; Altman & Wilfley, 2014; Odgen et al., 2010; Ogden, et al., 2012; Ogden, et al., 2014). This is concerning for two reasons: (a) the strong likelihood of obesity persisting into adulthood (CDC, 2014) leading to co-occurring medical and psychosocial problems (Altman & Wilfley, 2014; Kelsey et al., 2014), and (b) there are few studies demonstrating successful reductions in obesity in children and even fewer successful demonstrations in adolescents (Altman & Wilfley, 2014; Tsiros et al., 2008).

One way to evaluate the behaviors related ...


Exploring Dimensionality Of Scores For Mixed-Format Tests, Mengyao Zhang Aug 2016

Exploring Dimensionality Of Scores For Mixed-Format Tests, Mengyao Zhang

Theses and Dissertations

Dimensionality assessment provides test developers and users with a better understanding of how test scores make human abilities concrete. Issues dealt with by dimensionality assessment include, but are not restricted to, (a) whether unidimensionality holds; (b) the number of dimensions influencing test scores; and (c) the relationships among items, among underlying dimensions, and between items and dimensions. Results from dimensionality assessment allow test developers and users to carefully validate specific interpretations and uses of test scores. The widespread use of mixed-format tests complicates dimensionality assessment both conceptually and methodologically. This dissertation is the first to propose a framework tailored for ...


The Role Of Language Background On College Cognitive Growth: A Study Of Non-Native English Speakers, Jiajun Liu Aug 2016

The Role Of Language Background On College Cognitive Growth: A Study Of Non-Native English Speakers, Jiajun Liu

Theses and Dissertations

This study explored the precollege and college level factors that moderate the relationship between language background and college cognitive gains for non-native English speaking (NNES) students. I focused on three college cognitive outcomes, including critical thinking, need for cognition, and positive attitude toward literacy. Because there is limited research on the relationship between language background and college cognitive growth, I first examined the effects of being a NNES student on college cognitive outcomes. Next, I explored the mediating effects of three sets of influences on the relationship between NNES status and college cognitive outcomes, including students’ precollege characteristics and background ...


Foreign Language Teachers’ Technology Beliefs And Implementation Factors: A Mixed Methods Study, Brittany Ann Garling Aug 2016

Foreign Language Teachers’ Technology Beliefs And Implementation Factors: A Mixed Methods Study, Brittany Ann Garling

Theses and Dissertations

Using a mixed methods design this study investigates in-service K-12 foreign language teachers’ beliefs about technology and factors that influence its implementation in instruction. The study employs an Explanatory Design using a two-phase approach, where qualitative data is collected and analyzed to elaborate on the quantitative data results. A total of ninety-nine in-service K-12 foreign language teachers from across the state of Iowa responded to the Modified Technology Implementation Questionnaire about their technological beliefs and barriers to technology integration within classroom practices. The results of the instrument were tabulated using a hierarchical multiple regression to uncover factors impacting technology integration ...


A Study Of Parents' Involvement In Iowa's Home School Assistance Programs, Kirstin Dianne Miller Swenson Aug 2016

A Study Of Parents' Involvement In Iowa's Home School Assistance Programs, Kirstin Dianne Miller Swenson

Theses and Dissertations

Since the 1960s homeschooling has increased in popularity across the United States. While homeschooling was deemed illegal in all 50 states, by 1993 homeschooling was legal in every state. As homeschooling was legalized, each state created its own ways of monitoring and supporting homeschooled students. In 1991 when the state of Iowa legalized homeschooling, the Iowa legislature created Home School Assistance Programs (HSAPs), which used public school funds to provide state-certified teachers to supervise homeschooled families.

The purpose of this study was to apply the theoretical model of the parental involvement process created by Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (1995, 1997) to ...


Male Chinese International Students' Utilization Of And Barriers To Mental Health Resources, Patrick Kenneth Galligan Aug 2016

Male Chinese International Students' Utilization Of And Barriers To Mental Health Resources, Patrick Kenneth Galligan

Theses and Dissertations

The number of Chinese international students obtaining their education at American institutions of higher education has reached a pinnacle, in that more Chinese international students attend American colleges and universities than ever before (Institute of International Education, 2015). Colleges and universities actively recruit Asian international students, especially those from the People’s Republic of China. As Chinese international students continue to represent an ever-greater percentage of the student bodies at colleges and universities, these institutions have a responsibility to attend to the mental health needs of this population. Within this population, research suggests that male Asian international students hold less ...


An Epistemological Revolution: Using Quantitative Data To Critically Interrogate High-Impact Educational Practices, Cindy Ann Kilgo Aug 2016

An Epistemological Revolution: Using Quantitative Data To Critically Interrogate High-Impact Educational Practices, Cindy Ann Kilgo

Theses and Dissertations

This three-manuscript formatted dissertation interrogated the effectiveness of high-impact educational practices for marginalized students through the use of critical quantitative inquiry. The first empirical manuscript used data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts education to explore the role of race and class on students’ engagement in and effects from high-impact practices. Findings from this manuscript suggest significant differences in academic motivation change over the first year of college when race and class were examined together, while no differences when just class was examined. The second empirical manuscript used data from the National Study of LGBTQ Student Success to ...


Considering The Influence Of High School Experiences On Students’ College Aspirations, Teniell Leigh Trolian Aug 2016

Considering The Influence Of High School Experiences On Students’ College Aspirations, Teniell Leigh Trolian

Theses and Dissertations

This study considered whether participation in several out-of-class experiences during high school influenced the odds that a student will aspire to earn at least a Bachelor’s degree. Additionally, this study considered whether these experiences, considered together, had a cumulative effect on the odds that a student will aspire to earn at least a Bachelor’s degree, and whether the influence of these high school experiences on college aspirations was moderated by a student’s race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Results of the study revealed that several high school experiences, including participation in science-related school programs, participation in extracurricular activities ...


Summum Bonum: Investigating Global Life Satisfaction In A Sample Of Profoundly Gifted Students, Clark Ivan Kopelman Aug 2016

Summum Bonum: Investigating Global Life Satisfaction In A Sample Of Profoundly Gifted Students, Clark Ivan Kopelman

Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this dissertation were to provide additional information about life satisfaction – globally and in regard to relevant dimensions of life satisfaction – and the relationship between these aspects of life satisfaction in a sample of profoundly gifted youth. Participants in the Davidson Young Scholars Program (DYS) – a program designed specifically for profoundly gifted youth – completed a 90-item survey that included items pertinent to a variety of life domains.

Findings paint a picture of profoundly gifted adolescents as satisfied across life dimensions and, perhaps, more satisfied than their peers. Their satisfaction was not related to gender, though varied with age ...


Understanding The Experiences Of College Student Suicide Attempt Survivors : A Consensual Qualitative Research Exploration, Allison Sarah Richards Aug 2016

Understanding The Experiences Of College Student Suicide Attempt Survivors : A Consensual Qualitative Research Exploration, Allison Sarah Richards

Theses and Dissertations

Suicide among college students is a long-standing problem and has received considerable attention within the field of suicidology and beyond. The identification of risk and protective factors, theories related to college student suicide, and prevention, intervention and postvention efforts all reflect the solid basis of research that has been completed on college student suicide. In an attempt to further understand suicide among college students, the current study employed a novel methodological approach, one that explores suicide though college student suicide attempt survivors (N=7), and utilized a qualitative method for data analysis. The use of consensual qualitative research (CQR) was ...


Assessing English Language Learners: When To Use The English Wisc-Iv Versus The Spanish Wisc-Iv, Abigail Rachel Kramer Kopelman Aug 2016

Assessing English Language Learners: When To Use The English Wisc-Iv Versus The Spanish Wisc-Iv, Abigail Rachel Kramer Kopelman

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to determine the most valid language psychologists can use to assess Spanish-speaking students who are English language learners, depending on the students’ English language proficiency level, Spanish language proficiency level, and demographic information. Participants included 84 2nd to 5th grade Spanish-speaking students who were English language learners. These students were given a demographic survey, a WISC-IV in English, and a WISC-IV in Spanish. The school had English and Spanish language proficiency data. Results found that once a student reaches the Bridging and Reaching levels (and possibly the Expanding level) of English language proficiency on ...


The Lived Experiences Of Underemployed First-Generation College Graduates, Shane Gibbons Aug 2016

The Lived Experiences Of Underemployed First-Generation College Graduates, Shane Gibbons

Theses and Dissertations

In this study, we conducted a qualitative exploration of the lived-experiences of underemployed First-Generation College Graduates (FGCG). The purpose of the study was to expand and promote a thoughtful discourse about a more inclusive and domain-sensitive approach to counseling underemployed first-generation college graduates. Participants’ consisted of seven underemployed first-generation college graduates in a small Midwestern city. Participants’ ages ranged from 22 to 30 years old (M= 27.8, SD=2.7). Of the participants, all were Caucasian (5 female, 2 male) and had graduated within the past six years. Using Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR; Hill et al., 2005; Hill, 2012 ...


Use Of Brief Experimental Analysis To Identify Early Literacy Interventions In Students With Letter-Sound Correspondence Deficits, Jennifer Lynn Kuhle Jul 2016

Use Of Brief Experimental Analysis To Identify Early Literacy Interventions In Students With Letter-Sound Correspondence Deficits, Jennifer Lynn Kuhle

Theses and Dissertations

A Brief Experimental Analysis (BEA) is used to quickly and simultaneously evaluate two or more interventions so that the most effective intervention is selected for on-going implementation (Daly, Witt, Martens, & Dool, 1997; Martens & Gertz, 2009). Oral reading fluency interventions have been successfully evaluated using a BEA, yet minimal research studies have evaluated early literacy interventions within this context (Daly, Martens, Hamler, Dool, Eckert, 1999; Eckert, Ardoin, Daly, & Martens, 2002; McComas & Burns, 2009). The primary goal of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of a BEA in selecting a letter-sound correspondence intervention for individual students. A comparison of early intervention strategies was also completed as part of an extended analysis. The study was conducted in two phases with three kindergarten students.

First, a BEA was used to evaluate performance-based and skill-based interventions designed to ...


Challenges To Female Educational Leaders In Kyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Sumaira Taj Jul 2016

Challenges To Female Educational Leaders In Kyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Sumaira Taj

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the challenges that female educational managers face in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. The purposes of the study were: to explore the challenges that female educational managers face in maintaining and obtaining their managerial positions, to identify the strategies that they employed in coping with those challenges, and to validate the participant questionnaire in KPK. This is a qualitative case study that was conducted in three phases: exploration, reinforcement, and validation. The data were collected through interviews, observations, and field notes. In the first and second phase, nine female managers from three districts participated, while the third phase ...


Contextual Support For Post Secondary Plans Scales: School Personnel And Community Factors Examination, Charles Joseph Bermingham Jul 2016

Contextual Support For Post Secondary Plans Scales: School Personnel And Community Factors Examination, Charles Joseph Bermingham

Theses and Dissertations

Social support has been identified as an important component of planning for careers among high school students. Lent, Brown, and Hackett (2000) advocated for the importance of this support within Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT). These authors identified a need for further research with better measurement for examining contextual support and its connection to career decision-making. Ali et al. (2011) developed a set of measures to address this need for better measurement, but identified the need for more nuanced examination of specific types of contextual support. The current study was designed to assess the importance of nuanced measuring of different ...


Use Of The Isolated Elements Effect To Teach Observational Gait Analysis : The Effects On Cognitive Load And Learning Outcomes, Kelly J. Sass May 2016

Use Of The Isolated Elements Effect To Teach Observational Gait Analysis : The Effects On Cognitive Load And Learning Outcomes, Kelly J. Sass

Theses and Dissertations

The analysis of human walking gait is a complex skill for physical therapy students to learn. As a result, students are at risk for a cognitive overload when confronted with these materials. Cognitive load consists of both intrinsic and extraneous loads as well as the germane processes that are required by the learners to process the information in working memory. As working memory is limited in its capacity to process new information, it is necessary to manage the cognitive load experienced by the learners. Intrinsic cognitive load is related to the complexity of the materials that must be learned and ...


Historical Book Structures And Artists' Books As A Teaching Tool, Islam Mahmoud Mohamed Aly May 2016

Historical Book Structures And Artists' Books As A Teaching Tool, Islam Mahmoud Mohamed Aly

Theses and Dissertations

This study focuses on developing a book arts curriculum as a tool for teaching about creativity and problem solving. The curriculum's ultimate goal is to introduce and emphasize book arts as an expressive and powerful medium to future teachers and artists.

Book arts will be used to offer potentialities for collaborative, learner-centered instruction. Students will create structures and artists' books from their experience, their learning will emerge from personal interactions with the structures and artists' books presented.

The curriculum is planned into three modules, each module containing a different set of projects and activities organized to scaffold students learning ...


Representation As A Language Of Scientific Practice: Exploring Students’ Views On The Use Of Representation And The Linkage To Understanding Of Scientific Models, Kyungwoon Seo May 2016

Representation As A Language Of Scientific Practice: Exploring Students’ Views On The Use Of Representation And The Linkage To Understanding Of Scientific Models, Kyungwoon Seo

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore how students view the use of representation in science classroom. Representation, as a disciplinary language of science, has long been promoted as a way to develop students’ scientific literacy and is closely linked to engaging students in scientific practices through the use of models in science. However, previous research studies have mostly focused on the use of representation and models as outcome measure of an implementation task and little is known about the learner’s perspectives.

The study aimed to fill this missing gap by investigating how students view the use of ...


The Effect Of Using A Tablet And A Meta-Cognitive Strategy To Improve Reading Comprehension Skills For Students With Sld, Saeed Saad S. Alqahtani May 2016

The Effect Of Using A Tablet And A Meta-Cognitive Strategy To Improve Reading Comprehension Skills For Students With Sld, Saeed Saad S. Alqahtani

Theses and Dissertations

Students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have difficulty with most reading skills, including reading comprehension (Hulme & Snowling, 2011). Improving reading comprehension skills requires efficient interventions that consider both meaning- and code-based skills simultaneously. Using a single-subject multiple-baseline design across participants, with alternating treatment design, this study compared two reading interventions (repeated reading vs. tablet text-to-speech) combined with a meta-cognitive strategy (question generation).

Three fourth-grade and third-grade students who had been diagnosed by their school as having reading difficulties (reading one to two grades behind their expected reading levels) participated in the study. Using the index of narrative complexity (Labov, 1973; Petersen, Gillam, & Gillam, 2008) as a major dependent variable, two participants showed improvement in reading comprehension skills as measured by visual analysis and the effect size between means. However, there were slight differences for the RAAC intervention over the tablet intervention for one participant. The time required to administer the tablet intervention was shorter than the time required to administer the RAAC intervention (an average of 12.73 minutes for the RAAC vs. 5.45 minutes for the tablet), which is an important consideration ...