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Full-Text Articles in Education

Environment For Innovation: Exploring Associations With Individual Disposition Toward Change, Organizational Conflict, Justice And Trust, Daniel James Weinert Dec 2013

Environment For Innovation: Exploring Associations With Individual Disposition Toward Change, Organizational Conflict, Justice And Trust, Daniel James Weinert

Theses and Dissertations

The environment in higher education and healthcare is rapidly changing. Adaptation through innovation is critical for organizations responsible for the education of healthcare providers. This study examined the climate for innovation at chiropractic colleges and health sciences universities offering a doctor of chiropractic program. The relationship between conflict, resistance to change, trust, justice, and climate for innovation was explored. Prior research involving these variables at chiropractic colleges or health sciences universities offering a doctor of chiropractic program is extremely limited. The chiropractic profession is experiencing significant challenges including market competition, internal conflict, and significant healthcare policy change. Adding to the ...


Organizational Citizenship Behavior At Catholic Institutions Of Higher Education: Effects Of Organizational Commitment, Interpersonal- And System-Level Trust, Justin Ashby Ball Dec 2013

Organizational Citizenship Behavior At Catholic Institutions Of Higher Education: Effects Of Organizational Commitment, Interpersonal- And System-Level Trust, Justin Ashby Ball

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to conduct an exploratory investigation of OCB, trust, and commitment among faculty and staff within Catholic IHEs. Faculty and staff from two Catholic IHEs were the focus of the study. Twenty-five schools were randomly selected from the 50 largest Catholic IHEs by undergraduate enrollment, identified from the 2012 list of Catholic IHEs officially recognized by the Association of Catholic Colleges and Universities (ACCU). The successful operation of Catholic IHEs appears to require high levels of trust and commitment. They benefit from higher levels of OCB, as they endeavor to work in common with other ...


Job Involvement Of Part-Time Faculty: Exploring Associations With Distributive Justice, Underemployment, Work Status Congruence, And Empowerment, Jae Young Seo Dec 2013

Job Involvement Of Part-Time Faculty: Exploring Associations With Distributive Justice, Underemployment, Work Status Congruence, And Empowerment, Jae Young Seo

Theses and Dissertations

For decades, higher education institutions have been increasingly reliant upon part-time faculty. As the role of part-time faculty in colleges and universities has evolved and gained prominence, it is increasingly important to gain a deeper understanding of their perceptions of job involvement considered as potential predictor of turnover and absenteeism.

There are very few studies focusing on part-time faculty. Available research tends to be concerned with inequality in terms of income, benefits, working conditions, and opportunities for career advancement compared to full-time faculty, while perceptions of how distributive justice among part-time faculty members might be associated with their perceived levels ...


Stories Of Crossing Borders: Identities, Place And Culture, Yosep Bambang Margono Slamet Dec 2013

Stories Of Crossing Borders: Identities, Place And Culture, Yosep Bambang Margono Slamet

Theses and Dissertations

When international graduate students and their families participate in study abroad experiences, there are many challenges and opportunities that accompany these experiences. Depending on the context of the study abroad experience, some might be characterized as both opportunities and challenges. International graduate students and their families experience cultural and linguistic challenges/opportunities while also facing conscious (and unconscious) decisions of assimilation and acculturation. Education opportunities are rarely neutral and may be accompanied by uncertainty, discontinuities, and result in identities that shift and change in the course of crossing boundaries that are geographic, educational, emotional and metaphoric in nature. The ways ...


Masculinity And Bystander Helping Behavior: A Study Of The Relationship Between Conformity To Masculine Norms And Bystander Interventions, Jerrod Anthony Koon Dec 2013

Masculinity And Bystander Helping Behavior: A Study Of The Relationship Between Conformity To Masculine Norms And Bystander Interventions, Jerrod Anthony Koon

Theses and Dissertations

Hundreds of research articles have been published about variables related to bystander helping behavior. Although significant gender differences have been found in bystander intervention research, the results have been incongruent with little explanation about the relationship between gender and bystander interventions. This study assessed the relationship between conformity to masculine role norms and bystander intervention behavior.

In this study, 200 college students completed the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46 (CMNI-46) to determine the relationship between conformity to masculine norms and the level of bystander intervention selected on the Bystander Intervention Measure (BIM). It was hypothesized that a significant main effect ...


Elementary Teachers' Assessment Actions And Elementary Science Education: Formative Assessment Enactment In Elementary Science, David Riley Pierson Dec 2013

Elementary Teachers' Assessment Actions And Elementary Science Education: Formative Assessment Enactment In Elementary Science, David Riley Pierson

Theses and Dissertations

A comparative case study was conducted of two elementary science teachers' enactment of a formative assessment strategy, known as Reflective Assessment. Qualitative analysis of three data sources addressed the two research questions of the differences in enactment of RA and what those differences look like. This study suggests that differences do exist in how teachers implement formative assessment in the enactment of the same science curricula, though further investigation into this is needed.


The Impact Of Home Spoken Language On Learning To Read Chinese: Comparing Mandarin Monolingual Children And Dialect-Speaking Children In Mainland China, Lingyan Yang Dec 2013

The Impact Of Home Spoken Language On Learning To Read Chinese: Comparing Mandarin Monolingual Children And Dialect-Speaking Children In Mainland China, Lingyan Yang

Theses and Dissertations

The primary goal of the current study was to investigate the impact of different first language backgrounds on early Chinese reading development by comparing a group of children who spoke a dialect at home and learned to speak and read Mandarin as a second language as soon as they attended Mandarin immersion programs with their Mandarin-speaking monolingual counterparts. The comparison involved five variables, two of which were measures of reading outcomes, word reading accuracy and vocabulary knowledge, and the other three were measures related to processing spoken languages, including rapid automatized naming, phonological awareness, and morphological awareness.

The study was ...


Low-Income Black Parents' Perceptions Of Familial Acculturation Processes During Urban To College Town Transitions, Mashone Nicole Parker Dec 2013

Low-Income Black Parents' Perceptions Of Familial Acculturation Processes During Urban To College Town Transitions, Mashone Nicole Parker

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of parents' perceptions of their role in helping their children acculturate to a new cultural and social environment. Specifically, this study used qualitative methods to interview Black families who moved from large urban communities to a smaller Midwestern college town. The sample consisted of ten Black parents who had moved to this college town from a United States (U.S) urban community with a population size of at least 100,000 persons.

The results indicated that parents perceived their role in helping their children adapt to this new environment as ...


Equating Multidimensional Tests Under A Random Groups Design: A Comparison Of Various Equating Procedures, Eunjung Lee Dec 2013

Equating Multidimensional Tests Under A Random Groups Design: A Comparison Of Various Equating Procedures, Eunjung Lee

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to compare the equating performance of various equating procedures for the multidimensional tests. To examine the various equating procedures, simulated data sets were used that were generated based on a multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) framework. Various equating procedures were examined, including both unidimensional and the multidimensional equating procedures based on an IRT framework in addition to traditional equating procedures. Specifically, the performance of the following six equating procedures under the random groups design was compared: (1) unidimensional IRT observed score equating, (2) unidimensional IRT true score equating, (3) full MIRT observed score equating ...


Longitudinal Analysis Of Standardized Test Scores Of Students In The Science Writing Heuristic Approach, Niphon Chanlen Dec 2013

Longitudinal Analysis Of Standardized Test Scores Of Students In The Science Writing Heuristic Approach, Niphon Chanlen

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal impacts of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach on student science achievement measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). A number of studies have reported positive impact of an inquiry-based instruction on student achievement, critical thinking skills, reasoning skills, attitude toward science, etc. So far, studies have focused on exploring how an intervention affects student achievement using teacher/researcher-generated measurement. Only a few studies have attempted to explore the long-term impacts of an intervention on student science achievement measured by standardized tests.

The students' science and reading ITBS ...


Catfish And Goldfish In The Same Bowl: Perceived Outcomes And Effects Of Accreditation At The Institutional Level, Lisa Louise Riley Beatty Dec 2013

Catfish And Goldfish In The Same Bowl: Perceived Outcomes And Effects Of Accreditation At The Institutional Level, Lisa Louise Riley Beatty

Theses and Dissertations

Concerns about the value and quality of higher education have led to increased scrutiny of the U.S. system of peer accreditation. Public policy-makers have begun to question the extent to which accrediting agencies achieve their quality assurance and quality improvement objectives in the colleges and universities they accredit. Some have begun to call for an expanded federal role in assuring quality at the nation's colleges and universities.

Only a few studies exist that examine accreditation processes and outcomes in any higher education context. This qualitative, multi-case study utilizes in-depth interview data to explore perceived outcomes, specific changes attributable ...


The Impact Of Persistent Sexual Side Effects Of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors After Discontinuing Treatment: A Qualitative Study, Rebecca Diane Stinson Dec 2013

The Impact Of Persistent Sexual Side Effects Of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors After Discontinuing Treatment: A Qualitative Study, Rebecca Diane Stinson

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation details a qualitative study that examined nine individuals living with sexual side effects of SSRIs that had persisted after the discontinuation of pharmacological treatment (referred to as post-SSRI sexual dysfunction or PSSD).

The investigation sought to answer the following research questions:

(1) How do individuals with persistent sexual side effects make sense of and meaning from their experience?;

(2) How have these individuals' sense of self or identity changed over the course of their sexual difficulties?; and

(3) What role could a counseling psychologist have had in helping the individual with his or her situation?

Using Interpretative Phenomenological ...


Getting Close, Letting Go, Becoming Real: Civic Engagement With Preservice Art Teachers At The House Of Hope, Wendy Sue Miller Dec 2013

Getting Close, Letting Go, Becoming Real: Civic Engagement With Preservice Art Teachers At The House Of Hope, Wendy Sue Miller

Theses and Dissertations

This is a qualitative, mixed-methods study that focuses on the dispositions that preservice teachers bring into teacher education programs in regard to homelessness. Teacher education programs play an important role in providing preservice teachers experiences teaching that prepare them for working with diverse populations of students. Students enrolled in an elementary art methods course and participated in a civic engagement experience, teaching children after school who were living in a transitional housing program.

The results of this study showed evidence that working in community settings with diverse students can alter preservice teachers' notions and awareness of impoverished and homeless children ...


Project Hope: A Career Education Program For Rural Middle School Students, Tina D. Hoffman Dec 2013

Project Hope: A Career Education Program For Rural Middle School Students, Tina D. Hoffman

Theses and Dissertations

A critical psychology perspective (Prilleltensky and Nelson, 2002) advocates for research that focuses on social change, the mutual participation of community stakeholders, and the empowerment of those served. The current study applies this critical psychology perspective to career education programming in a multiculturally diverse rural high school.

This manuscript illustrates the collaborative development, implementation, and evaluation of the "Project HOPE" career education program. Case study methodology is used to examine the effects of the program congruent with a critical psychology paradigm. Social Cognitive Career Theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994; 2000) variables of math/science self-efficacy, vocational skills self-efficacy, math/science outcome expectations ...


A Middle School Science Teacher's Integration Of Technology With The Science Writing Heuristic: A Case Study, Tina Vo Dec 2013

A Middle School Science Teacher's Integration Of Technology With The Science Writing Heuristic: A Case Study, Tina Vo

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Influence Of Distal Family Background And Proximal Family Status On The Occurrence And Timing Of Post-Baccalaureate Enrollment, Michelle Lynn Kronfeld Dec 2013

The Influence Of Distal Family Background And Proximal Family Status On The Occurrence And Timing Of Post-Baccalaureate Enrollment, Michelle Lynn Kronfeld

Theses and Dissertations

Graduate students represent 15% of the students and one-third of the graduates of colleges and universities across the United States. They are leading thinkers in higher education institutions and businesses across the country and around the world. In many fields, such as law, graduate or professional school is required for entry-level employment, whereas in other fields, such as business, graduate education may enhance performance and opportunities for promotion.

The educational stratification and college-choice literature document the influence of family background (distal family) on educational attainment. These literatures focus on the traditional undergraduate student without considering the different preferences and responsibilities ...


Mixed-Format Test Score Equating: Effect Of Item-Type Multidimensionality, Length And Composition Of Common-Item Set, And Group Ability Difference, Wei Wang Dec 2013

Mixed-Format Test Score Equating: Effect Of Item-Type Multidimensionality, Length And Composition Of Common-Item Set, And Group Ability Difference, Wei Wang

Theses and Dissertations

Mixed-format tests containing both multiple-choice (MC) items and constructed-response (CR) items are now widely used in many testing programs. Mixed-format tests often are considered to be superior to tests containing only MC items although the use of multiple item formats leads to measurement challenges in the context of equating conducted under the common-item nonequivalent groups design (CINEG). The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate how various test characteristics and examinee characteristics influence CINEG mixed-format test score equating results.

Simulated data were used in this dissertation. Simulees' item responses were generated using items selected from one MC item pool and ...


A Phenomonenological Examination Of Middle School African American Adolescent Mens' Experiences With Professional School Counselors, Ahmad Rashad Washington Jul 2013

A Phenomonenological Examination Of Middle School African American Adolescent Mens' Experiences With Professional School Counselors, Ahmad Rashad Washington

Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of five (5) middle school African American adolescent men from two different schools in the same school district to explore their perceptions of and experiences with their professional school counselors. Phenomenological qualitative methodology was used to complete this study. To gather research data, two semi-structured interviews with open ended questioning were conducted. Phenomenological data analysis was performed, which included the creation of meaning units, preliminary and then more detailed themes; ultimately five themes emanated from the data. These five themes include An Understanding of the Role of the School Counselor; Effective and ...


Effect Of Violating Unidimensional Item Response Theory Vertical Scaling Assumptions On Developmental Score Scales, Anna Marie Topczewski Jul 2013

Effect Of Violating Unidimensional Item Response Theory Vertical Scaling Assumptions On Developmental Score Scales, Anna Marie Topczewski

Theses and Dissertations

Developmental score scales represent the performance of students along a continuum, where as students learn more they move higher along that continuum. Unidimensional item response theory (UIRT) vertical scaling has become a commonly used method to create developmental score scales. Research has shown that UIRT vertical scaling methods can be inconsistent in estimating grade-to-grade growth, within-grade variability, and separation of grade distributions (effect size) of developmental score scale. In particular the finding of scale shrinkage (decreasing within-grade score variability as grade-level increases) has led to concerns about and criticism of IRT vertical scales. The causes of scale shrinkage have yet ...


Effects Of Motivating Operations On Academic Performance And Problem Behavior Maintained By Escape From Academic Tasks, Kelly Michele Schieltz Jul 2013

Effects Of Motivating Operations On Academic Performance And Problem Behavior Maintained By Escape From Academic Tasks, Kelly Michele Schieltz

Theses and Dissertations

At least three general subgroups of students display problems with their overall academic achievement: students with motivational deficits, students with academic performance deficits, and students with a combination of both types of deficits. The prevalence of students with both behavioral and learning problems has been reported to be between 10% and 25% and as high as 50%. The current study evaluated the effects of positive reinforcement and instructional strategies on the co-occurrence of motivational and academic deficits within three experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 were conducted with four school-aged children in a behavioral outpatient clinic. Experiment 3 was conducted with ...


Investigating The Shifts In Thai Teachers' Views Of Learning And Pedagogical Practices While Adopting An Argument-Based Inquiry Approach, Nattida Promyod Jul 2013

Investigating The Shifts In Thai Teachers' Views Of Learning And Pedagogical Practices While Adopting An Argument-Based Inquiry Approach, Nattida Promyod

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the shift of Thai teachers' views of learning and their pedagogical practices from the traditional approach to be more centered on an argument-based inquiry approach (ABI) in Thai classrooms, where teachers and learners have long been familiar with the lecture-based tradition. Other than examining the changes, the study further explored the relationship throughout the ABI implementation phase with a specific focus on driving questions, problem solving and reasoning, and establishing a supportive learning environment.

The study was conducted in Thailand with five physics teachers. Data collection involved classroom observations and teacher interviews ...


After The "Silent Epidemic": Marital Satisfaction In Long Term Spousal Caregivers Of Individuals With Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Joanna Lynn Arguello Jul 2013

After The "Silent Epidemic": Marital Satisfaction In Long Term Spousal Caregivers Of Individuals With Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Joanna Lynn Arguello

Theses and Dissertations

Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a pervasive and devastating condition, often resulting in permanent alterations in cognition, behavior, and personality. As such, survivors of severe TBI usually rely on the assistance of caregivers to navigate situations of daily living throughout their life span. Spouses of individuals with TBI have been shown to experience greater levels of burden than parental caregivers of TBI survivors (Kreutzer et al., 1994; Mauss-Clum & Ryan, 1981) and subsequently rates of divorce and separation have been documented within the research literature to be high (Thomsen, 1984; Wood et al., 2005). Although marital breakdown has been frequently studied, research on marital satisfaction and coping within long-term marriages where one spouse has survived a severe TBI remains insufficient.

The ...


The Effects Of Deep Approaches To Learning On Students' Need For Cognition Over Four Years Of College, Jui-Sheng Wang Jul 2013

The Effects Of Deep Approaches To Learning On Students' Need For Cognition Over Four Years Of College, Jui-Sheng Wang

Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the effect of deep approaches to learning on development of the inclination to inquire and lifelong learning over four years, as an essential graduated outcome that helps students face the challenges of a complex and rapidly changing world. Despite the importance of the inclination to inquire and lifelong learning, some literature has attempted to operationalize this concept in practical ways. In another limited line of studies, researchers explored how the education process and deep approaches to learning affected students' cognitive development among first-year undergraduates. This dissertation focuses on the ways that the process of deep approaches to ...


Artistic Development Among Young Children: Evaluating Identity, Confidence, And Ability In The Saturday Morning Art Workshops, Anna Elise Charles Jul 2013

Artistic Development Among Young Children: Evaluating Identity, Confidence, And Ability In The Saturday Morning Art Workshops, Anna Elise Charles

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate artistic development of young children enrolled in the comic class as part of the Saturday Morning art workshops. I wanted to understand whether the children's artistic identity, confidence and ability in the comic workshop increased over time.

Methods: I used a case study method to evaluate development among five participants, 9-10 year olds, in the comic workshop over seven weeks. I observed the children and interviewed them during the workshops, and I also evaluated the drawings they created in the workshop from the first and last weeks using a rubric ...


Improving Instructional Leadership Behaviors Of School Principals By Means Of Implementing Time Management Training Sessions, Yu Su Jul 2013

Improving Instructional Leadership Behaviors Of School Principals By Means Of Implementing Time Management Training Sessions, Yu Su

Theses and Dissertations

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001increases school accountability and requires educators to improve student academic outcomes using evidence-based practice. One factor that contributes to desirable school outcomes is principals' instructional leadership behaviors. Principals who allocate more time to instructional leadership behaviors are more likely to have a positive impact on student learning. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a time management intervention on instructional leadership behaviors of school principals. Based on my literature review, I found that several time management techniques may help leaders manage their time effectively, including delegating, scheduling, prioritizing, planning ...


Teacher Challenges, Perceptions, And Use Of Science Models In Middle School Classrooms About Climate, Weather, And Energy Concepts, Morgan Brown Yarker Jul 2013

Teacher Challenges, Perceptions, And Use Of Science Models In Middle School Classrooms About Climate, Weather, And Energy Concepts, Morgan Brown Yarker

Theses and Dissertations

Research suggests that scientific models and modeling should be topics covered in K-12 classrooms as part of a comprehensive science curriculum. It is especially important when talking about topics in weather and climate, where computer and forecast models are the center of attention. There are several approaches to model based inquiry, but it can be argued, theoretically, that science models can be effectively implemented into any approach to inquiry if they are utilized appropriately. Yet, it remains to be explored how science models are actually implemented in classrooms. This study qualitatively looks at three middle school science teachers' use of ...


Unequal Treatment Or Uneven Consequence: A Content Analysis Of Americans With Disabilities Act Title I Disparate Impact Cases From 1992 - 2012, Sara Pfister Johnston Jul 2013

Unequal Treatment Or Uneven Consequence: A Content Analysis Of Americans With Disabilities Act Title I Disparate Impact Cases From 1992 - 2012, Sara Pfister Johnston

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to examine the patterns and themes of litigation in Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) disability discrimination cases charged under the theory of disparate impact. Specifically, this study used Computer Assisted Legal Research (CALR) to identify and review all U.S. Appellate Court ADA disparate impact cases as reported by Westlaw, a commercial electronic case law reporting system owned by Thomson Reuters.

This study used a two-step, mixed methods approach to analyze the data relevant to the research questions and sub-questions. First, the researcher employed content analysis (Hall & Wright, 2008) to identify and characterize patterns and trends of litigation in all reported U.S. Appellate Court ADA cases charged under the theory of disparate impact from 1992 through 2012. Cases were analyzed chronologically, and variables included number of published and unpublished cases, distribution of jurisdiction, distribution of ADA titles, EEOC involvement, case fact patterns, and characteristics of charging and opposing parties. Frequency analyses were conducted on these data. Second, the researcher identified a subset of the ADA disparate impact cases analyzed in the first step: Title I, or employment discrimination cases. Qualitative analysis employing the constant comparative method (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) was used to identify and characterize patterns and themes of the judicial opinions in the Title I disparate impact cases. The researcher developed a framework for analysis based on a review of the literature of the sociopolitical perspective of disability to guide the analysis of the judicial opinions in the subset of disparate impact cases. The results of the frequency analyses conducted on these data revealed four trends: (a) Precedent, (b) Circuit and Judge Effects, (c) Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Successes, and (d) Sutton Case Effect. The results of the qualitative analysis of the text of the judicial opinions produced four themes and three relationships among the themes. The four themes were accommodation(s); workplace culture, norms, and policies; judicial process ...


Generative Community As A Regulative Ideal: The Moral Assessment Of Educational Aims And Of Educational Policies And Practices, Christopher Allen Peckover Jul 2013

Generative Community As A Regulative Ideal: The Moral Assessment Of Educational Aims And Of Educational Policies And Practices, Christopher Allen Peckover

Theses and Dissertations

The United States system of education is guided by broad underlying educational aims, whether or not those aims are critically examined or recognized. Contemporary educational discourse, however, has primarily focused on the level of implementation of policies and practices. This is a problem, because the broad underlying educational aims that guide the system of education have profound effects on humans' lives and the larger social structure. The question of what aims ought to guide education is a moral question that requires moral justification.

In this dissertation I develop the concept of Generative Community as a regulative ideal and use it ...


Development And Psychometric Validation Of The Perceived Classism Scales: Measures Of Perceived Social Class Discrimination, Jovan Omar Hernandez Jul 2013

Development And Psychometric Validation Of The Perceived Classism Scales: Measures Of Perceived Social Class Discrimination, Jovan Omar Hernandez

Theses and Dissertations

This paper discusses the development of the Perceived Classism Scales. Three separate studies were conducted to create and validate scales designed to measure Liu, Soleck, Hopps, Dunston, and Pickett's (2004) upward, downward, and lateral classism constructs in their Modern Classism Theory. An initial pool of 51-items was created to assess each of the three classism domains. Three hundred and three individuals participated in the first study, which consisted of an exploratory factor analysis of the 51 items. Results from the first study provided preliminary support for the measurement of two factors. The 51 items were pared down to two ...


Sociocultural Influences On Undergraduate Students' Conversations On Race At A Predominantly White Institution, Sherri Ivy Edvalson Jul 2013

Sociocultural Influences On Undergraduate Students' Conversations On Race At A Predominantly White Institution, Sherri Ivy Edvalson

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to analyze the sociocultural influences on dialogues about race of undergraduate students from various racial backgrounds at a Predominantly White Institution (PWI). This qualitative study included 16 undergraduate students from various racial backgrounds at a small, private university in the Midwest who participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. A data analysis addressed how the interplay of narratives and counter-narratives within dialogues on race revealed common themes within the framework of Critical Race Theory. Findings from the interview data suggest that race does not occur solely in the moment of a particular conversation or incidence ...