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On A Path Toward Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy: How Teachers Experience Race, Culture, Family, And Family Literacies In A Professional Development Course, Laura Elisabeth Szech May 2019

On A Path Toward Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy: How Teachers Experience Race, Culture, Family, And Family Literacies In A Professional Development Course, Laura Elisabeth Szech

Theses and Dissertations

Public schools teachers in the U.S. strive to reach the needs of all students in the elementary classroom. However, teachers are increasingly expected to follow standardized curriculum. Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy (Paris, 2012) pushes toward individualized educational practices and against the assimilationism embedded in standardization. This study considers the ways in which nine women-identified teachers, one Black, two Latina, six white, who teach elementary school in a Midwestern university town, experience, discuss, and implement Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy in a professional development course, specifically through the lens of the following question: In a course on culturally sustaining pedagogy, how do teachers ...


A Comparison Of Two Types Of Remote Performance Feedback On Treatment Integrity, Jing Zhu May 2019

A Comparison Of Two Types Of Remote Performance Feedback On Treatment Integrity, Jing Zhu

Theses and Dissertations

Treatment integrity has a direct impact on early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) outcomes for children with autism. Research suggests that providing feedback can improve treatment integrity in EIBI. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two remote feedback methods, videoconference feedback and email feedback, on treatment integrity. Participants included six teachers who were providing EIBI to children with autism in China. Using a single-case alternating treatment design, each feedback method was associated with a specific teaching procedure, either discrete trial training or incidental teaching. The teachers implemented the two teaching procedures daily but only received feedback ...


Effects Of Intervention On Handwriting Accuracy And Speed For Elementary Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Kristin Monroe Panos May 2019

Effects Of Intervention On Handwriting Accuracy And Speed For Elementary Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Kristin Monroe Panos

Theses and Dissertations

Elementary students who demonstrate accuracy and speed in handwriting are better equipped to generate higher quality, longer composition. Unfortunately, students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to encounter significant difficulties with legibility, size, and speed of handwriting. The present study used a single-subject, multiple-baseline design across participants to examine the effects of CASL (Center for Advancing Student Learning) Handwriting intervention on handwriting accuracy and speed for three early elementary students with ASD. The dependent variable was correct letter points (CLP) and error letter points (ELP) as measured on a 90-s sentence copy probe. The intervention was delivered over eighteen, 20-min ...


A Paragraph Text-Writing Intervention For Secondary Students With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities: A Single Case Design Study, Derek B. Rodgers May 2019

A Paragraph Text-Writing Intervention For Secondary Students With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities: A Single Case Design Study, Derek B. Rodgers

Theses and Dissertations

Written expression can be a critical skill for academic, vocational, and social pursuits. Unfortunately, research suggests that students with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) struggle to develop writing skills. Paragraph text-writing is a component of written expression and refers to constructing multiple sentences about a singular topic with appropriate capitalization, punctuation, and grammar. The present study investigated the effects of a multicomponent intervention of explicit instruction and timed practice on the paragraph text-writing skills of four secondary student with IDD. The study included four dependent measures (paragraph text-writing rubric, total words written, and correct and incorrect writing sequences) and used ...


Investigating The Instruction Of The Therapeutic Alliance In Speech-Language Pathology Clinical Education, Lauren Brown Jan 2019

Investigating The Instruction Of The Therapeutic Alliance In Speech-Language Pathology Clinical Education, Lauren Brown

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the instruction of the therapeutic alliance in the graduate education of future speech-language pathologists.

Method: Surveys were created for graduate student clinicians and supervising clinicians consisting of three Likert scale questions and open-ended questions. T-tests were performed on the scaled questions and the open-ended questions were analyzed with thematic analysis.

Results: Graduate student clinicians reported being taught the therapeutic alliance less than clinical supervisors reported teaching it. Both populations emphasized the bond as an important aspect of the alliance with less emphasis on collaboration on goals and tasks of therapy. Modalities ...


Using Video Modeling To Improve The Social Communication Of An Adolescent With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Rebecca Marie Hawbaker Dec 2018

Using Video Modeling To Improve The Social Communication Of An Adolescent With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Rebecca Marie Hawbaker

Theses and Dissertations

Difficulty with many aspects of social interactions is a defining characteristic of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Video modeling (VM) has successfully improved a range of social skills for individuals with ASD in previous studies, but most often with simple social skills with young children. The current study used VMs scripted and recorded by peers to improve complex conversation and social gestures by a young adult with ASD. A multiple-probe, across-behaviors design found mixed evidence of experimental control of VM on the social behaviors of the individual with ASD, although all behaviors increased from baseline and generalized to other settings and ...


The Effects Of Error Correction With And Without Reinforcement On Skill Acquisition And Preferences Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Chengan Yuan Aug 2018

The Effects Of Error Correction With And Without Reinforcement On Skill Acquisition And Preferences Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Chengan Yuan

Theses and Dissertations

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often require early intensive behavioral interventions (EIBI) to improve their skills in a variety of domains. Error correction is a common instructional component in EIBI programs because children with ASD tend to make persistent errors. Ineffective error correction can result in a lack of learning or undesirable behavior. To date, research has not systematically investigated the use of reinforcement during error correction for children with ASD.

This study compared the effects of correcting errors with and without reinforcement and their impact on preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Four boys with ...


Writing From Sources And Avoiding Plagiarism At A Us University: The Perspectives And Experiences Of Undergraduate Second Language Writers, Warren David Merkel Iii Aug 2018

Writing From Sources And Avoiding Plagiarism At A Us University: The Perspectives And Experiences Of Undergraduate Second Language Writers, Warren David Merkel Iii

Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative study was designed to explore undergraduate second language writers’ perceptions of and experiences with source-based writing and plagiarism. Grounded Theory (GT) was employed to systematically collect and analyze data throughout the study. By adopting Activity Theory (AT) as a theoretical framework, I was able to identify and analyze points of contradiction and tension that arose within the activity systems of my participants. The findings that emerged from GT showed that my participants were concerned with adapting to their new academic communities, and the L1 communities from whence they came played little to no role in hindering that adaptation ...


The Secondary Mathematics Experiences Of English Language Learners, Cristina Runnalls May 2018

The Secondary Mathematics Experiences Of English Language Learners, Cristina Runnalls

Theses and Dissertations

In recent decades, the landscape of the U.S. classroom has been drastically changing. Schools at every level are enrolling increasingly higher numbers of culturally and linguistically diverse learners, many in the process of learning English. These students, frequently called English language learners (ELLs), present new and unique challenges to educators. Many of these challenges concern language and the many ways it affects the educational experience. One concern of great interest involves better understanding the ways language and academic content interact. Language is a pivotal component of the learning experience, and likely to affect students’ perceptions of the classroom environment ...


A Case Study Of Artists From The Kansas City Schools Experiment, Andrea Kathleen Merello May 2018

A Case Study Of Artists From The Kansas City Schools Experiment, Andrea Kathleen Merello

Theses and Dissertations

The Kansas City School District was unable to attain accreditation from 1955 until 2016, enduring high dropout rates, exceptionally low college entrance rates, and poor performances on standardized tests. At the district’s fine arts school, students also experienced these low educational outcomes. But despite these educational setbacks, the fine arts training they received appears to have contributed to their successful long-term outcomes in adulthood. The purpose of this case study is to explore the factors that contributed to talent development and overall thriving among adult artists who attended the fine arts school in this low performing school district. The ...


A Survey Of Prek-12, University And Adult Online Language Educators’ Background, Experiences, Training And Challenges, Elizabeth Plummer May 2018

A Survey Of Prek-12, University And Adult Online Language Educators’ Background, Experiences, Training And Challenges, Elizabeth Plummer

Theses and Dissertations

This study focused on investigating the background, experiences, challenges and training of current online language teachers. An online survey was sent and completed by a total of 264 current online language teachers consisting of a total of 40 questions. Findings show online language teachers are highly experienced in face-to-face classrooms as reported by their years of experience and level of their advanced degrees but typically have less than five years of experience teaching online. They also teach in a variety of contexts including grade levels from early childhood education to adult education; in twenty different countries around the world; as ...


Planning To Co-Teach With Ell Teachers: How Discourse Positions Teachers Within Professional Learning Communities, Cindra K. Porter May 2018

Planning To Co-Teach With Ell Teachers: How Discourse Positions Teachers Within Professional Learning Communities, Cindra K. Porter

Theses and Dissertations

This purpose of this single case study was to describe the discursive practices of an ELL teacher and a general education teaching in a co-teaching PLC setting. With the increased use of co-teaching as an approach to English language development supports, it is vital to gain a better understanding of how teachers plan to support the academic learning of English learners, and what language they use in these interactions. This study implemented a qualitative research design based in grounded theory and positioning theory. The results of this study found that the discursive practices of co-teachers were based in the content ...


Discourses Of Adolescence In Interpretations And Responses To Literature, Jenna Spiering May 2018

Discourses Of Adolescence In Interpretations And Responses To Literature, Jenna Spiering

Theses and Dissertations

Discourses of adolescence/ts that reduce teenagers to impulsive, hormonal, incomplete adults are pervasive, and affect the way that adolescence/ts is regarded in institutional spaces like schools. However, scholars in Critical Youth Studies (CYS) reject these determinations in favor of a vision of adolescence as a social construct; a construct that has changed throughout time and does not accurately reflect the lived experiences of diverse youth. This study considers the way in which these discourses are mobilized and circulating in one English Language Arts (ELA) classroom and, specifically, through the study of literature. Grounded in empirical scholarship that approaches ...


Integrated Listening-To-Write Assessments: An Investigation Of Score Generalizability And Raters’ Decision-Making Processes, Renka Ohta May 2018

Integrated Listening-To-Write Assessments: An Investigation Of Score Generalizability And Raters’ Decision-Making Processes, Renka Ohta

Theses and Dissertations

In measuring second language learners’ writing proficiency, test takers’ performance on a particular assessment task is evaluated by raters using a set of criteria to generate writing scores. The scores are used by teachers, students, and parents to make inferences about their performance levels in real-life writing situations. To examine the accuracy of this inference, it is imperative that we investigate the sources of measurement error involved in the writing score. It is also important to ensure rater consistency, both within a single rater and between raters, to provide evidence that the scores are valid indicators of tested constructs.

This ...


Using Contingency Contracting To Improve Social Interactions Between Students With Asd And Their Peers, Abdullah Abdulmohsen Alwahbi Dec 2017

Using Contingency Contracting To Improve Social Interactions Between Students With Asd And Their Peers, Abdullah Abdulmohsen Alwahbi

Theses and Dissertations

Students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have severe impairment in social skills, which affects all areas of development. Researchers have indicated peer-mediated intervention (PMI) may improve social skills of children with ASD. PMI involves training carefully selected nondisabled peers to teach academic or social skills to students with disabilities using strategies such as modeling, prompting, and reinforcement in an inclusive education setting. However, a review of the literature suggests that PMI in and of itself may be beneficial, but not sufficient, to enhance social interaction among students with ASD and their peers. The literature suggests that incorporating components that encourage ...


Exploring Reading With A Small Group Of Fourth Grade Readers And Their Teachers Through Collaborative Retrospective Miscue Analysis, William Henry Poock May 2017

Exploring Reading With A Small Group Of Fourth Grade Readers And Their Teachers Through Collaborative Retrospective Miscue Analysis, William Henry Poock

Theses and Dissertations

Literacy educators hold different beliefs about the best approaches to teach students how to read and about the reading process including a skills view of reading and learning to read versus a transactional, sociopsycholinguistic view of reading and learning to read (Weaver, 2002). Reading for understanding is an important skill to develop in students to promote overall success (Keene, 2008). When orally reading, readers occasionally say something differently than what is printed—which is called a miscue. Goodman, Martens, and Flurkey (2014) defined a miscue as “any response during oral reading that differs from what a listener would expect to ...


Teachers' Use Of Reasoning-Based Questions In Procedural And Conceptual Lessons, Jessica L. Jensen May 2017

Teachers' Use Of Reasoning-Based Questions In Procedural And Conceptual Lessons, Jessica L. Jensen

Theses and Dissertations

Recent research shows that teachers’ level of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) and their beliefs about teaching and learning effect teaching practices and student achievement. Higher levels of MKT typically lead to more effective teaching abilities in terms of helping students make meaning of mathematical concepts, but beliefs seem to be a mediating factor in this relationship. One specific teaching practice that can help guide students through this meaning making is questioning. Although it is known that MKT and beliefs play an important role in outcomes of teacher practices, the effects of these factors on teachers’ ability to ask meaningful ...


English Language Education In Honduras: Opportunity, Adventure, Or Empire?, Kate Elizabeth Kedley May 2017

English Language Education In Honduras: Opportunity, Adventure, Or Empire?, Kate Elizabeth Kedley

Theses and Dissertations

Research suggests that teaching in international settings fosters professional growth and promotes tolerance for working in multicultural and linguistically diverse classrooms for U.S. teachers upon returning to the U.S. to work in schools. These studies portray teaching abroad as an unproblematic and neutral project, and narrowly focus on the benefit to the individual teacher during their temporary stay in a foreign country and when returning home to the U.S. Absent from these studies are two groups: 1) teachers from the U.S. who work in non-governmental organizations and private school settings abroad, but have no pedagogical training ...


Exploring Science And Mathematics Teachers' Fidelity Of Implementation Of Project Lead The Way Curriculum: A Case Study On How Teachers' Knowledge And Beliefs Influence Their Enactment Of The Curriculum, Mary Nyaema Dec 2016

Exploring Science And Mathematics Teachers' Fidelity Of Implementation Of Project Lead The Way Curriculum: A Case Study On How Teachers' Knowledge And Beliefs Influence Their Enactment Of The Curriculum, Mary Nyaema

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study aimed at gaining a better understanding of how the intended Project Lead the Way (PLTW) curriculum differs from the enacted curricula and what factors impact this. This understanding is important to make the professional development program more meaningful to the immediate needs of the teacher in the classroom. Identifying the factors that contribute to any emerging differences between the curricula helped fill the gap in research on teacher knowledge and beliefs about the use of science and mathematics content in the PLTW classroom. PLTW is an innovative hands-on pre-engineering curriculum designed for K-12 students based ...


Growth Mindset And Fluency In The Art Classroom, Heather Michele Seibel Dec 2016

Growth Mindset And Fluency In The Art Classroom, Heather Michele Seibel

Theses and Dissertations

This research explores the relationship between mindsets and divergent thinking skills. Specifically, the research questions sought to answer whether there was a positive association between a higher presence of divergent thinking skills and a creative growth mindset, as well as the impact environment has on creative growth. A total of 184 second and sixth grade students from a larger urban school district were surveyed. Data collection included: student surveys, two divergent thinking assessments, direct observation of the students and teacher notes. Results indicate most students identify with a creative growth mindset, but are lacking specific strategies to demonstrate creative growth ...


Foreign Language Teachers’ Technology Beliefs And Implementation Factors: A Mixed Methods Study, Brittany Ann Garling Aug 2016

Foreign Language Teachers’ Technology Beliefs And Implementation Factors: A Mixed Methods Study, Brittany Ann Garling

Theses and Dissertations

Using a mixed methods design this study investigates in-service K-12 foreign language teachers’ beliefs about technology and factors that influence its implementation in instruction. The study employs an Explanatory Design using a two-phase approach, where qualitative data is collected and analyzed to elaborate on the quantitative data results. A total of ninety-nine in-service K-12 foreign language teachers from across the state of Iowa responded to the Modified Technology Implementation Questionnaire about their technological beliefs and barriers to technology integration within classroom practices. The results of the instrument were tabulated using a hierarchical multiple regression to uncover factors impacting technology integration ...


Exploring Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Students’ Identities In An Afterschool Book Club, Yu-Chi Wang May 2016

Exploring Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Students’ Identities In An Afterschool Book Club, Yu-Chi Wang

Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative research aims to investigate identity positions of elementary school students with culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) background in an afterschool book club. The increasing population of CLD students and their learning needs have become a national focus in American schools. Scholars have highlighted that understanding students’ identity positions and their interactions in social communities benefits teaching practices (Norton, 2013). Although the number of studies investigating identity in language and literacy education is increasing, most focus on English language learners (ELLs) who are currently enrolled in English as a Second Language (ESL) or ELL programs and few examine these ...


The Effect Of Using A Tablet And A Meta-Cognitive Strategy To Improve Reading Comprehension Skills For Students With Sld, Saeed Saad S. Alqahtani May 2016

The Effect Of Using A Tablet And A Meta-Cognitive Strategy To Improve Reading Comprehension Skills For Students With Sld, Saeed Saad S. Alqahtani

Theses and Dissertations

Students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have difficulty with most reading skills, including reading comprehension (Hulme & Snowling, 2011). Improving reading comprehension skills requires efficient interventions that consider both meaning- and code-based skills simultaneously. Using a single-subject multiple-baseline design across participants, with alternating treatment design, this study compared two reading interventions (repeated reading vs. tablet text-to-speech) combined with a meta-cognitive strategy (question generation).

Three fourth-grade and third-grade students who had been diagnosed by their school as having reading difficulties (reading one to two grades behind their expected reading levels) participated in the study. Using the index of narrative complexity (Labov, 1973; Petersen, Gillam, & Gillam, 2008) as a major dependent variable, two participants showed improvement in reading comprehension skills as measured by visual analysis and the effect size between means. However, there were slight differences for the RAAC intervention over the tablet intervention for one participant. The time required to administer the tablet intervention was shorter than the time required to administer the RAAC intervention (an average of 12.73 minutes for the RAAC vs. 5.45 minutes for the tablet), which is an important consideration ...


Exploring Depth Of Vocabulary Knowledge Among Cfl Learners Of Higher Proficiency Levels, Tingting Chen May 2016

Exploring Depth Of Vocabulary Knowledge Among Cfl Learners Of Higher Proficiency Levels, Tingting Chen

Theses and Dissertations

L2 (second or foreign language) research indicates that vocabulary knowledge is not only the “single best predictor of text comprehension,” but also a strong indicator of listening, speaking, and writing proficiency (Alderson, 2000, p. 35). Understanding the development of vocabulary knowledge, including both vocabulary size and vocabulary depth, or quality of vocabulary knowledge—is therefore essential to the building of an overall insight into L2 proficiency.

This study aims to explore the developmental status of vocabulary depth among postsecondary CFL (Chinese as a foreign language) learners of higher proficiency levels who have studied Chinese for over four years. In particular ...


Intersecting Literacy Beliefs And Practices With Heritage And Non-Heritage Learners' Instruction: A Case Study Of A Novice Korean Language Instructor, Ho Jung Choi May 2016

Intersecting Literacy Beliefs And Practices With Heritage And Non-Heritage Learners' Instruction: A Case Study Of A Novice Korean Language Instructor, Ho Jung Choi

Theses and Dissertations

Many researchers have explored teachers’ beliefs in literacy and found that teachers’ literacy beliefs affect their instructional practices in foreign language (FL) or second language (SL) classrooms. Researchers have demonstrated that teachers’ literacy beliefs and instructional practices are generally consistent. There have been many studies regarding teachers’ literacy beliefs and classroom instruction in the context of FL/SL and more recent studies on teachers’ literacy beliefs presenting an increasing interest in heritage language (HL) such as Spanish and Chinese. However, less is known about Korean language teachers’ literacy beliefs and practices in the mixed classroom of heritage and non-­‐heritage ...


Productive Discomfort: A Case Study Of Service-Learning In A First-Year Composition Course, Heather Theresa Draxl May 2016

Productive Discomfort: A Case Study Of Service-Learning In A First-Year Composition Course, Heather Theresa Draxl

Theses and Dissertations

Service-learning is the combination of traditional teaching methods with field-based learning and critical reflection (Hurd, 2008) and is popular in first-year composition (Deans, 2001). However, academic research on service-learning in first-year composition is relatively scarce and the most frequently-cited scholarship is at least a decade old (Adler-Kassner, Crooks & Watters, 1997; Deans, 2001; Haussamen, 1997). This study seeks to contribute to the scholarship on service-learning in first-year composition by exploring how stakeholders, including the instructor, the students, and the community partner, perceive the project's purposes and outcomes. To complete the service-learning requirement for the course in this study, students conduct a bystander ...


Examining Teacher Epistemic Orientations Toward Teaching Science (Eots) And Its Relationship To Instructional Practices In Science, Jee Kyung Suh Jan 2016

Examining Teacher Epistemic Orientations Toward Teaching Science (Eots) And Its Relationship To Instructional Practices In Science, Jee Kyung Suh

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify essential features of Epistemic Orientation toward Teaching Science (EOTS) and to explore the relationships between EOTS and instructional practices. This study proposes a new concept, EOTS: defined as a teacher's set of interrelated beliefs that are developed and used when teaching science, and are shaped by the Nature of Knowing in General, the Nature of Knowing in Science, the Nature of Learning, and the Nature of Teaching. The essential elements of EOTS were identified through a comprehensive literature review and refined through a multiple-case study.

The participants of the study were ...


Talking Back: A Qualitative Study Of Reflective Writing In A First-Year College Composition Classroom, Mariah L. Steele Dec 2015

Talking Back: A Qualitative Study Of Reflective Writing In A First-Year College Composition Classroom, Mariah L. Steele

Theses and Dissertations

Though scholars have discussed how reflective writing can benefit students in college-level writing classes, little research has focused on students’ perceptions of this kind of writing. This study examines the curriculum of a particular first-year writing course, as well as student reflective writing that was created for the class. Research questions focus on how students used reflective writing to articulate their understandings of audience and academic discourse, two curricular concerns that tend to be prevalent in first-year writing courses. To answer these questions, I studied examples of student reflective essays, conducted interviews with eight students, and maintained researcher field notes ...


Effects Of An Ipad-Based Early Reading Intervention With Students With Complex Needs, Kristin Goodwin Lucas Dec 2015

Effects Of An Ipad-Based Early Reading Intervention With Students With Complex Needs, Kristin Goodwin Lucas

Theses and Dissertations

Early reading literacy is foundational to all other academic learning. It is imperative that elementary students with and without disabilities be provided with evidence-based reading instruction. Elementary students with developmental disabilities (DD) and complex communication needs (CCN) benefit from evidence-based reading instruction that incorporates individualized, explicit instruction and appropriate assistive technology. Research to identify evidence-based practices for students with DD and CCN is necessary to assist teachers to close the gap in overall achievement for this group of learners. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the early reading program Go Talk Phonics (Ahlgrim-Delzell, Browder, &Wood ...


Combining Quality And Curriculum-Based Measurement : A Suggested Assessment Protocol In Writing, Paula Ganzeveld Dec 2015

Combining Quality And Curriculum-Based Measurement : A Suggested Assessment Protocol In Writing, Paula Ganzeveld

Theses and Dissertations

Curriculum-Based Measures in writing (CBM-W) assesses a variety of fluency-based components of writing. While support exists for the use of CBM measures in the area of writing, there is a need to conduct further validation studies to investigate the utility of these measures within elementary and secondary classrooms. Since only countable indices are used in CBM-W, this study explored the possibility of using an assessment that measured writing quality in conjunction with the CBM metric. To accomplish this, three pieces of data were used in this study. The CBM metrics of total words written, words spelled correctly, correct word sequences ...