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The University of Southern Mississippi

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Moderating Effect Of Homeschooling On Retention And Academic Achievement Of Stem Majors At A Private, Faith-Based, Liberal Arts College, Aresia Watson May 2019

Moderating Effect Of Homeschooling On Retention And Academic Achievement Of Stem Majors At A Private, Faith-Based, Liberal Arts College, Aresia Watson

Dissertations

Previous research has indicated that homeschooling is a growing trend within the U.S. Previous research has also indicated that less than one half of students who begin a STEM major at postsecondary institutions will complete their degree. This study sought to look at the possible moderating effect homeschooling has on the academic achievement and retention of STEM majors at a private, faith-based liberal arts college using a modified version of Tinto’s Model of Student Departure.

Independent sample t-tests were used to compare means and intercorrelations of homeschooled students and traditionally schooled students in unmatched and matched samples for ...


Cultural Branding: An Examination Of Website Marketing Practices At Historically Black College And Universities And Non-Hbcu Black Serving Institutions, James Hudson Dec 2018

Cultural Branding: An Examination Of Website Marketing Practices At Historically Black College And Universities And Non-Hbcu Black Serving Institutions, James Hudson

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference between the way that higher education marketing professionals at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and non-HBCU Black Serving Institutions (BSIs) use website marketing techniques for institutional branding. This examination was prompted by Gasman (2007) who suggested that the inability of some HBCUs to garner and/or maintain sufficient enrollment numbers stems from poor image management. Further, Gibbs (2015) suggested that a comparison between HBCU websites and Traditionally White Institution (TWI) websites might be beneficial. Thus, this study sought to answer the following research questions:

RQ1. Is ...


Preparation Matters: A Quantitative Examination Of Faculty Active Shooter Preparedness, Latisha Pitts Dec 2018

Preparation Matters: A Quantitative Examination Of Faculty Active Shooter Preparedness, Latisha Pitts

Dissertations

In recent years, the occurrence of active shooter incidents has become more prevalent within the United States. Since the Virginia Tech massacre in 2007, there has been an increase in active shooter incidents at institutions of higher learning (IHLs). Educational settings have been identified by the FBI as the second most common place for active shooter incidents to occur. As a result, there has become an increased need for administrators at IHLs to create and maintain cultures of preparedness that include effective active shooter training. In this research study, Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory was used as a framework ...


Succession Planning For First-Year, P-12 Principals, Brannon Johnson Dec 2018

Succession Planning For First-Year, P-12 Principals, Brannon Johnson

Dissertations

In order to improve retention of first-year principals, all schools should have a leadership succession plan for first-year, P-12 principals to help improve principal effectiveness and retention (Fink & Brayman, 2006). Russell and Sabina (2014) defined succession planning as the explicit design and implementation of programs to identify and develop high-quality principal candidates. Further, succession planning is about ensuring that the next set of leaders is trained and poised to take on leadership responsibilities when needed (Beaulieu, n. d.).

It is clear that the challenges of being a principal are great, and that this is especially true during the early stages of a principal’s career. Multiple research studies have been conducted regarding first-year principals’ retention (Rivera-McCuthchen, 2014). As a result, factors such as ineffective mentoring, lack of support by staff members and district office personnel, little to no administrative internships, and ineffective preparation in university principalship programs have been identified. However, little to no research has been done regarding succession planning among first-year, P-12 principals. Additionally, extensive research pertaining to succession planning has been done in the business sector, but not the education sector (Russell & Sabina, 2014).

The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the succession planning process when used for first-year, P-12 principals. This study sought information regarding how transparent the succession planning process was, how widespread succession planning was, and whether it was a genuine process or merely a formality. The theoretical framework that guided this study regarded situational leadership theory. Additionally, the following research questions guided the study: (a) How do first-year principals describe their experiences in participating in the succession planning program?, (b) What were the benefits, if any, they experienced in the succession planning program?, and (c) What, if any, negative experiences do they describe as a result of participating in the succession planning program?

The researcher interviewed ten participants in person. Six participants were first-year principals, three were assistant superintendents, and one was a superintendent. In order to answer the research questions, a basic qualitative design was used in this study, and the methods of inquiry for this phenomenological approach were semi-structured interviews, transcriptions, and field notes.

After data collection and analysis, the following themes were found: (a) Succession Planning – What’s That?; (b) Grooming One’s Own; (c) A Leadership Pipeline: A Process; (d) From Instructional Literacy Coaches (Lead Teachers) to Principals; (e) The Presence/Absence of Instructional Literacy Coaches; (f) Three Years of Experience – A Minimum Preference/Requirement for the Principalship; (g) Good Ole’ Boy System; (h) Instructional Leadership; and (i) Situational Leadership.


Developing Cultural Competency In Anesthesia Through Student Registered Nurse Anesthetists, Emma To Dec 2018

Developing Cultural Competency In Anesthesia Through Student Registered Nurse Anesthetists, Emma To

Doctoral Projects

Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) are the main anesthesia providers in over 70% of rural hospitals providing anesthesia. Each year, over 2,000 student registered nurse anesthetists (SRNAs) graduate and continue as licensed CRNAs. This Doctor of Nurse Practice (DNP) project emphasizes the importance of developing culturally competent providers in anesthesia by promoting early outreach in cultural competence education of SRNAs. Cultural competence is described as possessing characteristics of congruent attitudes, awareness, and conduct that provides and enables effective skills in cross-cultural encounters. Encompassing cultural competency education early in the SRNAs profession may provide valuable lifelong cultural skills that will ...


Voluntary Professional Development In Thailand: Teachers’ Motivation, Professional Life Phase, And Contingencies Of Self-Worth, Pongwat Fongkanta Oct 2018

Voluntary Professional Development In Thailand: Teachers’ Motivation, Professional Life Phase, And Contingencies Of Self-Worth, Pongwat Fongkanta

Dissertations

To address the increasing focus on teacher proficiency, professional development opportunities for teachers are routinely provided in Thailand. The focus of this work is on professional development at the individual level and addresses teachers’ motivation for self-improvement and their own worth. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to first validate the relative importance of teachers’ motivation for participating in voluntary professional development and contingencies of self-worth. Secondly, the study sought to determine the relationship of the indicators that contribute to teacher participation with contingencies of self-worth. Lastly, this study examined in what way professional life phase may be related ...


An Examination Of The Relationships Among Organizational Support, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, And Engagement In Data-Driven Decision-Making, Kristal Pollard Aug 2018

An Examination Of The Relationships Among Organizational Support, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, And Engagement In Data-Driven Decision-Making, Kristal Pollard

Dissertations

A culture of accountability in K-12 education has created demand for teachers and administrators to closely examine student performance on assessments. A number of schools have embraced data-driven decision-making as an approach to meeting this need. Data-driven decision-making refers to the systematic process of collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and making instructional decisions based on data (Schildkamp & Kuiper, 2009; Mandinach, 2012). Generally, educators analyze data collected on assessments at the classroom level and on benchmark or interim assessments at the school-wide level. However, teachers generally feel unprepared to engage in data-driven decision-making. Few studies have examined the psychological aspect of engagement in data-driven decision-making ...


The Influence Of An Electronic Attendance Monitoring System On Undergraduate Academic Success, Charles Childress Aug 2018

The Influence Of An Electronic Attendance Monitoring System On Undergraduate Academic Success, Charles Childress

Dissertations

Investing in human capital development increases education levels, workplace skills, and boost individual abilities. Undergraduate students who attend class and perform well are more likely to get jobs, due to their development of workplace skills. State governments, as the funding bodies for public universities, are finding it beneficial to increase the number of college graduates because a citizenry that is prepared for the job market is ultimately good for the state. States recognize that an increase in education can produce job opportunities for citizens. University administrators can employ tactics to increase graduation rates, one of which is monitoring students’ class ...


The Moderating Effect Of Prior Principal Athletic Coaching Experience On The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership And Teacher Organizational Citizenship Behavior In Secondary Schools In Mississippi, Jeff White Jul 2018

The Moderating Effect Of Prior Principal Athletic Coaching Experience On The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership And Teacher Organizational Citizenship Behavior In Secondary Schools In Mississippi, Jeff White

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine transformational leadership practices of principals and the relationship of these practices and teacher organizational citizenship behavior. A secondary purpose of this study was to determine if prior athletic coaching experience served as a moderator between school leadership practices and teacher organizational citizenship behavior. Twenty-seven secondary schools participated in the study, while the head principal of each school served as the administrative representative being nested within the respective school. Secondary school teachers (n=908) completed the Leadership Practices Inventory and the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. Secondary school principals (n=27) responded to the ...


The Influence Of The Educational Environment On College Student Activity Behaviors, Helen M. Ziegler Jul 2018

The Influence Of The Educational Environment On College Student Activity Behaviors, Helen M. Ziegler

Dissertations

Healthy Campus 2020, an initiative that provides a framework to support campuses in improving the health of their students, staff, and faculty, recognizes physical activity as one of the top eleven priorities for positively influencing health risk behaviors in college populations (American College Health Association, 2012). However, there is not much research to support the best way to influence physical activity behaviors and what types of programs and facilities can provide the greatest impact. The purpose of this study was to investigate which components or programs within the higher education environment have the greatest influence on college students’ intention to ...


The Effect Of An Historical Geology Course On Students’ Attitudes Towards Science And Their Knowledge Of Deep Time As A Threshold To Their Knowledge Of Evolution, Allan Nolan Jul 2018

The Effect Of An Historical Geology Course On Students’ Attitudes Towards Science And Their Knowledge Of Deep Time As A Threshold To Their Knowledge Of Evolution, Allan Nolan

Dissertations

In America there exists a conflict between a small group of its citizens and the concept of evolution. Researchers have studied this conflict and the ways in which teachers might approach educational methodologies that not only address evolution in a sensitive manner, but also remain legally acceptable.

This research was designed to address teaching evolution in the context of deep time – the concept that time is vast and that geology and biology operate in a timescale of hundreds of millions to billions of years. In previous peer-reviewed works, it has been stated that deep time acts as a threshold concept ...


A Study Of The Protective Factors That Foster Resilience In Teachers, Zundra Gates Jul 2018

A Study Of The Protective Factors That Foster Resilience In Teachers, Zundra Gates

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to compare the protective factors of teachers in various fields: discipline, tested and non-tested subject areas, and teacher certification route. The study involved 161 kindergarten to twelfth grade Mississippi teachers who were full-time during the 2016-2017 school year. The 36-item Resiliency Questionnaire was used to measure the presence of six protective factors. The six protective factors that were examined on the questionnaire are: purpose and expectation (PE), nurture and support (NS), positive connections (PC), meaningful participation (MP), life guiding skills (LGS), and clear and consistent boundaries (CCB). A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) test ...


K-12 Teachers' Beliefs On The Impact Of Corporal Punishment On Students' Academic Performance, Robert Sanders May 2018

K-12 Teachers' Beliefs On The Impact Of Corporal Punishment On Students' Academic Performance, Robert Sanders

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to take a closer look into the perceptions of K-12 teachers on the impact of corporal punishment on students’ academic performance. The qualative data from this study was gained through a survey administered to K-12 teachers from schools in the state of Mississippi that allow corporal punishment and schools that do not allow corporal punishment. The survey was administered to the volunteers after their staff meetings or Professional Learning Communities. The researcher read a brief statement to the participants and collected the surveys after they completed them. Mississippi is one of the states that ...


A Profile Of Selected Conservatorships In Failing Mississippi School Districts, Josh Jones May 2018

A Profile Of Selected Conservatorships In Failing Mississippi School Districts, Josh Jones

Dissertations

N/A


Exploring Issues Of Diversity Experiences In Student Organizations Sponsored By The University Of Southern Mississippi, Cornelia Welch-Dick May 2018

Exploring Issues Of Diversity Experiences In Student Organizations Sponsored By The University Of Southern Mississippi, Cornelia Welch-Dick

Honors Theses

Colleges and universities are becoming increasingly racially/ethnically diverse. Previous studies have noted that an increase in racial/ethnic diversity has positive outcomes for minority and majority groups. Additional research supports that positive diversity experiences in student organizations have benefits for college students (Kuk & Banning, 2010; Cheng & Zhao, 2007; Antonio, 2001). While the benefits of increased diversity are clear, no previous study was found to have looked at diversity experiences at USM or more specifically, USM’s student organizations. The current study examined the degree to which leaders of each organization perceived experiences of diversity as positive compared to the members’ perception of diversity ...


Benefits Of Veterans’ Oral History On Gifted Students, Katelyn Watkins May 2018

Benefits Of Veterans’ Oral History On Gifted Students, Katelyn Watkins

Honors Theses

To combat boredom and negative sentiments, all students need to be provided with engaging experiences in history. This is especially the case with gifted students. One strategy that has proven beneficial to students is oral history, which brings people who have lived through history into the classroom. Research supports the use of oral history in the classroom; however, research on the benefits of veterans’ oral histories on gifted students in particular is scarce. This study describes research on how a veteran’s oral history might benefit gifted students. Qualitative research methods consisting of case study and narrative research were used ...


Consciously Becoming Black: A Phenomenological Exploration Of Black Sub-Saharan African International Students' Racial Identity Development At Historically Black Colleges And Universities In The American South, Tanyaradzwa Chipo Mandishona Apr 2018

Consciously Becoming Black: A Phenomenological Exploration Of Black Sub-Saharan African International Students' Racial Identity Development At Historically Black Colleges And Universities In The American South, Tanyaradzwa Chipo Mandishona

Dissertations

Research about the experiences of Black international students studying in the United States is limited and often grouped with the experiences of all international students. While all international students share similar experiences and difficulties adjusting to their lives in the United States, Black international students have a unique experience based on their race and the historical connection they share with their Black American peers. Many Black sub-Saharan African international students are raised in countries where race is not a significant identity and therefore do not view race as significant part of their identity. However, race is a salient part of ...


Barriers And Enablers To Native American Persistence In Higher Education Programs: Narratives From Mississippi Band Of Choctaw Indians, Bianca J. York-Crockett Apr 2018

Barriers And Enablers To Native American Persistence In Higher Education Programs: Narratives From Mississippi Band Of Choctaw Indians, Bianca J. York-Crockett

Dissertations

According to data from the U. S. Census Bureau (2016), Native Americans have the lowest postsecondary education completion rate (13.8%) among all racial and ethnic groups in the United States; and simultaneously, Native Americans had the second highest unemployment rate among all ethnic groups. A positive and direct correlation exists between a community’s economic growth and the attainment of higher education by members within that community (Becker, 1994; Fann, 2009). Though 567 federally recognized tribes exist in the United States, this research study focuses on one tribe, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians (MBCI). The national postsecondary six-year ...


Teachers' Confidence And Preparedness For Teaching Mobile Learners, Kelley Kirk Gonzales Apr 2018

Teachers' Confidence And Preparedness For Teaching Mobile Learners, Kelley Kirk Gonzales

Dissertations

Mobile devices, such as tablets, laptops, and Smart phones have changed the landscape of education requiring teachers to integrate technology in the classroom. The integration of mobile devices in the classroom is referred to as mobile learning, and requires teachers to be confident and prepared in their ability to teach mobile learners. This study was an attempt to explore and examine teachers’ confidence and preparedness in teaching mobile learners and close some of the gaps in the research. A quantitative method of investigation and analysis was used for this study to draw conclusions relative not only to teachers’ confidence and ...


Mississippi Choices And The Influence Of Career And Technical Education, Charish Rene Pierce, Charish Rene Pierce, Charish Pierce Dec 2017

Mississippi Choices And The Influence Of Career And Technical Education, Charish Rene Pierce, Charish Rene Pierce, Charish Pierce

Dissertations

Mississippi counselors serve in a variety of roles in order to meet the needs of all students. The role of the school counselor is to execute efforts to address each student’s academic, personal/social, and career development needs (ASCA, 2005). Middle and high school counselors are often tasked with activities that do not align with national and state standards for school counseling. Thus, these activities generate very little time for activities such as the Choices program and career development.

This study examined the middle and high school counselors’ usage of the Choices program. In addition, the research study explored ...


The Influence Of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy In Mississippi Public Schools To Improve Adolescent African American Males' Literacy Achievement, Shawnese Davis Dec 2017

The Influence Of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy In Mississippi Public Schools To Improve Adolescent African American Males' Literacy Achievement, Shawnese Davis

Dissertations

This study used a quantitative approach to measure Mississippi secondary teachers’ understanding and their extent of using culturally relevant pedagogy to increase students’ literacy performance, specifically African American males. The researcher identified school districts with 50% or more African American students. The data collected in this study was used to compare reading high growth (40%) school teachers’ use of culturally relevant pedagogical teaching approaches to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in their understanding and frequency of using culturally relevant pedagogy to increase students’ reading performance. A 38-statement survey instrument was adapted from McKinley’s Strategies and Behaviors ...


Teachers Appraisal Of Their Relationship With Instructional Coaches And Interpretation Of The Instructional Coaches Role, Sandra Lawson Higgins Dec 2017

Teachers Appraisal Of Their Relationship With Instructional Coaches And Interpretation Of The Instructional Coaches Role, Sandra Lawson Higgins

Dissertations

The need for high quality teachers has increased over the past years with the new mandates for college and career ready students. School administrators are providing job-embedded professional development to ensure quality teaching is taking place in classrooms. Instructional coaching is a form of job-embedded professional development that is being used to offer an opportunity with support for teachers to implement best learning practices into their classroom teaching.

This quantitative non-experimental research study used survey methodology to collect data from the two districts that participated. This study involved asking teachers to report if the relationship between the coach and the ...


Institution-Specific Music And Sense Of Belonging Of Undergraduate College Students, Jousha Berthelot Dec 2017

Institution-Specific Music And Sense Of Belonging Of Undergraduate College Students, Jousha Berthelot

Dissertations

Institution-specific music is any song or piece of music which is performed by a college or university ensemble such as a marching band, basketball pep band, orchestra, or choir and conveys college/university traditions, arouses enthusiasm and emotions, inspires school spirit, and promotes unity within the college community (Studwell, 1995; Studwell & Schueneman, 2013). Places where one can hear institution-specific music are pep rallies, athletic events, and ceremonies such as commencement. Research that has been conducted in the past has focused on those performing in an ensemble setting (Kokotsaki & Hallum, 2007, 2011). This study looked to better understand how hearing institution-specific ...


The Efficacy Of A Goal-Based Study Skills Course For Academically At-Risk, First-Generation, African American, Female Students, Sarah Beth Garrison Dec 2017

The Efficacy Of A Goal-Based Study Skills Course For Academically At-Risk, First-Generation, African American, Female Students, Sarah Beth Garrison

Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to identify effective intervention strategies used in a goal-based study skills course for academically at-risk, first-generation, African-American, female students. Based on the theoretical framework from goal, motivation and achievement theories (Covington, 2000; Kuh, 2007; Nicholls, 1984), this study provided an analysis of research regarding the academic success and persistence of at-risk students. An explanatory mixed-method design was employed that consisted of two phases. The first phase of the study used quantitative data to test for difference in GPA and academic status between the control and treatment group. Quantitative data was also used to identify ...


A Mixed Methods Exploration Of Black Presidents Appointed To Predominantly White Institutions: Assessing Their Exposure To The Glass Cliff And Experiences As Administrators Of Color, Melandie Katrice Mcgee Dec 2017

A Mixed Methods Exploration Of Black Presidents Appointed To Predominantly White Institutions: Assessing Their Exposure To The Glass Cliff And Experiences As Administrators Of Color, Melandie Katrice Mcgee

Dissertations

Leadership studies have infrequently addressed the diversity of leaders. Moreover, little is known about the experiences of Black presidents serving at predominantly White institutions (PWIs). The present study was conceptualized using the glass cliff framework which posits that women and racial minorities are more often promoted to precarious leadership positions than are White males. Examined through a lens of race and leadership, the goals of this study were to: (1) assess whether there were observable differences in the prevalence and magnitude of adverse conditions surrounding the appointments of Black and White presidents at PWIs; and (2) gain an understanding of ...


Examining The Perceived Influence Of A Comprehensive Youth Development Program For Promoting Black Male High School Persistence, Richard Gray Walker Dec 2017

Examining The Perceived Influence Of A Comprehensive Youth Development Program For Promoting Black Male High School Persistence, Richard Gray Walker

Dissertations

Black male youth in the United States drop out of high school at a rate consistently higher than their White counterparts. A lack of academic persistence contributes to lower workforce participation rates among Black Americans, which leads to lower national productivity and unrealized personal prosperity. Youth development research has developed an extensive body of knowledge regarding possible causes and contributing factors of minority high school dropout. Literature shows youth experience higher dropout rates when they grow up in adversity. Adversity risks such as dysfunctional families, cultural discontinuity between home and school, dysfunctional neighborhoods, or low-expectations from teachers contribute to graduation ...


Perceived Ideal Traits Of A Mentor As Viewed By African American Students In Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics, Mary L. Smith Dec 2017

Perceived Ideal Traits Of A Mentor As Viewed By African American Students In Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics, Mary L. Smith

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine undergraduate students majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math disciplines perception of traits an ideal mentor should possess, and to determine if these traits had positive results on their identification with science. With a large number of workers in STEM disciplines retiring, there is a projected need for more underrepresented minorities to fill these positions. In order to increase diversity in the workforce, efforts must be made to retain underrepresented minorities in STEM education beginning at the undergraduate level and continuing throughout the graduate level. This intervention should begin as early as ...


The Influence Of Technology Usage On Academic Achievement (Reading And Math) From A Teacher's Perspective, Kimberly L. White-Harris Oct 2017

The Influence Of Technology Usage On Academic Achievement (Reading And Math) From A Teacher's Perspective, Kimberly L. White-Harris

Dissertations

ABSTRACT

THE INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGY USAGE ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT (READING AND MATH) FROM A TEACHER'S PERSPECTIVE

by Kimberly L. White-Harris

December 2017

The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of technology implementation of middle school teachers in one of the largest school districts in Alabama. This study examined if the use of technology had a positive influence on students’ academic performance (reading and mathematics). Although several other studies are equivalent to this study, there are portions that are limited simply because of the study’s relevance and state mandated variables. However, this study does study supported ...


Short-Term Memory Capacity And Recall Of Students With And Without Intellectual Giftedness: An Empirical Inquiry, Angela Foil Ellison Oct 2017

Short-Term Memory Capacity And Recall Of Students With And Without Intellectual Giftedness: An Empirical Inquiry, Angela Foil Ellison

Dissertations

The goal of this research is to examine the differences of short-term memory capacity between intellectually gifted, general education, and students receiving special education services. Using foundations in memory and recall research by Atkinson and Shiffrin and Baddeley and Hitch, data was collected by replication of a previous serial position effect research design. Participants were children in grades four through six located in the southern portion of the United States. An ANOVA analysis found a statistical significance between students receiving special education and general education and gifted students. A failure to reject of the null hypothesis supported that short-term memory ...


Local Workforce Development Boards: Alignment With Operational Indicators And Behavioral Characteristics, Sharon Humphreys Johnson Aug 2017

Local Workforce Development Boards: Alignment With Operational Indicators And Behavioral Characteristics, Sharon Humphreys Johnson

Dissertations

The ability of a region to remain competitively viable is dependent upon attracting new business and retaining existing businesses (Good & Strong, 2015). In many instances, regional growth depends on the workforce and the region’s ability to develop a talent pipeline of existing or accessible workers (Blakely & Leigh, 2010). The passage of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) increases the expectations of local workforce board leadership. The WIOA vision for Local Workforce Development Boards (LWDB) is to serve as strategic leaders and act as conveners of regional workforce system partners, stakeholders, and businesses to develop new structures for working with regional economies, and engaging stakeholders to jointly lead the regional workforce system (Copus et al., 2014; Innovation and Opportunity Network, 2016).

This study examined how LWDBs align with exemplary LWDB operational indicators and effective nonprofit board behavioral characteristics, as perceived by LWDB members. In addition to LWDB member perceptions, private and public sector board member perceptions were compared to determine differences in perceptions between the two governing groups. A non-experimental, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the research objectives. Purposive, expert, non-probability sampling was used to identify a finite population of LWDB members. A census ...