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Portland State University

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Relationship Between Empathy And Language Proficiency In Adult Language Learners, Mika Sakai Aug 2019

Relationship Between Empathy And Language Proficiency In Adult Language Learners, Mika Sakai

Dissertations and Theses

This study reviews concepts and the mechanism of empathy, and the relationship between empathy and language proficiency, focusing on the aspect of cognitive empathy. It also discusses whether empathy levels could be developed by learning language to a highly proficient level. I compared the empathy levels between high and low proficiency second-language learners to determine if there was correlation between empathy and other factors such as gender, studying abroad, education background, and usage of a second language. I found that there was no relationship between empathy level and language proficiency level; however, there was one between empathy and gender. For ...


Early Intervention Referral Outcomes For Children At Increased Risk Of Experiencing Developmental Delays, Kristi Laurine Atkins Aug 2019

Early Intervention Referral Outcomes For Children At Increased Risk Of Experiencing Developmental Delays, Kristi Laurine Atkins

Dissertations and Theses

Research has shown that children born low birth weight (i.e., ≤2500 grams) and/or premature (i.e., birth prior to 37 weeks gestation) are at increased risk of experiencing developmental delays, as well as long-standing executive functioning and academic challenges. Despite these well-known risks, children born low birth weight are under-enrolled nationally in Part C Early Intervention (EI) services intended to support developmentally vulnerable children. Little is known regarding why EI enrollment is low in this high risk population, especially given children born LBW are readily identifiable as at increased risk of delays at birth. This study explored EI ...


Engaging In A Rural Deaf Community Of Practice, Kara Gournaris Aug 2019

Engaging In A Rural Deaf Community Of Practice, Kara Gournaris

Dissertations and Theses

The number of students taking American Sign Language (ASL) at the post-secondary level continues to increase as more Deaf-related graduate programs and employment settings require fluent ASL skills. Western Oregon University (WOU) is one of the few existing programs in the United States that offers four years of ASL instruction; however, as a rural university it has limited access to a Deaf community. The problem of practice is that students often have little exposure to rich language models who are fluent in ASL, which impacts their legitimate peripheral participation (LPP) in the local Deaf communities of practice (CoPs) and reduces ...


Architectural And Philosophical 'Makerspace' Redesign Impact On Teacher Beliefs And Practices: A Case Study, Rurik-Rory James Nackerud Aug 2019

Architectural And Philosophical 'Makerspace' Redesign Impact On Teacher Beliefs And Practices: A Case Study, Rurik-Rory James Nackerud

Dissertations and Theses

Current jobs in a global economy require more complex cognitive skills, such as critical thinking, cooperation, creativity, and collaboration, in addition to content knowledge. To address these areas, researchers have suggested the use of a 'makerspace' in schools. As with many other establishments, my school remodeled the primary school to create a makerspace for developing these skills. What impact might a makerspace -- a physical as well as a curricular change -- have on teachers' individual and collaborative learning? The purpose of this case study was to describe how the makerspace concept and changes to classroom or instructional space influence teachers' beliefs ...


Examining The Development And Classroom Dynamics Of Student Disaffection Over Multiple Time Periods: Short-Term Episodes And Long-Term Trajectories, Emily Anne Saxton Jun 2019

Examining The Development And Classroom Dynamics Of Student Disaffection Over Multiple Time Periods: Short-Term Episodes And Long-Term Trajectories, Emily Anne Saxton

Dissertations and Theses

Student disaffection, a pervasive problem in middle school classrooms, is costly not only for disaffected students themselves (e.g., declines in GPA, high school drop out) but also for their teachers (e.g., stress-related health outcomes). Despite its importance, however, open questions remain regarding both the development of disaffection during early adolescence and the classroom dynamics that underlie changes in disaffection. This dissertation includes two free-standing manuscripts that explore these open questions regarding the development and classroom dynamics of disaffection. Each focuses on different developmental time scales and employs different methodological approaches to examine these important, but unanswered questions.

Drawing ...


Next Generation Science Standards And Physics First: A Case Study Of High School Teachers' Beliefs And Practices, Stephen Godfrey Scannell Jun 2019

Next Generation Science Standards And Physics First: A Case Study Of High School Teachers' Beliefs And Practices, Stephen Godfrey Scannell

Dissertations and Theses

This dissertation is a case study of a school district in the Pacific Northwest that developed three-year high school science curricula using a Physics First course sequence (Physics, Chemistry, Biology), with the crosscutting concept Patterns as the central theme of the courses. The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of the implementation of the 9th grade course, Patterns Physics, on teacher practice and beliefs about science teaching and determine whether this new approach facilitated teacher classroom practices and beliefs congruent with those expressed in A Framework for K-12 Science Education (NRC, 2012) and the Next Generation Science ...


"It's All Because I Like The Person That's Teaching Me": Masculinities, Engagement, And Caring Relationships In Secondary Schools, Cristy Lauren Weggelaar Jun 2019

"It's All Because I Like The Person That's Teaching Me": Masculinities, Engagement, And Caring Relationships In Secondary Schools, Cristy Lauren Weggelaar

Dissertations and Theses

U.S. schools face a well-documented gender gap within some important educational and social indicators. In the United States, boys and young men are significantly more likely than girls and young women to be diagnosed with a learning disability, leave high school without a diploma, receive failing grades in core classes, and be suspended or expelled from school. This study uses an interpretive research framework to investigate the relationship between this gender gap in education and constructions of masculinity, social and cultural capital, agency, caring and resistance in secondary schools. Data collected through interviews with young men who engaged in ...


Learning From Culturally Specific Programs And Their Impact On Latino Parent Engagement, Analucia Lopezrevoredo Jun 2019

Learning From Culturally Specific Programs And Their Impact On Latino Parent Engagement, Analucia Lopezrevoredo

Dissertations and Theses

Latinos are the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority group in the United States. Academically, they are significantly trailing their non-Latino peers in graduation and overall educational attainment. Among many socioeconomic factors, parent engagement has been identified as being a defining indicator of student success. Reflective of racial and class disparities, this study explored with the use of critical race and intersectionality theory, that low Latino parent engagement is a result of the historical devaluing and omission of Latino culture, history and language from formal academic settings, and compounding social factors that make engagement complex for Latino immigrants in America ...


Impact Of Professional Development On Accessible Early Literacy Content For Preschool Children With Disabilities In Public Library Storytime, Melissa Pebly May 2019

Impact Of Professional Development On Accessible Early Literacy Content For Preschool Children With Disabilities In Public Library Storytime, Melissa Pebly

Dissertations and Theses

Library storytime programs provide opportunities for preschool children to develop readiness skills in early literacy that are linked in research to later success in learning to read and write. Children with disabilities that do not demonstrate school readiness skills upon entry to kindergarten are often placed in self-contained special education settings where opportunities to learn to read and write are diminished. English Language Learners (ELL) who have disabilities face additional challenges in benefiting from the models of language that are optimal for learning literacy when placed in self-contained settings. Despite the critical role that storytime programs play in equalizing the ...


Simultaneous Bilingual Middle School Students Becoming Biliterate: What Do Students Think About Their Biliteracy As Taught Through The "Bridge" Strategy In A Humanities Dual Language/Immersion Class?, Alma Lucinda Diaz-Philipp May 2019

Simultaneous Bilingual Middle School Students Becoming Biliterate: What Do Students Think About Their Biliteracy As Taught Through The "Bridge" Strategy In A Humanities Dual Language/Immersion Class?, Alma Lucinda Diaz-Philipp

Dissertations and Theses

In response to the increasing number of United States school students from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds at all grade levels, often called "simultaneous bilinguals," the U.S. school districts are opening schools that offer bilingual instruction. One instructional strategy that seems promising is the "Bridge," where students contrast and connect the literacy skills learned in one language to the literacy skills in their other language. An underlying component of learning a language is student attitude and motivation to learn. Research also seems to indicate that student attitude and motivation toward biliteracy can affect their achievement. There seems to be ...


Gentrification And Student Achievement: A Quantitative Analysis Of Student Performance On Standardized Tests In Portland's Gentrifying Neighborhoods, Justin Joseph Ward Apr 2019

Gentrification And Student Achievement: A Quantitative Analysis Of Student Performance On Standardized Tests In Portland's Gentrifying Neighborhoods, Justin Joseph Ward

Dissertations and Theses

Across the United States one would be hard pressed to find an urban center that has been unaffected by the phenomenon known as gentrification. From substantial economic growth to the displacement of long-term residents, the benefits and criticisms of the process of gentrification are wide ranging and extend over a thorough body of literature. Commonly associated with increasing levels of education and higher resident incomes, gentrification should be a boon to struggling public schools that are continually plagued by generational poverty. Unfortunately, the continued widening of the education gap and increasing racial segregation in our public schools suggest that any ...


The Role Of Teacher Autonomy Support Across The Transition To Middle School: Its Components, Reach, And Developmental Effects, Julia Sara Dancis Jan 2019

The Role Of Teacher Autonomy Support Across The Transition To Middle School: Its Components, Reach, And Developmental Effects, Julia Sara Dancis

Dissertations and Theses

Building upon self-determination theory, this study sought to ascertain the reach of teacher autonomy support beyond its well-documented impact on student autonomy and engagement to include student competence and relatedness, as well as to parse apart specific teacher behaviors that comprise autonomy support (i.e., respect, choice, relevance, coercion) and their unique influences on the multiple motivational outcomes, surrounding the transition to middle school. These questions were examined using information from 224 fifth graders, 339 sixth graders, and 345 seventh graders attending elementary and middle schools in a predominantly Caucasian working and middle class school district.

Regression analyses, predicting change ...


A Case Study Of Student And Staff Perceptions Of The School Breakfast Program: Food For Thought From A College Preparatory High School For Underserved Students, Jennifer Lucas Young Nov 2018

A Case Study Of Student And Staff Perceptions Of The School Breakfast Program: Food For Thought From A College Preparatory High School For Underserved Students, Jennifer Lucas Young

Dissertations and Theses

Research suggests that participation in the School Breakfast Program positively impacts academic success by improving student behavior, cognitive functioning, and attendance. Additionally, the School Breakfast Program appears to improve food insecurity, overall health and weight-related issues. However, compared to the National School Lunch Program, participation in the School Breakfast Program has been historically low, especially at the high school level. Using an integrated composite framework, a combination of social cognitive theory and ecological systems theory, as the conceptual model, this qualitative case study explored factors influencing student breakfast eating and participation in the school's breakfast program within a college-preparatory ...


The Role Of The Academic Analyst In Shared Governance, Rebecca Ann Mathern Nov 2018

The Role Of The Academic Analyst In Shared Governance, Rebecca Ann Mathern

Dissertations and Theses

This research explores the roles of academic professionals in higher education, specific to how they engage in decision-making processes. Academic professionals provide important functions in higher education work but there is little in the literature about these actors and their contributions to leadership and governance. A literature review triangulated role theory, organization theory, and the shared-governance field of study to bring together actors within higher education and compare their involvement based on the shared-governance model in operation at different institutions. The researcher introduced the hypothesis that when registrars are not involved in curriculum management, there may be negative effects on ...


Online Learners: A Study Of Their Advising Attitudes, Experiences, And Learning, Stephen Philip Jenkins Sep 2018

Online Learners: A Study Of Their Advising Attitudes, Experiences, And Learning, Stephen Philip Jenkins

Dissertations and Theses

Academic advising for online learners has been identified in prior research as an important student service. However, little research exists to assist advisers in knowing how best to serve this growing group. The purpose of this study is to close that research gap by determining if and how online and on-campus learners differ in how they rate the importance of various functions of academic advising as well as determining if their frequency of access to academic advising and source of advising information differed. Additionally, the research examines if the types and levels of learning for online learners varied by frequency ...


Computer-Based Instruction As A Form Of Differentiated Instruction In A Traditional, Teacher-Led, Low-Income, High School Biology Classroom, Cheryl Casey Jul 2018

Computer-Based Instruction As A Form Of Differentiated Instruction In A Traditional, Teacher-Led, Low-Income, High School Biology Classroom, Cheryl Casey

Dissertations and Theses

In 2015 the U.S. continues to struggle with academic achievement in public schools. Average test scores from 15 year olds taking the Program for International Student Assessment placed the U.S. as 38th out of 71 countries (Drew Devlin, 2017). It is common to discuss elimination of the achievement gap as the single most effective way to improve the U.S.'s mediocre standing among the highest scoring countries in the world in primary and secondary student test scores (McGhee,2004; Flemming 2012). In the broadest sense of the term the "achievement gap" refers to the difference in academic ...


Principal And Teacher Beliefs About The Impact Of Cbas On School Performance: Five High Performing High Schools In Oregon, Kevin Jon Ricker Jul 2018

Principal And Teacher Beliefs About The Impact Of Cbas On School Performance: Five High Performing High Schools In Oregon, Kevin Jon Ricker

Dissertations and Theses

This qualitative study examined how school leaders work within the structure of individual district collective bargaining agreements to improve student achievement. The study examines real or perceived barriers to improving student achievement within educational organizations from the perspective of the principals and teacher-leaders.

This study included two qualitative instruments, one for building principals and one for the building teachers, administered in five Oregon high schools recognized as successful by the Oregon Department of Education in 2014-2015. This dissertation determined the impact collective bargaining agreements had on the ability of high school principals to reduce educational disparities and close the achievement ...


The Gender Gap In Postsecondary Enrollment Intentions: The Mediating Role Of Student Attitudes And Behaviors, Paul J. Deppen Iii Jul 2018

The Gender Gap In Postsecondary Enrollment Intentions: The Mediating Role Of Student Attitudes And Behaviors, Paul J. Deppen Iii

Dissertations and Theses

Current literature on the gender gap in higher education lacks in-depth exploration of how the gap between males and females in postsecondary enrollment and degree attainment differs among racial/ethnic groups and among students of differing socioeconomic status (SES). This thesis explores the potential mediating role of student attitudes and behaviors and whether or not inclusion in certain racial/ethnic or SES groups moderates the relationship between gender and intentions to continue one's education immediately after high school graduation. This study uses data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009. Results suggest that student attitudes mediate more of ...


A Million Piece Jigsaw Puzzle: Transition Experiences Of Foster Youth Accessing Higher Education Through Community College, Karen A. Sullivan-Vance Jun 2018

A Million Piece Jigsaw Puzzle: Transition Experiences Of Foster Youth Accessing Higher Education Through Community College, Karen A. Sullivan-Vance

Dissertations and Theses

A college education offers people social and economic benefits, yet youth from foster care backgrounds are less likely than their peers to attain a college education, which places this already vulnerable population at higher risk for a lifetime of living on the margins of society. Foster alumni face multiple obstacles to accessing and persisting in higher education. To facilitate and support the success of this frequently overlooked population, professionals in higher education need to understand these obstacles. Little is known about the experiences of youth with foster care backgrounds as they transition into and through higher education. Although existing research ...


Campus Sexual Assault And (In)Justice: An Inquiry Into Campus Grievance Professionals' Roles, Responsibilities, And Perspectives Of Justice, Liane Kehaulani O'Banion Jun 2018

Campus Sexual Assault And (In)Justice: An Inquiry Into Campus Grievance Professionals' Roles, Responsibilities, And Perspectives Of Justice, Liane Kehaulani O'Banion

Dissertations and Theses

Approximately one in four women experience sexual violence in college. Public institutions of higher education identify professionals specifically responsible for Title IX compliance, campus grievance processes, and survivor advocacy. Success in these roles depends upon a variety of institutional, legal, and procedural factors, and the ability to balance compliance, accountability, transparency, confidentiality, and care for students in pursuit of institutional justice. However, the literature has failed to acknowledge the complexities and individual cost of serving in these contentious roles. Moreover, facets of organizational culture can hinder grievance professionals' efficacy in fulfilling their duties, facilitating consistent and fair resolutions, and ensuring ...


Dual Immersion Leadership: A Case Study Of Three K-5 Principals Who Show Success With Emergent Bilinguals, Ivonne Karina Dibblee Jun 2018

Dual Immersion Leadership: A Case Study Of Three K-5 Principals Who Show Success With Emergent Bilinguals, Ivonne Karina Dibblee

Dissertations and Theses

In the past decade the number of dual language immersion programs in US public schools has grown to more than 2000. The benefits of dual language immersion for emergent bilinguals (EBs) have been confirmed by numerous studies. However, lacking from this literature is research which focuses on leadership within dual immersion schools. Despite an upsurge in the number of immersion schools, few studies examine the characteristics of effective immersion leaders. The aim of this study is to examine the leadership characteristics of principals leading K-5 dual language immersion programs who have increased student achievement among EBs.

The purpose of this ...


Stakeholder Expectations Of Islamic Education, Julia Marie Ahmed Jun 2018

Stakeholder Expectations Of Islamic Education, Julia Marie Ahmed

Dissertations and Theses

Teachers and parents make considerable sacrifices to affiliate themselves with Islamic schools. As they commit to Islamic education, they acquire certain expectations that they want their school to fulfill. The purpose of this study was to explore the academic, social, and cultural expectations of five teachers and five parents in an Islamic School on the West Coast in order understand how these expectations could be fulfilled in other Islamic schools across the United States. The main research questions of this study were: What are the academic, social, and cultural expectations that parents and teachers have of their Islamic schools? To ...


Bilingual Teachers' Experiences: Being English Learners, Becoming Teachers, And Bilingual Education, Carrie Susan Larson Jun 2018

Bilingual Teachers' Experiences: Being English Learners, Becoming Teachers, And Bilingual Education, Carrie Susan Larson

Dissertations and Theses

Bilingual students are the fastest growing demographic group in U.S. P-12 public schools and offer promise and hope to our increasingly global workforce. However, many bilingual students are lagging behind in school, too many do not complete high school, and their schooling experiences are overshadowed by racial and linguistic segregation, low-academic tracking, and subtractive educational experiences. There is a growing body of literature that recognizes the importance of bilingual and bicultural teachers and leaders who can include students' linguistic, cultural, and community assets in school. This qualitative research study explores the experiences of a specialized group of elementary bilingual ...


Perception Of The Online Degree By Accounting Hiring Gatekeepers Of Mid-Size Firms In The Northwestern U.S., Domanic Thomas Jun 2018

Perception Of The Online Degree By Accounting Hiring Gatekeepers Of Mid-Size Firms In The Northwestern U.S., Domanic Thomas

Dissertations and Theses

The latest research shows over 2.8 million higher education students or one-in-seven are enrolled in fully online programs. In fields such as accounting, students are able to complete their degree, pass a standardized exam, and enter the workforce with little to no work experience. Accounting firm human resources managers are primarily responsible for the recruitment and selection of candidates. Prior studies conducted show that these hiring gatekeepers prefer candidates with earned degrees in a traditional classroom environment when holding constant for all other factors. While many students invest in online degrees as an ideal pathway to employment, career advancement ...


How Persevering Latina/O First-Generation College Students Navigate Their College Experience: Keeping Who They Are While Learning And Persisting In The Culture Of College, Angela Judith Balcacer Jun 2018

How Persevering Latina/O First-Generation College Students Navigate Their College Experience: Keeping Who They Are While Learning And Persisting In The Culture Of College, Angela Judith Balcacer

Dissertations and Theses

Latina/o first-generation college students, along with their families, are learning a new culture when considering going to four-year universities. While the conversation involving Latina/o first-generation college students can often focus on attrition, I am interested in exploring what, from participants' point of view, are the successes they experience as well as the most challenging obstacles they encounter on their journey to graduating from four-year universities. Employing the theoretical frameworks of constructivism, critical race theory, and cultural capital, the purpose of this study was to go beyond the conversation of Latina/o first-generation college student attrition by examining how ...


Does Avid Higher Education (Avid He) Increase Student Term-To-Term Progression, Persistence Toward Credited Classes And Social Capital For First-Generation College Students Placing Into Developmental Education: A Mixed Methods Study, Christie M. Plinski Jun 2018

Does Avid Higher Education (Avid He) Increase Student Term-To-Term Progression, Persistence Toward Credited Classes And Social Capital For First-Generation College Students Placing Into Developmental Education: A Mixed Methods Study, Christie M. Plinski

Dissertations and Theses

Often considered the gateway to the middle class in the United States, community colleges are struggling to find ways to support all students in career planning and preparation. Unfortunately, increasing numbers of first generation students who enter community colleges through the door of open access, place into developmental education (remedial) courses and must satisfactorily complete this often-rigid sequence before beginning college level classes. For many first-generation, under-prepared, underresourced students, this is a frustrating and often insurmountable barrier, causing many students to abort their postsecondary training.

Creating intentional conditions and instructional strategies that support student learning is essential in increasing the ...


The Impact Of Online Professional Development On The Assessment Efficacy Of Novice Itinerant Teachers Of Students With Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairments, Jacqulyn Anne Donnenwirth Daniels Jun 2018

The Impact Of Online Professional Development On The Assessment Efficacy Of Novice Itinerant Teachers Of Students With Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairments, Jacqulyn Anne Donnenwirth Daniels

Dissertations and Theses

The primary question for this dissertation was: Does online professional development increase novice itinerant Teachers of Students with Visual impairments' (TVI) efficacy for assessing learning and literacy media for students with multiple disabilities including visual impairments? The literature suggested novice TVIs might experience low efficacy when implementing strategies unique to their job after leaving teacher-training programs. Working in an itinerant position can intensify perceptions of low efficacy. One area of low efficacy was conducting and reporting on the assessment of learning and literacy media (ALLM).

Using a quasi-experimental pre/post-design, data were collected from pre/postintervention knowledge questionnaires about the ...


Pathways To Kindergarten Growth: Synthesizing Theories Of The Kindergarten Transition To Support Children's Development, Rita Yelverton May 2018

Pathways To Kindergarten Growth: Synthesizing Theories Of The Kindergarten Transition To Support Children's Development, Rita Yelverton

Dissertations and Theses

The transition into Kindergarten is a critical time for children's development--children's patterns of academic development and engagement with school often start in Kindergarten and persist throughout their academic careers. This is a developmental period that is marked by many changes in children's lives, and therefore it is not a surprise that many children struggle during this transition. These struggles are more common for children who are living in poverty, and although there have been national initiatives to address opportunity gaps in access to early education, investigations into the effectiveness of these programs in promoting children's Kindergarten ...


Pushing Back On School Pushout: Youth At An Alternative School Advocate For Educational Change Through Youth Participatory Action Research, Jessica Hopson Burbach May 2018

Pushing Back On School Pushout: Youth At An Alternative School Advocate For Educational Change Through Youth Participatory Action Research, Jessica Hopson Burbach

Dissertations and Theses

In the United States, a staggering four thousand students drop out every school day. Moreover, in 2016, the graduation rate in Oregon was only 74.8%, one of the lowest in the nation. Research shows that a disproportionate number of youth leaving school are from historically marginalized communities. Many of these youth resiliently return to education at alternative schools. This research sought to explore the educational experiences of youth in alternative schools in their own voices and perspectives. From a theoretical framework based in sociocultural theory, cultural capital, and critical theory, this study underscored the importance of youth voice in ...


An Ethnographic Study Of Intermediate Students From Poverty: Intersections Of School And Home, Shiela G. Rector May 2018

An Ethnographic Study Of Intermediate Students From Poverty: Intersections Of School And Home, Shiela G. Rector

Dissertations and Theses

The achievement gap in American schools between middle class students and students from poverty is well documented. This paper outlines the findings of a study designed to explore the experience and conscientization of struggling students from poverty. The argument will be made that poverty can be viewed as a culture and that this view may shed significant light on the dynamics of the achievement gap. Further, using the construct of poverty as a culture provides real life applications that have the potential to impact the achievement gap. The study explored the lived experiences in a public school setting of intermediate ...