Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 40

Full-Text Articles in Education

Killing Me Softly: The Missed Education Of African American Females, Margaret Daphne Cattenhead Apr 2017

Killing Me Softly: The Missed Education Of African American Females, Margaret Daphne Cattenhead

Master's Theses

Using a literature review and personal experience, this paper aims to examine the paradoxes and barriers of African American girls in education. The educational system has left black females without support to ensure consistent results across a variety of settings and environments. There are a variety of voices on what barriers African American girls face and how those barriers influence their educational progress. Despite some progress, many African American girls are at risk for suspension, expulsion, and grade retention. They are at risk to be pressured into dominant culture norms for behavior, to be regarded as subordinate, to be negatively ...


Teaching Children Who Have Difficulty Mastering Auditory Discriminations, Sarah Lichtenberger Apr 2016

Teaching Children Who Have Difficulty Mastering Auditory Discriminations, Sarah Lichtenberger

Dissertations

Simple and conditional visual and auditory discrimination repertoires are critical components of many skills necessary for daily functioning, including communication, academic, and daily-living skills (Green, 2001). When auditory discrimination is not under instructional stimulus control, it can result in delayed acquisition of new skills and limit academic progress. The purpose of this study was to teach auditory discrimination to children with autism who had little to no progress on classroom procedures that required auditory discrimination, such as selecting an object from an array when given the name of the object as the direction. Auditory discrimination was taught starting with teaching ...


Predictors Of College Attendance And Persistence Among Blind And Visually Impaired Students, Lydia Schuck Aug 2015

Predictors Of College Attendance And Persistence Among Blind And Visually Impaired Students, Lydia Schuck

Dissertations

Completion of a college degree is a positive outcome for any young adult. The purpose of this three-paper dissertation was to explore the latent constructs and other variables that may be associated with postsecondary education outcomes of youth who are blind or visually impaired. The samples were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal study of youth with disabilities, the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2. The sample of the first study comprised 420 youth (all Ns rounded to nearest 10 to meet data restrictions) who had taken the direct assessment recorded in the dataset. Exploratory factor analysis of 17 variables reported by ...


A Comparison Of Methods For Teaching Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations To Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Laura Lee Grow Dec 2009

A Comparison Of Methods For Teaching Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations To Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Laura Lee Grow

Dissertations

Early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is an approach to treating the behavioral deficits and excesses observed in children with autism spectrum disorders. The magnitude of improvement in the overall functioning of children receiving EIBI has stimulated additional research and widespread clinical dissemination through the publication of EIBI curricular manuals. Many EIBI manuals recommend teaching conditional discriminations using the simple/conditional method. Initially, component simple discriminations are taught in isolation and in the presence of a distracter stimulus. Finally, conditional discriminations, which include stimuli previously taught as simple discriminations, are presented to the learner. Although the simple/conditional method is ...


Technical Adequacy Of Curriculum-Based Measures Of Vocabulary Growth For Preschool English Language Learners, Kathleen M. Vantol Jun 2009

Technical Adequacy Of Curriculum-Based Measures Of Vocabulary Growth For Preschool English Language Learners, Kathleen M. Vantol

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to design and establish the technical adequacy of curriculum-based measures (CBMs) of vocabulary acquisition for use with preschool children. This study sought to establish the technical adequacy of two tools that can be used for measuring benchmarks of vocabulary acquisition for both native English speakers and for English language learners (ELLs) who are native Spanish speakers. In order to address the instructional needs for students who are Spanish speakers, a Spanish version of the CBM expressive language measure was created.

In this study, CBMs of expressive and receptive vocabulary were developed based upon the ...


Career Decision Making For Male Students With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Model Of Critical Factors Aiding In Transitional Efforts, Gregory B. Gray Jun 2009

Career Decision Making For Male Students With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Model Of Critical Factors Aiding In Transitional Efforts, Gregory B. Gray

Dissertations

This study is intended to reveal helpful information that will guide high school practitioners in serving students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) more effectively. ADHD is neurological in origin, making it invisible. This disorder makes people susceptible to distractibility, impulsivity, disorganization, frustration, anxiety, and moodiness (Janus, 1999). Fifteen percent or more of the U.S. population has ADHD. These individuals, who often are viewed by career counselors, teachers, and employers as frustrating or difficult, are uniquely vulnerable in high school and beyond. Because individuals with ADHD have invisible handicaps, their academic performance and social behaviors can be interpreted incorrectly ...


Effective Intervention Approaches For Increased Student Achievement With At-Risk Middle School Students: Voices From Parents, Susan J. Peets Dec 2008

Effective Intervention Approaches For Increased Student Achievement With At-Risk Middle School Students: Voices From Parents, Susan J. Peets

Dissertations

Parent involvement is closely linked to student achievement. Research suggests that students, families, and schools benefit from active participation by families in the process of educating children. Many parents provide a broad range of support to their children, although, currently no common agreement on the most effective forms of parent support exists.

This study focused on the gap in the literature as to the needs of middle school at-risk students' parents. Qualitative methods were used to explore how parents of twelve at-risk middle school students (identified by low academic achievement scores of reading at least one year below grade level ...


Making The Difference In High Poverty; High Achieving Urban Elementary Schools: Selected Principal's Perspectives, Penny Larsen Aug 2008

Making The Difference In High Poverty; High Achieving Urban Elementary Schools: Selected Principal's Perspectives, Penny Larsen

Dissertations

This study is a mixed-method design focusing on ten White and ten non-White elementary principals working in urban areas. The qualitative methodology uses interviews and observations to examine how principals conceptualize the student achievement gaps and through what practices do they attempt to remedy the condition. The quantitative data resulted from the Quick Discrimination Index and relied on descriptive statistics. The primary audience for this study includes PK-12 public school administrators, particularly those in urban high-diversity, high-achieving schools.

The investigation (1) examined cultural differences between White and non-White administrators and their student constituency in terms of ethnicity and language use ...


Perceptions And Intervention Practices Of Speech-Language Pathologists Serving Students With Emotional/Behavioral Disorders, Laura A. Getty Dec 2007

Perceptions And Intervention Practices Of Speech-Language Pathologists Serving Students With Emotional/Behavioral Disorders, Laura A. Getty

Dissertations

A relationship between emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) and language deficits has been validated by researchers in special education (Cantwell & Baker, 1991; Beichman, Cantwell, Forness, Kavale, & Kaufmann, 1998; Cohen, Barwick, Horodezky, Vallance, & Im, 1998) as well as researchers in speech-language pathology (Hyter, 2003; Hyter, Rogers-Adkinson, Self, Simmons, Jantz, 2001; Ruhl, Hughes, & Camarata, 1992; Gallagher, 1999; Fujiki, Brinton, Morgan, & Hart, 1999). The exact prevalence rate between E/BD and language deficits was not definitive as it varies between 35% and 97% depending on the study reviewed (Benner, Nelson, & Epstein, 2002). While it has been documented that a relationship exists between children with E/BD and language deficits, a current prevalence rate regarding the speech-language pathologists involvement with this population was nearly 20 years old (Casby, 1989). Furthermore, a gap in the research exists between the most effective therapy interventions for students with E/BD and language deficits.

The purpose of this investigation was two-fold; (a) to determine a prevalence rate of speech-language pathologists in Michigan serving students diagnosed with E/BD and language deficits, and (b) to explore the types of interventions speech-language pathologists were employing with students with E/BD and language deficits. A survey was used to determine the extent to which speech-language pathologists provide services to students with E/BD ...


Exposing Star Teachers Of Children In Poverty, Bobbi Morehead Dec 2007

Exposing Star Teachers Of Children In Poverty, Bobbi Morehead

Dissertations

Public schools have control over whom they choose to hire to serve as teachers. When quality teachers are hired, all students have a better chance at achieving academic success. It is the responsibility of every public school principal to truly understand common patterns, which can assist teachers to become outstanding teachers, defined in this study as Star Teachers. It is also the principals' responsibility to make sure the work conditions of such Star Teachers are conducive to personal and professional renewal.

The passion to educate all children drives the following research questions: (1) How do Star Teachers describe the significant ...


Gender Disparity In Nigerian Education: Women’S Experience Of Barriers To Equal Educational Opportunity, Eugene Okoli Dec 2007

Gender Disparity In Nigerian Education: Women’S Experience Of Barriers To Equal Educational Opportunity, Eugene Okoli

Dissertations

Discrepancies between males and females in access to schooling, school completion rates, and participation in employment opportunities are still more the norm in some regions of the world than others. Limited access to education plagues women in Nigeria as well as in Sub-Saharan Africa. Disparity in access to educational opportunity is a pressing gender equity issue in Nigeria (World Bank, 2003).

Relatively few studies have focused on obtaining the viewpoints of women who experience this phenomenon. To hear the voices of these women regarding how they gained or were denied access to education in the Nigerian context, a cross-section of ...


Attitudes Toward And Knowledge Of Affirmative Action In Higher Education, Erika Ann Carr Dec 2007

Attitudes Toward And Knowledge Of Affirmative Action In Higher Education, Erika Ann Carr

Dissertations

Affirmative action has become an increasingly important topic in higher education because colleges and universities are key battlegrounds regarding how affirmative action policies are enacted. Senior-level higher education administrators have historically taken the lead in shaping affirmative action policies in higher education, and knowing their own community's standpoints on the policies could assist them in deciding how to proceed in defending affirmative action in the face of increasing opposition.

This study measures individuals' attitudes toward and knowledge of affirmative action within one university in the state of Michigan, where affirmative action was banned through a state-wide election in November ...


Audio-Assisted Reading With Digital Audiobooks For Upper Elementary Students With Reading Disabilities, Kelli J. Esteves Dec 2007

Audio-Assisted Reading With Digital Audiobooks For Upper Elementary Students With Reading Disabilities, Kelli J. Esteves

Dissertations

Audio-assisted reading has been used as an effective instructional intervention for students with learning disabilities (Carbo, 1978; Gilbert, Williams, & McLaughlin, 1996) and with struggling readers (Chomsky, 1976; Hollingsworth, 1978; Hoskisson & Krohm, 1974; Koskinen, Blum, Bisson, Phillips, Creamer, & Baker, 2000; Rasinski, 1990). The strategy involves reading along while listening to an audio recording of a fluent model (Evans, 1997).

The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of audio-assisted reading with digital audiobooks against the traditional practice of sustained silent reading in terms of reading fluency rates and reading attitude scores with upper elementary students with reading disabilities. Participants in the control group selected literature and read silently for 20-30 minute ...


Work Stress, Non-Work Stress And Mental Health Among School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists: Effects Of Social Support, Lena Gloria Caesar Aug 2007

Work Stress, Non-Work Stress And Mental Health Among School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists: Effects Of Social Support, Lena Gloria Caesar

Dissertations

This study utilized secondary data from the Work and Well-being of SLPs survey (Caesar, 2004) to examine possible sources (predictors) of work stress, job satisfaction, and psychological distress among 409 speech-language pathologists (SLPs) employed in public school settings in Michigan. This study also investigated the relationship of work-related and non-work-related stress to the mental health status of SLPs and sought to determine the mediating and/or moderating effects of varied types of social support on the mental health of respondents. Data analysis was done in three stages. First, each of the dependent and independent variables were described statistically. Secondly, correlation ...


Effects Of Detectable Warnings On Individuals With Mobility Impairments, Helen Lee Apr 2007

Effects Of Detectable Warnings On Individuals With Mobility Impairments, Helen Lee

Dissertations

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that environmental and architectural barriers, such as curbs, be removed to enableindividuals with disabilities to travel about in the community with increased mobility. While installation of ramps benefit individuals with mobility impairments, the absence of curbs results in the loss of information used by individuals with visual impairments for street detection. As a result, truncated domes detectablewarning surfaces were developed to alert visually impaired travelers of potential hazards and vehicular pathways. Research to date is limited and inconclusive regarding the impact of detectable warning surfaces on individuals with mobility impairments. Further, no research ...


The Effects Of The Michigan Transition Outcomes Project, Jane E. Finn Jun 2005

The Effects Of The Michigan Transition Outcomes Project, Jane E. Finn

Dissertations

This study investigated whether the Transition Outcomes Project used in Michigan resulted in improved compliance with the transition components required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 (IDEA 1997) and interviewed staff who have implemented this model to identify their perceptions ofhow it affected the transition planning process for students with disabilities. The study used qualitative and quantitative measures. The quantitative measures studied the effectiveness of the model, while the qualitative measures investigated the perceptions of the school personnel who implemented the model in their district.

Findings showed that the Michigan Transition Outcomes Project is an effective model ...


Cognitive Orthotics For Students With Cognitive Disabilities, James V. Yanna May 2005

Cognitive Orthotics For Students With Cognitive Disabilities, James V. Yanna

Dissertations

This study examined the effectiveness of a hand-held computer to guide an individual with a moderate cognitive impairment as he or she completed a complex daily living task. Performance was compared with that occasioned by a human supervisor. A third condition, assistance first from a human supervisor, and then by the computerized orthotic, was also evaluated. The task selected was a baking task.

Subjects were nine students, ranging in age from 17 to 24 years. All subjects were classified as cognitively impaired according to the Michigan Special Education Rules and Regulations. Assessment information showed most to be performing at a ...


Examining The Keyword Mnemonic Strategy As An Effective Academic Intervention For High School Students Labeled Emotional Or Behavioral Disordered, Karen A. Kleinheksel Apr 2005

Examining The Keyword Mnemonic Strategy As An Effective Academic Intervention For High School Students Labeled Emotional Or Behavioral Disordered, Karen A. Kleinheksel

Dissertations

This investigation explored whether keyword mnemonic strategies were effective for high school aged students labeled emotional or behavioral disordered(E/BD) in recalling the definitions of scientific vocabulary terms. Ten students labeled E/BD from a suburban public high school in a Midwestern state participated in this investigation. A demographic description of the subjects indicated the following information: (a) all students' ethnicities were Caucasian, (b) sixty percent of the subjects were male, (c) the average subject's age was 17 years 1 month, and (d) all students were in the tenth through twelfth grades.

In a multiple baseline across subjects ...


Factors Affecting School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists’ Use Of Language Assessment Practices With Bilingual Children, Lena Gloria Caesar Aug 2004

Factors Affecting School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists’ Use Of Language Assessment Practices With Bilingual Children, Lena Gloria Caesar

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify the assessment procedures and practices of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) employed in the state of Michigan. A survey method was used to gather information from 409 SLPs regarding the assessment procedures used for assessing both their bilingual students, as well as their monolingual English-speaking students. The survey also gathered information regarding perceptions about language proficiency, professional training, and bilingual assessment products. In order to analyze factors related to their use of recommended practices, the study investigated the relationship between selected demographic, caseload, and work-setting variables, and the type of bilingual assessment methods ...


The Use Of Quality Indices For Successful Programs For Students With Emotional/Behavior Disorders In The State Of Michigan, Alice Brouwer Hoekstra Apr 2003

The Use Of Quality Indices For Successful Programs For Students With Emotional/Behavior Disorders In The State Of Michigan, Alice Brouwer Hoekstra

Dissertations

Recent research studies have determined that students with emotional and behavior disorders (EBD) are the most difficult to integrate into the general education environment. Students with EBD are most likely to be educated in separate settings and least likely to be found in traditional education environments. However, the mandate of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act reauthorized in 1997 (IDEA '97) and the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) regulation indicates all educators, including administrators, have the responsibility to challenge teachers and schools to be more inclusive regarding students with EBD and to provide services that better support students in this setting ...


The Effects Of De-Tracking On Students And Teachers, Jacob M. Bultema, Kristen M. Scranton May 2002

The Effects Of De-Tracking On Students And Teachers, Jacob M. Bultema, Kristen M. Scranton

Honors Theses

School districts use an array of methods to group students for their academic needs. In years past, many schools have tracked their students. This practice involves placing students in different classes according to their ability levels and past academic record. However, in recent years, some schools have decided to do away with this homogenous grouping and instead "detrack" their schools, grouping students heterogeneously. Proponents of tracking argue that homogenous grouping is advantageous to higher-ability learners. Teachers sometimes find it difficult to teach students with the broad range or achievement levels typically found in a heterogeneous environment. It is also argued ...


Using Measures Of Intervention Integrity, Intervention Acceptability, And Intervention Effectiveness To Evaluate A Toilet Training Program In A Preschool Classroom For Children With Special Needs, Katherine M. Holverstott-Cockrell Apr 2002

Using Measures Of Intervention Integrity, Intervention Acceptability, And Intervention Effectiveness To Evaluate A Toilet Training Program In A Preschool Classroom For Children With Special Needs, Katherine M. Holverstott-Cockrell

Dissertations

The primary objective of this study is to use measures of intervention integrity, intervention acceptability, and intervention effectiveness identified by Witt and Elliott (1985) to evaluate the toilet training program in a preschool classroom. The second objective is to assess the effects of parent participation with the toileting program. The third objective is to assess the effects of the toilet training intervention. Specifically, this study investigated (a) the relationship between intervention integrity, acceptability, and effectiveness of a toilet training intervention implemented in a preschool setting and at home; (b) the relationship between parental participation with the intervention and the efficacy ...


The Impact Of A Congenitally Blind Child Upon Family Functioning And Interaction, Pamela S. Berryman Apr 2002

The Impact Of A Congenitally Blind Child Upon Family Functioning And Interaction, Pamela S. Berryman

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was an impact of congenital blindness upon family functioning and interaction. This research investigated the level of blindness upon family adaptability, cohesion, satisfaction, and social family climate from a family systems perspective. The study analyzed data from a sample of 56 participants who were parents/care-givers of children age 0-12 years with either no vision, partial vision, or full vision. Chi-squares were computed to determine if any of the demographic variables differed among the three groups. Respondents’ gender, relationship to child, age, child’s level of blindness, number of siblings ...


Transitioning And Adapting To College: A Case-Study Analysis Of The Experience Of University Students With Psychiatric Disabilities, Kenneth M. Werner Apr 2001

Transitioning And Adapting To College: A Case-Study Analysis Of The Experience Of University Students With Psychiatric Disabilities, Kenneth M. Werner

Dissertations

The psychiatric rehabilitation literature (Unger, 1987) indicates that few studies have been conducted about the adaptational demands associated with the transition to college for young adults with psychiatric disabilities who negotiate the university experience without the benefit o f a supported education program .

The purpose of this study was to describe how individual, social, and institutional factors contributed to the successful transition and adaptation to college life for students with psychiatric disabilities. The study sought to identify how students with psychiatric disabilities disclosed their illness in order to request support services and accommodations, and which services were essential or peripheral ...


The Effect Of Presentation Media On Student Reading Comprehension, Jeffrey T. Conklin Dec 2000

The Effect Of Presentation Media On Student Reading Comprehension, Jeffrey T. Conklin

Dissertations

The purpose o f this study was to investigate the effect of display media on reading comprehension in students with learning disabilities. This research examined two types o f display media, computer screen and paper.

Three groups of subjects were used in this study: (1) readers with learning disabilities, (2) low achieving readers, and (3) average readers. Three instruments were used to gather performance data in this study: a) a standardized measure o f reading comprehension, b) a measure of individual passage comprehension, and c) a measure of vocabulary knowledge using words from the experimental passages.

The data presented in ...


An Analysis Of Grade-Level Expenditures Of At-Risk Funding Among Districts Of Different Economic Status In The State Of Michigan, Benard A. Meyer Jun 1999

An Analysis Of Grade-Level Expenditures Of At-Risk Funding Among Districts Of Different Economic Status In The State Of Michigan, Benard A. Meyer

Dissertations

Many of the recent financial reforms failed to address the needs of at-risk children. Effective solutions to the problems of the educationally disadvantaged must include changes within the schools, how the schools are funded, and how the schools spend their funding. Michigan’s 1994 finance reform included a funded plan for “unequal treatment of unequals” directed for the support of at-risk students. This fund was called Section 31a Program for At-Risk Pupils and involved a 230 million dollar compensatory education funding allowance for students at risk of school failure. This study presented here will determine if there is a relationship ...


An Assessment Of Generalization Across Settings Of A Parenting Strategies Program For Adhd Children, Barbara M. Todd-Nelson Dec 1997

An Assessment Of Generalization Across Settings Of A Parenting Strategies Program For Adhd Children, Barbara M. Todd-Nelson

Dissertations

When collapsed across gender and subject pools, Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects three to five percent of school-aged children (DSMIV, 1994). Intervening upon environmental contingencies for ADHD-diagnosed children is one of the least intrusive forms of treatment and is often very effective (Atkeson & Forehand, 1978; Forehand & King, 1977; Barkley, 1986; Webster-Stratton, 1993). As noted by many researchers (Allen, Tamowski, Simonian, Elliott & Drabman, 1991; Drabman, Hammer, & Rosenbaum,1979; Stokes & Osnes, 1989), it is necessary to assess generalization of treatment effects across the behavior therapy literature. Few have examined generalization from the home setting to the classroom. Since many referrals occur when problem behaviors are exhibited at school (Al-Issa, 1982 ...


Perceived Support For Change And Implementation Of Title I Of The Ada In Michigan’S Public School Districts, Truman S. Forest Jun 1997

Perceived Support For Change And Implementation Of Title I Of The Ada In Michigan’S Public School Districts, Truman S. Forest

Dissertations

Data for this study were gathered by survey from public school districts in the state of Michigan that employed more than one central office administrator. The survey was sent to human resource administrators as well as assistant superintendents and other central office administrators in 339 school districts. A total of 188 valid responses were received for a response rate of 55.8 percent.

The study tested five relational hypotheses. Ha1 through Ha4 were tested to determine if a relationship existed between the category of school district readiness to implement Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA Readiness) and ...


The Effects Of Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing (Emdr) On Self-Reported Test Anxiety In College Students, John C. Hampel Jun 1997

The Effects Of Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing (Emdr) On Self-Reported Test Anxiety In College Students, John C. Hampel

Dissertations

Test anxiety is a common problem among students in western culture due to the importance of academic achievement and the consequences for failure. Many consider test anxiety to be primarily an issue of poor study habits and test readiness. However, some students who appear to possess excellent study habits also appear to experience severe anxiety during tests. A recent meta-analysis of test anxiety research substantiated these claims, finding that test anxiety appeared to be an emotionally-based as opposed to a cognitively-based problem. Despite these findings, the etiologies for test anxiety remain unknown. Similar to nearly all DSM-IV diagnostic categories, test ...


A Study Of Leadership Behaviors Of Principals In Schools Which Educate Students With Moderate And Severe Disabilities In Regular Education Classrooms, Patreese Ingram Jun 1994

A Study Of Leadership Behaviors Of Principals In Schools Which Educate Students With Moderate And Severe Disabilities In Regular Education Classrooms, Patreese Ingram

Dissertations

The full-time inclusion of disabled students in regular education classrooms on a full-time basis is an emerging practice in schools across the United States and other countries (Stainback & Stainback, 1992). In school systems which have traditionally educated disabled and nondisabled students in separate classrooms, the principal is increasingly recognized as ,"... being the one individual above all others who is of critical importance in creating an effective school" (Ubben & Hughes, 1992, p. 19).

Therefore, this study investigated the principal’s leadership behavior in schools which educate moderately and severely disabled students in regular education classrooms on a full-time basis. More specifically, the purposes of this study were: (a) to determine whether the leadership behaviors of principals, as perceived by teachers, tend to be more transformational or more transactional; and (b) to determine whether there was a difference in the leadership behaviors of principals and the extent to which principals motivate teachers to exert effort beyond the ordinary.

The subjects were 44 teachers from 5 school districts which participated in the Michigan Inclusive Education Project. The independent variable was leadership behaviors of the principal, defined as varying degrees of transformational and transactional leadership. The dependent variable was defined as principals’ ability ...