Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Series

2011

Aga Khan University

Discipline
Keyword
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 38

Full-Text Articles in Education

Communities Of Practice And Teacher Development – Lessons Learnt From An Educational Innovation In Pakistan, Sajid Ali Dec 2011

Communities Of Practice And Teacher Development – Lessons Learnt From An Educational Innovation In Pakistan, Sajid Ali

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Communities of Practice (CoP) is a novel idea that highlights the importance of informal learning and working groups in an organization. Organizations need to nurture informal spaces of learning so as to enhance overall organizational success. This article builds on this idea and applies it to educational context of Pakistan, particularly towards the issue of teacher training. The paper presents the example of an educational improvement programme in KPK province of Pakistan titled ‘Primary Education Project – Improvement of the Learning Environment (PEP-ILE)’. It is highlighted that PEP-ILE created cluster based training model around subject areas. Such configuration allowed for the ...


Teachers’ And Parents’ Perspective As How The Social Environment Of Immediate Vicinity Can Affect The Academic Learning Of A Child 4-6 Years Age Group, Salma Amin Rattani, Deedar Shah Dec 2011

Teachers’ And Parents’ Perspective As How The Social Environment Of Immediate Vicinity Can Affect The Academic Learning Of A Child 4-6 Years Age Group, Salma Amin Rattani, Deedar Shah

School of Nursing & Midwifery

In the process of human development environment plays a pivotal role. At the age of 4 -6 years, children's immediate vicinity expands from home to school and in his social environment parents and teachers play a vital role. Therefore, in this study which was conducted in Phander district Ghizer, Northern areas; of Pakistan, employing descriptive research design five parents and five school teachers were enrolled. Participants shared their definition and understanding about social environment and immediate vicinity and its effects on academic learning. This research is part of Advanced Diploma in Human Development: Early Child Development Programme, Aga Khan ...


Gender Roles And Their Influence On Life Prospects For Women In Urban Karachi, Pakistan: A Qualitative Study, Tazeen S. Ali, Gunilla Krantz, Raisa Gul, Nargis Asad, Eva Johansson, Ingrid Mogren Nov 2011

Gender Roles And Their Influence On Life Prospects For Women In Urban Karachi, Pakistan: A Qualitative Study, Tazeen S. Ali, Gunilla Krantz, Raisa Gul, Nargis Asad, Eva Johansson, Ingrid Mogren

School of Nursing & Midwifery

BACKGROUND: Pakistan is a patriarchal society where men are the primary authority figures and women are subordinate. This has serious implications on women's and men's life prospects.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore current gender roles in urban Pakistan, how these are reproduced and maintained and influence men's and women's life circumstances.
DESIGN: Five focus group discussions were conducted, including 28 women representing employed, unemployed, educated and uneducated women from different socio-economic strata. Manifest and latent content analyses were applied.
FINDINGS: TWO MAJOR THEMES EMERGED DURING ANALYSIS: 'Reiteration of gender roles' and 'Agents of change'. The ...


The Unforgettable Experience Of A Workshop On Pythagoras Theorem, Salima Shahzad Arwani Nov 2011

The Unforgettable Experience Of A Workshop On Pythagoras Theorem, Salima Shahzad Arwani

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Understanding The Evolving Roles Of Improvement–Oriented High School Teachers In Gilgit-Baltistan, Takbir Ali Nov 2011

Understanding The Evolving Roles Of Improvement–Oriented High School Teachers In Gilgit-Baltistan, Takbir Ali

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

In this paper the author presents a framework for understanding how improvement-oriented high school teachers’ accounts of change experiences portray their evolving roles as change agents in school reform. The data on which this paper is based come from a one-year long in-depth study (doctoral thesis research project) in which the author set out to investigate how improvement-oriented teachers pursue important changes in the realm of classroom, school and community; how the teachers-initiated changes can be characterized; and how the teachers’ roles evolve with their change practices. The researcher employed qualitative case study methodology, using in-depth interviews, classroom observations, post-observation ...


Salam Teacher, Sultan Alam Oct 2011

Salam Teacher, Sultan Alam

Professional Development Centre, Gilgit

No abstract provided.


Developing Child Friendly Environment In Early Childhood Education Classroom In Pakistan, Khush Funer Murtaza Oct 2011

Developing Child Friendly Environment In Early Childhood Education Classroom In Pakistan, Khush Funer Murtaza

Professional Development Centre, Gilgit

Among all levels of education, Early Childhood Education and Development (ECEd) is considered to be the most critical level for social (relationship to others), emotional (self-image and security), cognitive (thinking and reasoning) and physical development of children. Therefore, the teachers of early years need to play a significant role in the teaching and learning process through providing a friendly environment in their schools. The study employed a case study approach. Information was gathered through a combination of methods, which included classroom observations, field notes, document analysis, focus group and semi structured interviews. The focus group participants and the interviewees were ...


Exploring Leadership Practices In Rural Context Of A Developing Country, Ali Nawab Oct 2011

Exploring Leadership Practices In Rural Context Of A Developing Country, Ali Nawab

Professional Development Centre, Chitral

The success or failure of any institution has closely been linked with the leadership practices exercised in the institution. Whereas the number of private schools is rapidly increasing in the rural context of Pakistan, the leadership practices of these institutions are interesting and timely questions to ponder upon. Drawing upon the data of a qualitative case study, this paper discusses the leadership practices in a private school in rural Pakistan. It is found that the school leaders in this context have still traditional approach to leadership with little possibilities of shared or distributed leadership. Since the private schools are owned ...


Do Teachers Learn In School Contexts? Some Perspectives From Pakistan, Ayesha Bashiruddin Oct 2011

Do Teachers Learn In School Contexts? Some Perspectives From Pakistan, Ayesha Bashiruddin

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


What Works In Education In Pakistan, And Why? The Case Of Pdcn’S Whole School Improvement Program In Gilgit-Baltistan Of Pakistan, Mola Dad Shafa, Darvesh Karim, Sultan Alam Sep 2011

What Works In Education In Pakistan, And Why? The Case Of Pdcn’S Whole School Improvement Program In Gilgit-Baltistan Of Pakistan, Mola Dad Shafa, Darvesh Karim, Sultan Alam

Professional Development Centre, Gilgit

This inquiry is part of a country-wide study conducted to explore What Works in Education in Pakistan, and Why? The Whole School Improvement Programme (WSIP) of Aga Khan University-Professional Development Center, North (AKU-PDCN) offered in Gilgit-Baltistan is one of the seven cases chosen based on its best practices in teacher professional development and school improvement in the mountainous and rural Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan. Three schools representing the public, private and AKESP systems were selected for this study. The findings emanating from the three cases have been structured and discussed under the themes of „Teachers Professional Development,‟ „School-Community Relations,‟ „Monitoring and ...


Role Of Head Teachers In Managing The Forces Emanating From The External World Of Schools In Gilgit-Baltistan Of Pakistan, Mola Dad Shafa Sep 2011

Role Of Head Teachers In Managing The Forces Emanating From The External World Of Schools In Gilgit-Baltistan Of Pakistan, Mola Dad Shafa

Professional Development Centre, Gilgit

This paper reviews the nature and intensity of some external forces that shape and re-shape headteachers’ school improvement efforts in the mountainous and rural Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan. The external forces emanating from the outside world of the schools are categorized under three themes: divisions within the school community, influences of the district office, and issues of communication with parents. The divisions within the school community were clear and deep. The major divisions included the uneven socioeconomic levels, the various tribal systems, the sense of local and non-locals, and the different religious denominations. The challenges related to the District Office were ...


The Possibilities And Challenges Of Multigrade Teaching In Rural Pakistan, Ali Nawab, Salima Rahim Baig Aug 2011

The Possibilities And Challenges Of Multigrade Teaching In Rural Pakistan, Ali Nawab, Salima Rahim Baig

Professional Development Centre, Chitral

In rural Pakistan instruction frequently occurs in multigrade settings where, due to lack of teachers and space, two to three teachers teach six classes. Manyteachers lack the knowledge and skills to manage multigrade classes effectively as they have been trained for single-grade teaching. Thisqualitative study was conducted to explore the possibilities and challenges of implementing multigrade course strategies in four project schools. Based on the findings of the study, this paper argues that multigrade courses have positive impact upon the teaching learning practices of schools. However, government has to play a key role in sustaining the implementation and impact of ...


Influence Of Teacher-Student Interactions On Kindergarten Children’S Developing Gender Identity Within The Pakistani Urban Classroom Culture, Almina Pardhan Aug 2011

Influence Of Teacher-Student Interactions On Kindergarten Children’S Developing Gender Identity Within The Pakistani Urban Classroom Culture, Almina Pardhan

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

In the current global push to explore the diverse and complex ways in which the school culture contributes to the shaping of young children's gender identity, early childhood teachers’ role in this process is an area of concern which has received limited attention. Furthermore, the schooling experiences of early years children in developing world contexts such as Pakistan remain largely absent. As such, this article discusses findings from a study investigating the role of women teachers’ practice in the construction of children's gender identities in the kindergarten classroom culture of one urban co‐education school in the highly ...


Understanding How Practices Of Teacher Education In Pakistan Compare With The Popular Theories And Theories And Narrative Of Reform Of Teacher Education In International Context, Takbir Ali Jul 2011

Understanding How Practices Of Teacher Education In Pakistan Compare With The Popular Theories And Theories And Narrative Of Reform Of Teacher Education In International Context, Takbir Ali

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Movements to reform teacher education are underway in many parts of the world, including Europe, Australia, North America and many other developing countries. The directions of and the approaches to these reforms vary in each country. Invariably changing educational policies across countries, innovations, research, and ongoing discourse in the field have contributed to new ways of understanding teacher education in different societies. This reflective paper examines the critical gaps in understanding the main causes underlying core issues facing teacher education and professional development in Pakistan; how the efforts and perspectives about reforming teacher education in Pakistan compare with the practices ...


Street Theatre : Critical Pedagogy For Social Studies Education, Al-Karim Datoo, Zainab M. A. Chagani Jul 2011

Street Theatre : Critical Pedagogy For Social Studies Education, Al-Karim Datoo, Zainab M. A. Chagani

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This paper aims at exploring the usefulness of street theatre as critical pedagogy in teaching of social studies education. It gives a brief background of street-theatre and its linkages with critical pedagogy. In the light of theoretical underpinnings of this arts-based pedagogy, the paper deliberates upon the relevance and efficacy of street theatre in a social studies classroom. This paper uses a street theatre performance case to look at the techniques such as: body motion, body work, props, use of visual and audio aids, etc.; processes such as: conscientization and catharsis; and dialogical approach employed by street theatre to bring ...


Private Higher Education In Pakistan, Nelofer Halai Jul 2011

Private Higher Education In Pakistan, Nelofer Halai

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

The demand for higher education all over the world, especially in the developing world, has fueled a tremendous growth of private universities. Countries such as India and China, for example, possess increasing space for private universities to flourish either independently or through private-public or private-international partnerships. However, almost without exception the private universities being established in developing countries are of poor quality, and in this case Pakistan is no exception.


Drug Abuse, Darvesh Karim Jun 2011

Drug Abuse, Darvesh Karim

Professional Development Centre, Gilgit

No abstract provided.


Reflecting On The World Environment Day, Darvesh Karim Jun 2011

Reflecting On The World Environment Day, Darvesh Karim

Professional Development Centre, Gilgit

No abstract provided.


Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge Of Science Teachers Through Action Research: A Case Study From Pakistan, Nelofer Halai, Manzoor Ali Khan Jun 2011

Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge Of Science Teachers Through Action Research: A Case Study From Pakistan, Nelofer Halai, Manzoor Ali Khan

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

The aim of this study is to analyze the action research undertaken by Khan as a teacher researcher in a private school as part of the degree requirement of his M.Ed. program in Teacher Education at the Aga Khan University, Institute for Educational Development. The purpose of this analysis undertaken by the first author and supervisor of the study in collaboration with Khan was to understand the development of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of the teacher researcher through action research in a science classroom in the context of Pakistan. Khan taught the concepts of heat and temperature using an ...


Exploring Students’ Learning Difficulties In Secondary Mathematics Classroom In Gilgit-Baltistan And Teachers’ Effort To Help Students Overcome These Difficulties, Takbir Ali Jun 2011

Exploring Students’ Learning Difficulties In Secondary Mathematics Classroom In Gilgit-Baltistan And Teachers’ Effort To Help Students Overcome These Difficulties, Takbir Ali

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This article sets out to describe and explain how four high school teachers, identified as improvement-oriented teachers (IOTs), in their day-to-day teaching, try to use pedagogical remedies to help their students overcome the difficulties that hinder in-depth learning in secondary mathematics classrooms. Providing reflective accounts from the IOTs’ experiences and presenting illustrative examples from their classrooms, the study provides a broad picture of the context in which students learn mathematics. The study recognizes the factors that constrain students from gaining in-depth understanding into subject matter knowledge; it highlights the possibilities of fostering in-depth learning by establishing the primacy of the ...


Deficient Policy Communication Deficient Outcomes – Capacity Building Policy Under Education Reforms In Sindh, Pakistan, Sajid Ali Jun 2011

Deficient Policy Communication Deficient Outcomes – Capacity Building Policy Under Education Reforms In Sindh, Pakistan, Sajid Ali

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Education decentralisation in Pakistan started from 2001 through an all-out devolution programme of the government across sectors. To strengthen the decentralisation reform and build capacity of district educational managers a USAID sponsored programme Education Sector Reform Assistance (ESRA) was launched in 2003. In order to assess the impact of these capacity building initiatives, a research study was carried out during 2005-2006. The research used qualitative design and was carried out in one of the ESRA target districts in Sindh province. The paper argues the improper communication of policy severely compromised the achievement of intended policy objectives. The research noted that ...


Strengthening Africa’S Contributions To Child Development Research: Introduction, Kofi Marfo, Alan Pence, Robert A. Levine, Sarah Levine May 2011

Strengthening Africa’S Contributions To Child Development Research: Introduction, Kofi Marfo, Alan Pence, Robert A. Levine, Sarah Levine

Institute for Human Development

The articles in this Special Section are based on contributions to an SRCD-sponsored invitational conference held in Victoria, Canada, in February 2009. This introductory article establishes the rationale for focusing on Africa as part of an effort to advance a more inclusive science of child development, provides a brief overview of the thrust of the other articles in the section, describes 2 research capacity-building initiatives that emerged from the conference, and concludes with reflective perspectives on conceptual and methodological considerations for a future African child development field.


One Step On A New Journey, Salima Shahzad Arwani May 2011

One Step On A New Journey, Salima Shahzad Arwani

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Getting The Girls To School: The Community Schools Project In Gilgit-Baltistan Of Pakistan, Mola Dad Shafa Apr 2011

Getting The Girls To School: The Community Schools Project In Gilgit-Baltistan Of Pakistan, Mola Dad Shafa

Professional Development Centre, Gilgit

This paper reviews a ten-year, two-phase educational project that, amongst its main aims, attempted to increase significantly the enrolment of girls in schools. After discussing the constraints on the lives of females in the region, the paper analyses the effects of the project on enrolment. Although girls’ enrolment doubled, a large proportion of girls remained out of school and the drop-out rate of girls was significantly higher than that of boys. The paper examines the reasons for these trends and suggests that, contrary to some expectations, many parents are willing to send their girls to school, but only under strictly ...


Food For Thought: Eathing For The Baby & You, Cassandra Fernandes Faria Apr 2011

Food For Thought: Eathing For The Baby & You, Cassandra Fernandes Faria

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Change Agents’ Orientations To Change: Experience From Pakistan, Mir Afzal Tajik Feb 2011

Change Agents’ Orientations To Change: Experience From Pakistan, Mir Afzal Tajik

Professional Development Centre, Chitral

In this article, I report on a qualitative study conducted in the rural, mountain district of Chitral, Pakistan. The study examined 5 Teacher Educators (TEs’) specific actions and methods (strategies) and their underlying assumptions and core values (orientations) of change in schools. These TEs work as change agents in the schools established by the Aga Khan Education Service, Pakistan (AKES,P) in partnership with local communities. The TEs’ mandate from AKES,P insists that educational change and community development must go hand-in-hand. They therefore play a unique role as both educational reformers and community developers, stimulating change in schools on ...


The Personal Values Of School Leaders In Pakistan: A Contextual Model Of Regulation And Influence, Sharifullah Baig Jan 2011

The Personal Values Of School Leaders In Pakistan: A Contextual Model Of Regulation And Influence, Sharifullah Baig

Professional Development Centre, Gilgit

This paper illuminates the sources of personal values and their influence on the leadership practices of two school head teachers in the particular context of Pakistan. A comparative case study method has been followed within the qualitative research paradigm where semistructured interviews, observations, and document analyses were used as the main data collection tools. This study finds that the types of personal values and the motivational bases for the acquisition of such values are very much contextually-centered. The data for both principals, despite the exceedingly different characteristics of their childhood communities, reveals that the inherent religious and communal values of ...


Continuing Medical Education And Pharmaceutical Industry, Farhan Saeed Vakani, Wasim Jafri, Almas Amin, Mughis Sheerani Jan 2011

Continuing Medical Education And Pharmaceutical Industry, Farhan Saeed Vakani, Wasim Jafri, Almas Amin, Mughis Sheerani

Department of Continuing Professional Education

Continuing medical education providers' (academia) and industrial relationship is drawing attention all over the world. To date, there are no national commercial support guidelines available in Pakistan to properly regulate cooperation between the two distinct entities. However, the fact is that the future of all continuing medical education depends on pharmaceutical support and the providers are heavily dependent on the pharmaceutical industry to remain in action. It should always be remembered that medical education and profession is regarded as a moral of enterprise based on a blind faith between the physician and the patient. The funding support by the industry ...


Multilingual Education In South Africa: The Role Of Publishers, Viv Edwards, Jacob Marriote Ngwaru Jan 2011

Multilingual Education In South Africa: The Role Of Publishers, Viv Edwards, Jacob Marriote Ngwaru

Institute for Educational Development, East Africa

The South African constitution and related legislative tools provide a supportive framework for multilingual education. Successful implementation, however, requires appropriate learning materials and questions remain as to the vision and commitment of publishers to producing them. Based on an analysis of currently available books for children and interviews with publishers and key figures in the book value chain, this paper explores both the educational rationale for African language publishing and the issues that constrain expansion. These issues include the heavy dependence on the schools market in a society where the majority of the population cannot or do not buy books ...


Transforming Classroom Discourse And Pedagogy In Rural Zimbabwe Classrooms: The Place Of Local Culture And Mother Tongue Use, Jacob Marriote Ngwaru Jan 2011

Transforming Classroom Discourse And Pedagogy In Rural Zimbabwe Classrooms: The Place Of Local Culture And Mother Tongue Use, Jacob Marriote Ngwaru

Institute for Educational Development, East Africa

Rural African classrooms are still practicing discourses and pedagogies that contribute towards students' continued underachievement and marginalization. The use of behaviourist-based pedagogical approaches and the exclusion of learners' socio-cultural experiences including their mother tongue (MT) still characterize most classroom practices. The use of classroom discourse that severely constrains opportunities for pupil participation and the development of higher order thinking skills has also been noted. This paper describes an intervention based on the principles of transformative and constructive developmental pedagogy designed to improve approaches to teaching and learning in a primary school in rural Zimbabwe. Examples of prevailing classroom practices organized ...