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2005

University of Pennsylvania

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Articles 1 - 29 of 29

Full-Text Articles in Education

A Gap In The Literature: The Influence Of The Design, Operations, And Marketing Of Student Aid Programs On College-Going Plans And Behaviors, Laura W. Perna Dec 2005

A Gap In The Literature: The Influence Of The Design, Operations, And Marketing Of Student Aid Programs On College-Going Plans And Behaviors, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

This article describes what is known from prior research about the impact of student financial aid program design, operations, and marketing on the formation of family (including parents’ and children’s) college-going aspirations, expectations, and plans, and the resulting college-going behaviors of potential students. The review focuses on the experiences of lower-income, minority, and potential first-generation college students.


What Can Penn Learn From The Nation’S Historically Black Colleges And Universities?, Marybeth Gasman Nov 2005

What Can Penn Learn From The Nation’S Historically Black Colleges And Universities?, Marybeth Gasman

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Intervening Early And Successfully In The Education Pipeline, Laura W. Perna, Michelle Asha Cooper Sep 2005

Intervening Early And Successfully In The Education Pipeline, Laura W. Perna, Michelle Asha Cooper

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Teacher Quality And Educational Equality: Do Teachers With Higher Standards‐Based Evaluation Ratings Close Student Achievement Gaps?, Geoffrey D. Borman, Steven M. Kimball Sep 2005

Teacher Quality And Educational Equality: Do Teachers With Higher Standards‐Based Evaluation Ratings Close Student Achievement Gaps?, Geoffrey D. Borman, Steven M. Kimball

CPRE Journal Articles

Using standards‐based evaluation ratings for nearly 400 teachers, and achievement results for over 7,000 students from grades 4–6, this study investigated the distribution and achievement effects of teacher quality in Washoe County, a mid‐sized school district serving Reno and Sparks, Nevada. Classrooms with higher concentrations of minority, poor, and low‐achieving students were more likely to be taught by teachers with lower evaluation scores. Two‐level multilevel models, nesting students within classrooms, tended to show higher mean achievement in classrooms taught by teachers of higher than lower quality, with differences of approximately one‐tenth of 1 ...


The Relationship Between Parental Involvement As Social Capital And College Enrollment: An Examination Of Racial/Ethnic Group Differences, Laura W. Perna, Marvin A. Titus Sep 2005

The Relationship Between Parental Involvement As Social Capital And College Enrollment: An Examination Of Racial/Ethnic Group Differences, Laura W. Perna, Marvin A. Titus

GSE Publications

Although comparable percentages of African American and White high school sophomores expect to finish college (Nettles & Perna, 1997), smaller shares of African Americans and Hispanics than of Whites actually enroll. Only 39% of African American and 32% of Hispanic high school graduates between the ages of 18 and 24 were addenrolled in college in 1999, compared with 45% of Whites (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2001).


Voz Y Biliteracidad En La Revitalización De Lenguas Indígenas: Prácticas Contenciosas En Contextos Quechua, Guaraní, Y Maori, Nancy H. Hornberger Sep 2005

Voz Y Biliteracidad En La Revitalización De Lenguas Indígenas: Prácticas Contenciosas En Contextos Quechua, Guaraní, Y Maori, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

Portuguese:

Voz y Biliteracidad en la Revitalización de Lenguas Indígenas: Prácticas Contenciosas en Contextos Quechua, Guaraní, y Maori

Resumo: Este artigo examina instâncias de práticas educacionais de biletramento em contextos de revitalização de línguas indígenas envolvendo Quéchua nos Andes da América do Sul, Guarani no Paraguai e Maori em Aoteraroa, Nova Zelândia. Nesses contextos de opressão sociolingüística e sócio-histórica, a implementação de políticas de línguas multilíngües mediante educação multilíngüe acarreta escolhas, dilemas e até mesmo contradições em práticas educacionais. Examino exemplos de tais práticas educacionais contenciosas de um ponto de vista ecológico, empregando os contínuos de biletramento e a noção ...


Standards Deviation: How Schools Misunderstand Education Policy, James P. Spillane Jun 2005

Standards Deviation: How Schools Misunderstand Education Policy, James P. Spillane

CPRE Policy Briefs

Instructional policy reforms that focus on standards and assessments have gained popularity in the last two decades. State governments, which had previously left most instructional matters to local governance, set challenging learning standards and developed related assessments and curricular frameworks. Despite their popularity and persistence, standards-based reforms face the challenge of successful local implementation. Occupying an intermediary position between the statehouse and the schoolhouse, the local school district has significant potential to influence standards implementation. It is important to consider the consequences for classroom instruction of what districts do in response to standards. While states may set standards and provide ...


Keeping Teachers Happy: Job Satisfaction Among Primary School Teachers In Rural Northwest China, Tanja Sargent, Emily Hannum May 2005

Keeping Teachers Happy: Job Satisfaction Among Primary School Teachers In Rural Northwest China, Tanja Sargent, Emily Hannum

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

Numerous empirical studies from developing countries have noted that parental education has a robust and positive effect on child learning, a result that is often attributed to more educated parents making greater investments in their children's human capital. However, the nature of any such investment has not been well understood. This study examines how parental education affects various parental investments in goods and time used in children's human capital production via an unusually detailed survey from rural China. It is found that more educated parents make greater educational investments in both goods and time and that these relationships ...


Is The United States Really Losing The International Horse Race In Academic Achievement?, Erling E. Boe, Sujie Shin May 2005

Is The United States Really Losing The International Horse Race In Academic Achievement?, Erling E. Boe, Sujie Shin

GSE Publications

The results of international assessments of student achievement are far more nuanced than the headlines lead us to believe. Having examined six comparisons of performance — in various subjects and at various levels — by students in the U.S. and other industrialized nations, Mr. Boe and Ms. Shin conclude that the dire pronouncements about America’s standing are greatly exaggerated.


Borrowers Who Drop Out: A Neglected Aspect Of The College Student Loan Trend, Laura W. Perna May 2005

Borrowers Who Drop Out: A Neglected Aspect Of The College Student Loan Trend, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

Most students benefit from loans and are able to repay them when they leave higher education. However, borrowing, combined with other risk factors for not completing higher education (such as working too many hours, lack of adequate preparation, and part-time attendance), puts many students, especially low-income and first-generation students, at a particular disadvantage. The authors raise important policy questions about whether the system of financing higher education is appropriate. We believe that these questions and the recommendations from the authors deserve serious attention. There are, of course, many legitimate points of view about how to best support students financially. However ...


Toward Intelligent Assistance For A Data Mining Process: An Ontology-Based Approach For Cost-Sensitive Classification, Abraham Bernstein, Shawndra Hill, Foster Provost Apr 2005

Toward Intelligent Assistance For A Data Mining Process: An Ontology-Based Approach For Cost-Sensitive Classification, Abraham Bernstein, Shawndra Hill, Foster Provost

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

A data mining (DM) process involves multiple stages. A simple, but typical, process might include preprocessing data, applying a data mining algorithm, and postprocessing the mining results. There are many possible choices for each stage, and only some combinations are valid. Because of the large space and nontrivial interactions, both novices and data mining specialists need assistance in composing and selecting DM processes. Extending notions developed for statistical expert systems we present a prototype intelligent discovery assistant (IDA), which provides users with 1) systematic enumerations of valid DM processes, in order that important, potentially fruitful options are not overlooked, and ...


Rethinking Parent Involvement: African American Mothers Construct Their Roles In The Mathematics Education Of Their Children, Kara Jackson, Janine Remillard Mar 2005

Rethinking Parent Involvement: African American Mothers Construct Their Roles In The Mathematics Education Of Their Children, Kara Jackson, Janine Remillard

GSE Publications

This article presents initial findings from a study that examined how African American mothers from a low-income neighborhood conceptualized their roles in their children’s mathematics learning. Based on interviews and observations focusing on ten mothers’ involvement in their children’s education, we offer a framework that expands typical characterizations of parent involvement. This framework privileges practices that are both traditionally visible and invisible to the school and highlights how parents act as “intellectual resources” in their children’s education (Civil, Guevara, & Allexsaht-Snider, 2002). Our findings offer evidence that traditional understandings of parent involvement may overlook ways that low-income parents ...


No Child Left Behind: Repealing And “Unpeeling” Federal Language Education Policy In The United States, Bruce A. Evans, Nancy H. Hornberger Mar 2005

No Child Left Behind: Repealing And “Unpeeling” Federal Language Education Policy In The United States, Bruce A. Evans, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

For more than three decades U.S. language education policy was realized through the Bilingual Education Act (BEA), enacted in 1968 to meet the educational needs of language minority students. The BEA emphasized bilingual education and provided options for the development of students’ native language as well as their English language proficiency and academic achievement. In 2002 the BEA was replaced with the English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act. Current policy implicitly repeals the BEA and emphasizes the need for schools to quickly develop students' English language proficiency and move them to English only classrooms. Drawing on ...


High Hopes: How High Schools Respond To State Accountability Policies, Betheny Gross, Margaret E. Goertz Mar 2005

High Hopes: How High Schools Respond To State Accountability Policies, Betheny Gross, Margaret E. Goertz

CPRE Research Reports

This report by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) focuses squarely on strategies for instructional improvement in American high schools. Specifically, this study examines how high schools that perform below average incorporate their state’s accountability goals into their own goals, identify their challenges, and search for strategies for instructional improvement. We focus on how high schools of differing performance levels and contexts, residing in states with different forms of high-stakes accountability and support systems, identify, understand, and respond to the gap between their current levels of performance and external expectations for their performance.


Towards A New Compact For University Education In Ontario, Ronald Daniels, Michael J. Trebilcock Jan 2005

Towards A New Compact For University Education In Ontario, Ronald Daniels, Michael J. Trebilcock

Departmental Papers (School of Law)

Over the past decade, a number of different industrialized democracies have critically examined the structure and performance of their postsecondary education systems. By and large, the focus of this attention has been on the capacity of the state to support the needs and aspirations of the traditional publicly funded research-intensive university. In the received model, the public research university receives significant levels of funding from the state to support its research and teaching activities, but is subject to some level of state oversight and control so as to render the activities of the institution congruent with the public interest. The ...


Local Residential Sorting And Public Goods Provision: A Classroom Demonstration, Keith Brouhle, Jay Corrigan, Rachel Croson, Martin Farnham, Selhan Garip, Luba Habodaszova, Laurie T. Johnson, Martin Johnson, David Reiley Jan 2005

Local Residential Sorting And Public Goods Provision: A Classroom Demonstration, Keith Brouhle, Jay Corrigan, Rachel Croson, Martin Farnham, Selhan Garip, Luba Habodaszova, Laurie T. Johnson, Martin Johnson, David Reiley

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This classroom exercise illustrates the Tiebout (1956) hypothesis that residential sorting across multiple jurisdictions leads to a more efficient allocation of local public goods. The exercise places students with heterogeneous preferences over a public good into a single classroom community. A simple voting mechanism determines the level of public good provision in the community. Next, the classroom is divided in two, and students may choose to move between the two smaller communities, sorting themselves according to their preferences for public goods. The exercise places cost on movement at first, then allows for costless sorting. Students have the opportunity to observe ...


Holding High Hopes: How High Schools Respond To State Accountability Policies, Margaret E. Goertz, Diane Massell Jan 2005

Holding High Hopes: How High Schools Respond To State Accountability Policies, Margaret E. Goertz, Diane Massell

CPRE Policy Briefs

American public education faces increasing pressure to carry out its mission of preparing youths with the skills to compete in today's global economy and to participate constructively in a democratic society. As part of this pressure, policymakers have developed increasingly sophisticated accountability and support systems to steer schools towards improved performance. These "new accountability" approaches emphasize student performance over system inputs, focus on schools rather than school districts as units of improvement, and use public reporting of student outcomes and rewards and sanctions as ways to motivate schools to alter their curriculum and instructional practices (Fuhrman, 1999). These strategies ...


Opening And Filling Up Implementational And Ideological Spaces In Heritage Language Education, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2005

Opening And Filling Up Implementational And Ideological Spaces In Heritage Language Education, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Transforming The First Year Of College For Students Of Color, Laura W. Perna, Michelle A. Cooper Jan 2005

Transforming The First Year Of College For Students Of Color, Laura W. Perna, Michelle A. Cooper

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Letters To The Editor: More To The Story, Laura W. Perna, Sharon Fries-Britt, Jeffrey Milem, John Williams Jan 2005

Letters To The Editor: More To The Story, Laura W. Perna, Sharon Fries-Britt, Jeffrey Milem, John Williams

GSE Publications

Editor-We are writing to comment on your article, "A Mixed Blessing? Critics object to Mississippi's settlement of a 1975 anti-segregation lawsuit involving the state's 'historically black universities' " (National CrossTalk, Summer 2004). While shedding light on the "desegregation" of the historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in Mississippi, the article could also mislead readers about the extent to which colleges and universities in the 19 southern and southern-border states are providing equal educational opportunity to blacks.


Second Language Acquisition Research And Applied Linguistics, Teresa Pica Jan 2005

Second Language Acquisition Research And Applied Linguistics, Teresa Pica

GSE Publications

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the past several decades, and to highlight the ways in which it has retained its original applied and linguistic interests, and enhanced them by addressing questions about acquisition processes. As the paper will illustrate, SLA research has become increasingly bi-directional and multi-faceted in its applications. These many applications to and from the study of SLA reflect the robustness and vitality of the field.


A Theoretical Model To Explain The Overrepresentation Of College Men Among Campus Judicial Offenders: Implications For Campus Administrators, Shaun R. Harper, Ph.D., Frank Harris Iii, Kenechukwu (K.C.) Mmeje Jan 2005

A Theoretical Model To Explain The Overrepresentation Of College Men Among Campus Judicial Offenders: Implications For Campus Administrators, Shaun R. Harper, Ph.D., Frank Harris Iii, Kenechukwu (K.C.) Mmeje

GSE Publications

As is the case in most K-12 schools, male students, in comparison to their female counterparts, disproportionately violate policies and are sanctioned more often for violence and disruptive behaviors on college and university campuses across the country. A theoretical model to explain this phenomenon is proposed in this article. Specifically, a synthesis of existing literature and theories from sociology, psychology, men’s studies, and education resulted in the identification of six acute variables that explain male overrepresentation among campus judicial offenders. While each component of the model is thoroughly explained, insight into interactions among the six variables is also offered ...


Staffing Practices, Professional Preparation Trends, And Demographics Among Student Affairs Administrators At Hbcus: Implications From A National Study, Shaun R. Harper, Ph.D., Walter M. Kimbrough, Ph.D. Jan 2005

Staffing Practices, Professional Preparation Trends, And Demographics Among Student Affairs Administrators At Hbcus: Implications From A National Study, Shaun R. Harper, Ph.D., Walter M. Kimbrough, Ph.D.

GSE Publications

Results from a national demographic study of student affairs administrators at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are presented in this article. Specifically, staffing practices in student affairs divisions and the educational backgrounds and aspirations of directors, senior student affairs administrators, and chief student affairs officers (n=270) were examined. Data from 52 four-year institutions show that HBCU student affairs administrators, especially those at the director level, hold advanced degrees in fields other than student affairs and higher education administration. More than 70% of those without doctoral degrees aspired to pursue them someday. Other findings reveal gender disparities between women ...


The Benefits Of Higher Education: Sex, Racial/Ethnic, And Socioeconomic Group Differences, Laura W. Perna Jan 2005

The Benefits Of Higher Education: Sex, Racial/Ethnic, And Socioeconomic Group Differences, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

This study analyzes data from the NELS:92/00 to explore sex, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic group differences in the benefits that high school graduates realize from college. Sex differences in higher education benefits may be a source of observed differences between women and men in college enrollment and degree attainment rates. The findings also suggest that observed racial/ethnic and SES group differences in college enrollment cannot be attributed to actual differences in higher education's economic and non-economic benefits, as some benefits are greater for African Americans than for Whites and benefits generally do not vary by SES.


Early Childhood Experiences And Kindergarten Success: A Population-Based Study Of A Large Urban Setting, John Fantuzzo, Heather L. Rouse, Paul Mcdermott, Stephen Childs, Andrea Weiss Jan 2005

Early Childhood Experiences And Kindergarten Success: A Population-Based Study Of A Large Urban Setting, John Fantuzzo, Heather L. Rouse, Paul Mcdermott, Stephen Childs, Andrea Weiss

GSE Publications

This study examined the unique protective influence of center-based early care and education experiences on kindergarten outcomes for children entering public school kindergarten. The 3,969 participants were geographically and demographically representative of an entire kindergarten cohort in a large urban school district. Child age, gender, ethnicity, family poverty, low maternal education, and neighborhood were found to be risks for academic and behavioral adjustment upon kindergarten entry. Controlling for these risks, formal, center-based experiences were related significantly to higher levels of Language Arts, Mathematics, Social Knowledge, Motor Skills, and Work Habits performance assessments and attendance in kindergarten. Initial advantages associated ...


The Dilemma Of Presidential Leadership, Robert Birnbaum, Peter D. Eckel Jan 2005

The Dilemma Of Presidential Leadership, Robert Birnbaum, Peter D. Eckel

GSE Publications

Every decade, about five thousand persons serve as college or university presidents. Over a term of office averaging less than seven years, the president is expected to serve simultaneously as the chief administrator of a large and complex bureaucracy, as the convening colleague of a professional community, as a symbolic elder in a campus culture of shared values and symbols, and (in some institutions) as a public official accountable to a public board and responsive to the demands of other governmental agencies. Balancing the conflicting expectations of these roles has always been difficult; changing demographic trends, fiscal constraints, the complexity ...


Heritage/Community Language Education: Us And Australian Perspectives, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2005

Heritage/Community Language Education: Us And Australian Perspectives, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


The Elusive Ideal: Civic Learning And Higher Education, Matthew Hartley, Elizabeth L. Hollander Jan 2005

The Elusive Ideal: Civic Learning And Higher Education, Matthew Hartley, Elizabeth L. Hollander

GSE Publications

General book description:

From curriculum standards and testing to school choice and civic learning, issues in American education are some of the most debated in the United States. The Institutions of American Democracy , a collection of essays by the nation's leading education scholars and professionals, is designed to inform the debate and stimulate change. In association with the Annenberg Foundation Trust at Sunnylands and the Annenberg Public Policy Center at the University of Pennsylvania, The Institutions of American Democracy is the first in a series of books commissioned to enhance public understanding of the nature and function of democratic ...


Strategic Leadership For Education Reform: Lessons From The Statewide Systemic Initiatives Program, Daniel Heck, Iris Weiss Jan 2005

Strategic Leadership For Education Reform: Lessons From The Statewide Systemic Initiatives Program, Daniel Heck, Iris Weiss

CPRE Policy Briefs

In 1990, the National Science Foundation (NSF) created the Statewide Systemic Initiative Program. The solicitation issued by the Directorate for Science and Engineering Education sought proposals “for projects intended to broaden the impact, accelerate the pace, and increase the effectiveness of improvements in science, mathematics, and engineering education in both K-12 and post-secondary levels“(NSF, 1990, p. 1).

Projects funded as Statewide Systemic Initiatives (SSIs) were to align various parts of the system to produce comprehensive, coordinated, and sustained change. Curriculum learning goals; content, instructional materials, and practice; assessment; teacher recruitment and preparation; and professional development of teachers, administrators, and ...