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G81-539 Assisting The Beef Cow At Calving Time, Gene H. Deutscher, Donald B. Hudson Jan 1981

G81-539 Assisting The Beef Cow At Calving Time, Gene H. Deutscher, Donald B. Hudson

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This publication acquaints cattle producers with calving management principles to minimize calf loss. The objective is to deliver a live calf from every cow. Six to ten percent of all calves born in beef cow herds in the U.S. die at or soon after birth. Approximately half of those deaths are due to calving difficulty (dystocia). This multi-million dollar annual loss is second only to losses from cows failing to conceive. Calving difficulty has received much more attention in recent years, primarily because of the mating of larger European breeds of bulls to British breeds of cows. Increased calving ...


Heg81-147 Seam Finishes, Linda K. Biles Jan 1981

Heg81-147 Seam Finishes, Linda K. Biles

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Learn to recognize different types of seam finishes, their advantages, and how to sew them.

A seam finish is a treatment applied to the raw edge of a seam allowance to prevent the fabric from fraying. It may also add a touch of beauty to the inside of an unlined garment.


G81-540 Peppers (Revised May 1990), Dale T. Lindgren, Laurie Hodges Jan 1981

G81-540 Peppers (Revised May 1990), Dale T. Lindgren, Laurie Hodges

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Various peppers and their care are discussed here.

Peppers are treated as warm-season annual crops when grown in Nebraska gardens. They are related to eggplants, potatoes and tomatoes, all of which belong to the Solanaceae (Nightshade) family.


G81-556 Using The California Mastitis Test (Cmt) To Detect Subclinical Mastitis, Duane N. Rice Jan 1981

G81-556 Using The California Mastitis Test (Cmt) To Detect Subclinical Mastitis, Duane N. Rice

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Apparently healthy cows can harbor subclinical mastitis, which creates tremendous loss in milk production. This NebGuide offers a method for detecting this disease.

The dairyman is generally aware of clinical mastitis because it can be seen as changes in the milk, swollen udder and other signs exhibited by the cow. Compared with subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis is much less costly, is of short duration, tends to be an individual cow problem, and is detected without special tests.

Unfortunately, the apparently healthy cow can harbor subclinical mastitis, which creates tremendous loss in milk production. A cow with subclinical mastitis does not ...


G81-578 Fuel Use For Field Operations, Leonard L. Bashford, David P. Shelton Jan 1981

G81-578 Fuel Use For Field Operations, Leonard L. Bashford, David P. Shelton

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide discusses common grazing problems and offers solutions.

The amount of fuel used for field operations depends on many factors, including correct tractor-implement matching, proper tractor ballasting, condition of the tractor and implements, depth of tillage, idle time, and soil type and condition. The tillage practices used for a particular crop will be a major factor in the fuel needed for a complete production cycle.

Good estimates of fuel requirements are necessary for planning purposes. If fuel use records are available and reflect the soil conditions and management practice for a particular farmstead, they should be used. However, if ...


G81-552 Effects Of Weather On Corn Planting And Seedling Establishment, Ralph E. Neild Jan 1981

G81-552 Effects Of Weather On Corn Planting And Seedling Establishment, Ralph E. Neild

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Corn planting usually begins when the average daily temperature first rises 55°F and the soil becomes sufficiently warm enough to initiate germination and sustain seedling growth. This may be as early as the middle of March in central Texas 700 miles south of Nebraska or as late as the middle of May in central South Dakota. Corn may be planted as early as the first week of April in southeast Nebraska and continue into the first week of June. Most of the corn, however, is planted between May 4 and May 21.

Corn planted early when the temperature is ...


G81-579 Nebraska Tractor Tests, Leonard L. Bashford, Kenneth Von Bargen Jan 1981

G81-579 Nebraska Tractor Tests, Leonard L. Bashford, Kenneth Von Bargen

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Nebraska tractor tests provide agricultural tractor users with unbiased information on machine performance.

Purpose of the Tests

Nebraska tractor tests are made to provide agricultural tractor users with unbiased information about tractor performance. The test data allows the user to make meaningful comparisons between tractors.


G81-544 Residue Management For Soil Erosion Control, Elbert C. Dickey, David P. Shelton, Paul J. Jasa Jan 1981

G81-544 Residue Management For Soil Erosion Control, Elbert C. Dickey, David P. Shelton, Paul J. Jasa

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide discusses how crop residue can be used to control soil erosion.

Crop residue is increasingly being used as a major tool to reduce the loss of one of Nebraska's most valuable resources--its topsoil. Soil erosion and the subsequent sedimentation have been identified as major water quality problems in the state. Residue reduces soil erosion caused by both wind and water. However, this NebGuide deals mainly with soil erosion caused by water since it accounts for 80 percent of Nebraska's soil loss.


G81-581 Cross Fences For Pastures Under Center Pivot Irrigation, James T. Nichols Jan 1981

G81-581 Cross Fences For Pastures Under Center Pivot Irrigation, James T. Nichols

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide discusses different types of fences for center pivot irrigated pastures.

Irrigated pastures produce more forage and maintain stands longer under a "graze-rest" system of use. When grazing is practiced season-long, cross fences are necessary to control 1) when and for how long grazing is permitted on a particular pasture, and 2) the degree of desired use. These controls are not possible without cross fences, and sound grazing management becomes difficult.


G81-551 Ecofarming: Spring Row Crop Planting And Weed Control In Winter Wheat Stubble, Gail A. Wicks, Norman L. Klocke Jan 1981

G81-551 Ecofarming: Spring Row Crop Planting And Weed Control In Winter Wheat Stubble, Gail A. Wicks, Norman L. Klocke

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Weed control, stubble management and planters for planting in winter wheat stubble are covered here.

Planting corn, sorghum or soybeans into untilled, weed-free winter wheat stubble that is 10 months old is an accepted practice in the Central Great Plains States. In Nebraska, this system is known as ecofallow. Treating the stubble with herbicides following wheat harvest (ecofallow) offers several advantages:

Weed and volunteer wheat growth can be eliminated. Weed growth robs valuable moisture that could be used by the next year's crop.

Standing stubble provides an excellent snow trap during the winter. Snow melt can provide moisture for ...


G81-546 Ecofarming: Fallow Aids In Winter Wheat-Fallow Rotation, Gail A. Wicks, Charles R. Fenster Jan 1981

G81-546 Ecofarming: Fallow Aids In Winter Wheat-Fallow Rotation, Gail A. Wicks, Charles R. Fenster

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide discusses the use of ecofarming to control weeds and manage crop residues.

Ecofarming is defined as a system of controlling weeds and managing crop residues throughout a crop rotation with minimum use of tillage so as to reduce soil erosion and production costs while increasing weed control, water infiltration, moisture conservation and crop yields. Energy requirements are much lower with ecofallow than with normal fallow systems. The ecofallow period in the 3-year rotation is the period between wheat or other small grain harvest and the planting of corn or sorghum. The fallow period in the 2-year rotation occurs ...


Heg81-146 The Cut Up Chicken, Part Ii, Daniel E. Bigbee Jan 1981

Heg81-146 The Cut Up Chicken, Part Ii, Daniel E. Bigbee

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide shows how to cut a chicken carcass into breast, wings, thighs, drumsticks, ribs and back. You can save from 5 to 10 cents per pound if you cut up your own broiler-fryer chickens. There are two basic ways of cutting the chicken carcass. This guide shows how to cut the carcass into breast, wings, thighs, drumsticks, ribs and back. The Cut Up Chicken, Part I, HEG 81-145, shows how to cut these parts with the ribs and back attached to the breast or thigh.


Heg81-145 The Cut Up Chicken, Part I, Daniel E. Bigbee Jan 1981

Heg81-145 The Cut Up Chicken, Part I, Daniel E. Bigbee

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide shows how to cut a chicken carcass into breast with ribs, wings, thighs with back, and drumsticks. You can save from 5 to 10 cents per pound if you cut up your own broiler-fryer chickens. There are two basic ways of cutting the chicken carcass. This guide shows how to cut the carcass into breast with ribs, wings, thighs with back, and drumsticks. The Cut Up Chicken, Part II, HEG 81-146, shows how to cut these parts with the ribs and back as separate pieces.


Heg81-144 Home Processing Of Chickens, Daniel E. Bigbee Jan 1981

Heg81-144 Home Processing Of Chickens, Daniel E. Bigbee

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide provides complete step-by-step instructions with pictures for home processing of chickens. Steps for processing chickens are feed withdrawal, killing, scalding, plucking, eviscerating, cooling, packaging, and freezing.


Heg81-143 Meat Storage Guidelines, H. Dwight Loveday, Sheri Horn Jan 1981

Heg81-143 Meat Storage Guidelines, H. Dwight Loveday, Sheri Horn

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Because meat is a highly perishable food item, extra care and attention are needed to ensure that a high quality, wholesome product is served.

Unwholesomeness and spoilage of meat are caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. This contamination generally occurs during cutting and processing. These bacteria require three conditions for growth:

low acidity (near neutral pH) level within the meat;

an available supply of water or other moisture, such as meat juices;

a warm temperature -- generally between 45° and 127°F.

Therefore, to prevent spoilage and the possibility of food borne illness, precautions must be taken to control these three ...


G81-548 Organic Gardening In The Backyard (Revised June 1990), Dale T. Lindgren, Don Steinegger, Frederick P. Baxendale, John E. Watkins Jan 1981

G81-548 Organic Gardening In The Backyard (Revised June 1990), Dale T. Lindgren, Don Steinegger, Frederick P. Baxendale, John E. Watkins

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Successful organic gardening requires consideration of many factors, including resistant cultivars, crop rotation, sanitation, incorporation of organic matter, garden location, and insect and disease control.

Organic gardening is growing in popularity. Although this technique traditionally has been limited to backyard gardens, commercial organic farms now exist in Nebraska. The phrase "organically grown" generally refers to produce grown and processed without the use of synthetic organic chemicals in pesticides, fertilizers, preservatives, or flavorings. The main arguments for organic gardening are that food is less likely to contain potentially harmful chemicals and that fewer chemicals are released into the environment. Arguments against ...


G81-550 Ecofarming Operating High Capacity Sprayers (Floaters) For Herbicide Application, Gail A. Wicks, Charles R. Fenster, Norman L. Klocke Jan 1981

G81-550 Ecofarming Operating High Capacity Sprayers (Floaters) For Herbicide Application, Gail A. Wicks, Charles R. Fenster, Norman L. Klocke

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide will help you determine whether you are covered by or exempt from the Worker Protection Standard and provide information on how to comply.

Many flotation sprayers are only used to spray fertilizers and herbicides in the spring. Ecofarming, however, represents a March to November market for them. Successful ecofarming requires precision spraying of herbicides on the winter wheat stubble, and offers tremendous opportunities for professional applicators. Commercial application eliminates some of the field work for the farmer, which is an important element for more efficient farming. The commercial applicator is also able to do a better job since ...


G81-542 The Home Laying Flock, Part Ii Management, Earl W. Gleaves Jan 1981

G81-542 The Home Laying Flock, Part Ii Management, Earl W. Gleaves

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide contains management suggestions pertinent to the home laying flock.

NebGuide G81-541, The Home Laying Flock, Part I: Getting Started, provides information on the early decisions, housing, equipment and some management procedures related to these topics. This NebGuide covers other management suggestions pertinent to the home laying flock.


G81-541 The Home Laying Flock, Part I Getting Started, Earl W. Gleaves Jan 1981

G81-541 The Home Laying Flock, Part I Getting Started, Earl W. Gleaves

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide tells what is involved in starting a home laying flock.

Home egg operations have maintained popularity in Nebraska. These small flocks provide a means for producing high quality food at home. They also provide the opportunity for young people to learn the responsibility of caring for animals. A well planned, well managed home flock can be a source of personal pleasure and sometimes a source of low-cost eggs.


G81-538 Brooding And Rearing The Home Meat Flock, Earl W. Gleaves Jan 1981

G81-538 Brooding And Rearing The Home Meat Flock, Earl W. Gleaves

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide discusses raising chickens for meat.

The objective of owning and raising a home flock should be to satisfy needs other than income production. For example, many people prefer fryer-type chickens of heavier weights to the lighter weight ranges available in many stores. Product freshness is the objective of some home flock owners; others are interested in the small flock in much the same way that some people are interested in a garden. A well-managed home flock can be a good source of fresh poultry meat. However, home flock producers should not plan to raise more birds than their ...


G81-563 Grazing Management Of Irrigated Grass Pastures, James T. Nichols Jan 1981

G81-563 Grazing Management Of Irrigated Grass Pastures, James T. Nichols

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide discusses factors and principles of plant growth that influence irrigated pasture production; suggests management practices that allow irrigated pastures to express their production potential; and suggests stocking rates for various levels of production and classes of cattle.

Grazing management has a major impact on the production potential from irrigated pasture. Proper management practices can maximize pasture production -- poor management ultimately results in unacceptable production levels.


G81-543 Establishing Dryland Forage Grasses, Bruce Anderson Jan 1981

G81-543 Establishing Dryland Forage Grasses, Bruce Anderson

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Preparation, seed selection, seedbed preparation, fertilization, methods of seeding, time and rate of seeding, weed control and more are covered in this NebGuide.

Grass pastures provide more total nutrients to the cattle and sheep industry in Nebraska than any other feedstuff. However, many areas often face a shortage of pasture during certain seasons of the year.

In eastern Nebraska abundant cool-season pasture usually is available during spring and fail, but during July and August there is little or no grass growth. Conversely, warm-season native range provides much forage during summer in central and western Nebraska, but not in spring and ...


Heg81-137 Sewing For Children (Revised November 1984), Rose Marie Tondl Jan 1981

Heg81-137 Sewing For Children (Revised November 1984), Rose Marie Tondl

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide discusses issues that should be considered when sewing for children.

Sewing for children can be great fun and a real opportunity to express your creativity. Before you decide to sew, however, ask yourself these questions:

Do I have enough skill to make the garment satisfactorily?

Do I own a sewing machine that is in good operating condition?

Do I have time to sew?

Do I enjoy sewing?

Will the finished garment be a source of pride for me and my child?

Am I able to determine which garments can be made at home at a real savings, and ...


G81-574 Reproductive Diseases In Cattle, Duane Rice Jan 1981

G81-574 Reproductive Diseases In Cattle, Duane Rice

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

The reproductive diseases mentioned in this NebGuide comprise some of the more common problems confronting the cattle industry today.

Although many advances have been made in controlling reproductive diseases in cattle, serious losses are still common. These losses can be reduced by recognizing the diseases and following the proper management recommendations that are available today. Nearly 50 percent of reproductive failure in cattle is due to infectious diseases, and there are vaccines available that can prevent some of these. Management recommendations may include: 1) vaccines, 2) general sanitation, 3) artificial insemination (AI) or, if a problem is already present, 4 ...


Heg81-148 How To Say Yes--How To Say No, Herbert G. Lingren Jan 1981

Heg81-148 How To Say Yes--How To Say No, Herbert G. Lingren

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide discusses assertive behavior and how to become more assertive.

When you get angry with someone, are you afraid to say anything because you don't want to hurt their feelings?

When the meat you ordered at a restaurant meal is overcooked, do you eat it anyway?

When your partner does something you don't like, do you get angry and yell?

When someone pays you a compliment, do you say, "I didn't really do anything?"

Then you may wish to consider learning to express yourself in a more positive, confident and straightforward manner. Being assertive is based ...


G81-562 Guidelines For Using Pipewick And Other Selective Applicators, William E. Lueschen, Alex R. Martin, John D. Furrer Jan 1981

G81-562 Guidelines For Using Pipewick And Other Selective Applicators, William E. Lueschen, Alex R. Martin, John D. Furrer

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

The use of selective applicators is being rapidly adopted by farmers to supplement their weed control programs. A low-cost method of removing tall, escaped weeds from short stature crops, selective application is also environmentally appealing since the herbicide is applied only to the target weeds and thus only small amounts of herbicides are used.

There are three basic types of applicators available: ropewicks, recirculating sprayers (RCS), and carpeted rollers. This NebGuide discusses each applicator and how it can be used on the farm.


Ec81-760 How To Adjust Vertical Turbine Pumps For Maximum Efficiency, Thomas W. Dorn, Mark A. Schroeder, Paul E. Fischbach Jan 1981

Ec81-760 How To Adjust Vertical Turbine Pumps For Maximum Efficiency, Thomas W. Dorn, Mark A. Schroeder, Paul E. Fischbach

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

The Agricultural Engineering Department has tested more than 500 pumping plants in the past 25 years. The average performance indicates that about 30 percent of the energy used for irrigation could be saved if all pumping plants operated at the Nebraska Performance Criteria.

There were many causes for poor pumping plant performance. Major causes were poor power unit performance, and poor pump performance often caused by improper pump adjustment.

This circular discusses proper pump adjustment to attain maximum efficiency.


Ec81-219, 1981 Nebraska Swine Report, D.B. Hudman, Donald L. Ferguson, D.M. Danielson, Robert M. Timm, Duane E. Reese, Bobby D. Moser, Alex Hogg, Michael F. Kocher, Gerald Bodman, Eugene J. Veburg, J.A. Deshazer, Dennis D. Schulte, Austin J. Lewis, Larry Bitney, E.R. Peo Jr., Kelly Keaschall, Roger W. Mandigo, T.S. Janssen, M.L. Lesiak, D.G. Olson, M. C. Brumm, M.P. Mcginley, William Ahlschwede, Dwane R. Zimmerman Jan 1981

Ec81-219, 1981 Nebraska Swine Report, D.B. Hudman, Donald L. Ferguson, D.M. Danielson, Robert M. Timm, Duane E. Reese, Bobby D. Moser, Alex Hogg, Michael F. Kocher, Gerald Bodman, Eugene J. Veburg, J.A. Deshazer, Dennis D. Schulte, Austin J. Lewis, Larry Bitney, E.R. Peo Jr., Kelly Keaschall, Roger W. Mandigo, T.S. Janssen, M.L. Lesiak, D.G. Olson, M. C. Brumm, M.P. Mcginley, William Ahlschwede, Dwane R. Zimmerman

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This 1981 Nebraska Swine Report was prepared by the staff in Animal Science and cooperating departments for use in the Extension and Teaching programs at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Authors from the following areas contributed to this publication: Swine Nutrition, swine diseases, pathology, economics, engineering, swine breeding, meats, agronomy, and diagnostic laboratory. It covers the following areas: breeding, disease control, feeding, nutrition, economics, housing and meats.


G81-558 Tall Fescue Lawn Calendar (Revised April 2004), Terrance P. Riordan, Roch E. Gaussoin, John E. Watkins, Frederick P. Baxendale Jan 1981

G81-558 Tall Fescue Lawn Calendar (Revised April 2004), Terrance P. Riordan, Roch E. Gaussoin, John E. Watkins, Frederick P. Baxendale

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

This NebGuide on tall fescue lawns discusses the calendar dates of when to mow, fertilize, water, apply herbicides and pesticides, check for insects and diseases, remove thatch, and when to aerify and overseed.


Ec81-402 Shaping A Tailored Garment, Linda K. Biles Jan 1981

Ec81-402 Shaping A Tailored Garment, Linda K. Biles

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Fashion features in coats and suits may appear and disappear but qualities of good constructiondo not change. The well-made tailored garment includes two important components: intefacing to help shape and mold the garment; and tape to define edges.

Tailoring is the process using sewing and pressing techniques to mold the fabric, build shape into the garment, and define garment edges. As with any garment, pressing during the construction process is vital to help establish and maintain the desired effect. This extension circular discusses the basics of shaping a tailored garment.