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Is There A Correlation Between Oral Reading Rate And Social Conversational Speaking Rate?, Sarah C. Mason Jan 2019

Is There A Correlation Between Oral Reading Rate And Social Conversational Speaking Rate?, Sarah C. Mason

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this research was to determine if there was a correlation between oral reading rates and social conversational speaking rates. This research was conducted using a sample size of 25 students, ages 8-12, in one elementary building in Southern Iowa. Student data were collected from a previous district’s fall assessment in the area of oral reading rate. Students were given specific prompts when providing their social conversational speaking. When comparing oral reading rate with their social conversational speaking rate, it was found that there was a correlation when measured in words per minute suggesting that students’ reading ...


The Effect Of Digital Game-Based Learning On Student Learning: A Literature Review, Katrina Serrano Jan 2019

The Effect Of Digital Game-Based Learning On Student Learning: A Literature Review, Katrina Serrano

Graduate Research Papers

Digital game-based learning can be used by educators to support students in developing skills. This review examined the effect of digital game-based learning on student learning at the K-12 level. Sixteen peer-reviewed research studies, two meta-analysis studies, and two literature reviews published between 2011-2019 were selected for analysis. The reviewed research indicated that when digital game-based learning is used that includes key game design elements (collaboration, choice, feedback) as well as instructional design, there typically is a positive impact on student engagement. Research also indicated that digital game-based learning along with collaboration can have a significant effect on student motivation ...


Student Engagement Within The Use Of Graphic Novels, Melissa Felsenthal Jan 2019

Student Engagement Within The Use Of Graphic Novels, Melissa Felsenthal

Graduate Research Papers

Student engagement in novels is a key factor in whether or not a student can be successful in reading. The purpose of this study was to analyze student engagement with graphic novels and traditional novels, and to describe any preferences students had when selecting novels to read independently. The study was centered around two questions: How does the reading of graphic novels impact the level of reading engagement? Do students prefer the use of graphic novels over traditional novels within their own independent reading? The study consisted of interviewing eleven sixth grade students about a graphic novel that they picked ...


Teacher Perceptions Of Understaffed School Libraries, Amanda Bonjour Jan 2019

Teacher Perceptions Of Understaffed School Libraries, Amanda Bonjour

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this mixed methods study is to learn what classroom teachers perceive the effects of improper staffing of school libraries to be. It asks: What do classroom teachers perceive are the effects of improper staffing or the cutting of a school librarian? Through the qualitative analysis of survey responses, the study found that teachers perceived teacher librarians to have a positive impact on student achievement through collaboration and to be a valuable asset in providing resources for staff and students. Qualitatively, results from two school districts, one with and one without a certified librarian staffed in their middle ...


The Effects Of A Makerspace Curriculum On The 4c'S In Education, Staci Novak Jan 2019

The Effects Of A Makerspace Curriculum On The 4c'S In Education, Staci Novak

Graduate Research Papers

Makerspaces are becoming more common in schools K-12 as well as at the university level and encourage educators to think differently about learning. This review examines how a makerspace curriculum impacts the way in which learners apply the 4 C’s (creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, and communication). Thirteen peer-reviewed research studies published between 2014 and 2018 were selected for analysis. The reviewed research studies indicated that students who participate in makerspaces tend to use their creativity to problem-solve, are communicative and collaborative with other makers, and tend to use critical thinking skills when presented with an obstacle. Recommendations for implementation ...


Using Critical Literacy And Emotionally Responsive Teaching To Discuss Racism In A Literature Circle Unit, Autumn Rose Den Boer Jan 2019

Using Critical Literacy And Emotionally Responsive Teaching To Discuss Racism In A Literature Circle Unit, Autumn Rose Den Boer

Graduate Research Papers

This paper contains an instructional unit designed to create space in the classroom for open and honest conversations about racism through enhancing the literature circle format with the incorporation of critical literacy and emotionally-responsive teaching. The unit utilizes strategies that are research-based and referenced in the paper. Detailed lessons as well as all additional needed materials are included.


Computer Science Is Elementary: Comprehensive Plan For Computer Science Implementation At The Elementary Level, Erin Chute Jan 2019

Computer Science Is Elementary: Comprehensive Plan For Computer Science Implementation At The Elementary Level, Erin Chute

Graduate Research Papers

Teaching students computer science in the classroom can have many benefits. Several students in today's education system will go into career fields that do not yet exist and the skills taught through computer science can prepare them for the future. This project outlines the steps for planning a computer science initiative at the elementary level. A literature review examining the effect of teaching computer science on student achievement at the elementary level is used to support an award proposal for funding a high quality computer science curriculum in a rural, underserved district. This project can serve as a model ...


The Effectiveness Of Using Intelligent Tutoring Systems To Increase Student Achievement, Tedi Swanson Jan 2019

The Effectiveness Of Using Intelligent Tutoring Systems To Increase Student Achievement, Tedi Swanson

Graduate Research Papers

Intelligent Tutoring Systems could be used to provide differentiated instruction. This review examines qualities of Intelligent Tutoring Systems and their impact on student achievement. Thirty peer-reviewed research studies published from 1997 to 2019 were selected for analysis. This review considers how intelligent tutoring systems compare with other methods of instruction, and how an intelligent tutoring system’s on-screen tutor impacts student achievement. Finally, this review considers methods of ITS personalization and how those methods impact student achievement. The reviewed research studies indicated that ITS was more effective than all forms of instruction except small group and individualized instruction. Additionally, on-screen ...


The Effects Of Text-To-Speech On Students With Reading Disabilities, Melissa Oberembt Jan 2019

The Effects Of Text-To-Speech On Students With Reading Disabilities, Melissa Oberembt

Graduate Research Papers

Text-to-speech (TTS) is becoming a common accommodation/support for students with reading disabilities to improve reading skills. This review examines the effects TTS has on reading comprehension, reading rate, written language, as well as the social validity of students with reading disabilities and other print disabilities. Twenty-eight peer-reviewed studies published between 2002 and 2019 were selected for analysis in this review. The reviewed research indicates that reading rate increased, while reading comprehension had mixed results, and writing skills did not significantly improve when TTS was used. Research also confirmed the social validity of TTS. Future research into the effects of ...


Best Practices In Assessment And Evaluation Of Literacy At The Secondary Level, Meaghan Kathleen Johnson Jan 2019

Best Practices In Assessment And Evaluation Of Literacy At The Secondary Level, Meaghan Kathleen Johnson

Graduate Research Papers

Research over the century has shown that grading practices in schools, especially at the secondary level, are commonly inconsistent, unreliable, and invalid amongst teachers. Grades have a large impact on students’ futures, determining scholarships, colleges, and career paths. Therefore, it is important that assessment and evaluation practices are consistent, reliable, and fair. This paper contains a review of research on the reasons for discrepancies in grading practices, followed by what research suggests is best practice for fair and reliable assessment and evaluation practices. Finally, these findings have been combined to develop a presentation on best practices in assessment and evaluation ...


Development Of Curriculum For Next Generation Science Standards In High School Chemistry, Jennifer L. Brown Jan 2018

Development Of Curriculum For Next Generation Science Standards In High School Chemistry, Jennifer L. Brown

Graduate Research Papers

The aim of this project is to develop a unit relevant to students, aligned with three-dimensional performance expectations, and beneficial to teachers in helping students to meet those standards. To effectively meet those goals, an understanding of what curriculum is and how to develop it is needed. Curriculum is “the high-quality delivery system for ensuring that all students achieve the desired end – the attainment of their desired grade- or course-specific standards” (Ainsworth, 2010, p. 4). Without a clear goal for student performance and a detailed plan for how to get them there, lasting, meaningful learning is not likely to happen.


Blended Learning And Second Language Acquisition In The Classroom, Victoria R. Hamilton Jan 2018

Blended Learning And Second Language Acquisition In The Classroom, Victoria R. Hamilton

Graduate Research Papers

This review investigates using a blended learning environment within a second language setting. The literature review presented three main themes to be considered as these two contexts were united: learner engagement in differing environments and with different activities, learner perceptions, and the outcomes found from such combinations. Twenty-eight peer-reviewed journal articles were analyzed. It is found that blended environments seem to add novelty and increase motivation and engagement of students in these settings. However, the pedagogical implementation of active learning such as collaboration, providing feedback, and using activities that have a communicative purpose seems to yield the best results. Learner ...


Blended Learning In Credit Recovery, Robin Kuhn Jan 2018

Blended Learning In Credit Recovery, Robin Kuhn

Graduate Research Papers

This project is to create a blended learning module for students who need to recover course credit in order to stay on track to graduate on time from a small rural district with limited teachers and face-to-face time. This project will eliminate the need for the district to pay for online credit recovery services and help avoid scheduling issues that may prevent completion of the high school curriculum by students who fail a class. The project will be tested with students within the district and, if successful, will be implemented for all students who need to recover course credit.


Genetics Unit Lesson Plan For The Next Generation Science Standards, Erin Hogan Jan 2018

Genetics Unit Lesson Plan For The Next Generation Science Standards, Erin Hogan

Graduate Research Papers

In 2015, Iowa’s adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) compelled the Waterloo Community Schools to set a goal of complete alignment to those standards by the 2018-2019 school year. In order to prepare for this transition, I chose to focus my creative component on the development and implementation of a NGSS aligned unit on Genetics for a sophomore level biology course. The unit focused on the Performance Expectation (PE) HS-LS3-3: Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population and incorporated all three dimensions of the NGSS: Science ...


Evaluation Of A Flipped Classroom On Student Achievement In A Low Income School District, Michael Yeoman Jan 2018

Evaluation Of A Flipped Classroom On Student Achievement In A Low Income School District, Michael Yeoman

Graduate Research Papers

This purpose of this research is to determine whether using a flipped classroom is as effective for students in low-income schools as it is for students in wealthy school districts. A review of the literature is performed to determine what is the underlying philosophy of using a flipped classroom as well as determining barriers that may inhibit its effectiveness.

Control and treatment groups were determined so that data could be compared between a “traditional” classroom and a “flipped” classroom. The students in the treatment group were given a Pre-Unit Survey to determine a baseline of their perceptions of flipped learning ...


Parent Perspectives On Inclusive Bookclubs, Amy Bucciferro Jan 2018

Parent Perspectives On Inclusive Bookclubs, Amy Bucciferro

Graduate Research Papers

An inclusive book club was created to examine the effectiveness of incorporating literacy enhancing techniques and art to aid comprehension. This study focused on the parent perspective of their child participating in the book club and how it affected their child’s life at home. Two parents were interviewed after their child participated in a 3-month book club. The significance of this study is to show educators and families the benefits of having their children participate in inclusive environments. The study also explored how inclusive book clubs can benefit students with different comprehension levels and how families viewed the outcome ...


The Role Of Virtual Environment And Virtual Reality For Knowledge Transfer, Michelle Rice Jan 2018

The Role Of Virtual Environment And Virtual Reality For Knowledge Transfer, Michelle Rice

Graduate Research Papers

Virtual Reality (VR) is a technology tool for workplace training that can lessen the total training time needed to learn complex cognitive tasks and aids a learner in converting abstract ideas into practical understanding. This review explores the use of VR training and its role in assisting a learner with knowledge transfer. A comprehensive literature search was conducted of peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2003-2018 and then 44 sources were selected for analysis. The reviewed research studies indicated that immersive VR training can provide a learner with a highly engaging virtual learning environment VE and stimulating experience that accommodates self-paced ...


Developing Writing Prompt Assessments For The Next Generation Science Standards: Physical Science, Kristen Ann Birchard Jan 2017

Developing Writing Prompt Assessments For The Next Generation Science Standards: Physical Science, Kristen Ann Birchard

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this project is to discuss the development of writing prompt assessments that are aligned with the High School Physical Science performance expectations of the Next Generation Science Standards. Eight writing prompts aligned with HS-PS1 Matter and Its Interactions were developed. These prompts utilize phenomena and real-life connections, while incorporating the three dimensions of the Science and Engineering Practices, Disciplinary Core Ideas, and Cross-Cutting Concepts. Along with the development of these prompts, key vocabulary words were identified, and rubrics were created to aide in the assessment of the students’ responses. The quality of the writing prompts was also ...


First Year Professional Learning Community Implementation Within The Marion High School Science Department, Madilyn M. Ramaekers Jan 2017

First Year Professional Learning Community Implementation Within The Marion High School Science Department, Madilyn M. Ramaekers

Graduate Research Papers

The underlying theory of this research study is a radical constructivist worldview. Radical constructivism is based on two main ideas, that knowledge is not passively received but instead is actively built by individual people and that the function of cognition is adaptive and works to organize the experiential world (Von Glasersfeld, 1989). It is assumed that as teachers partake in a professional learning community they seek understanding of their school and classroom. Findings of the research will not be narrow but rather varied and multiple, leading to a range of views rather than a singular view. In radical constructivism, experience ...


Developing Model Identification Skills In An Advanced Placement Physics 1 Classroom, Ian Spangenberg Jan 2017

Developing Model Identification Skills In An Advanced Placement Physics 1 Classroom, Ian Spangenberg

Graduate Research Papers

Every year, hundreds of thousands of high school students take the AP Physics 1 Exam. Passing scores can mean college credit, recognition, and scholarships. While typical physics courses teach the content and solution procedures in discrete units such as dynamics, energy, and momentum, the AP Physics 1 Exam requires students to solve problems without problem-type headings or unit captions. Students must also be able to support ideas and answers using overarching theories, laws, and principles. This research looks at a curricular and pedagogical strategy designed to teach AP Physics 1 students how those discrete units fit together into a complete ...


The Value Of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction For Elementary Students, Jessica Renae Enger Jan 2017

The Value Of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction For Elementary Students, Jessica Renae Enger

Graduate Research Papers

This review examined the academic benefits of using inquiry-based science instruction in elementary classrooms. It also examined different ways teachers integrate inquiry-based instruction. Several studies identified increases in science content knowledge, concepts, and process skills as outcomes associated with inquiry-based instruction. Other studies in this review showed mixed or negative results for academic benefits of inquiry-instruction. This review also highlights hands-on investigations, discourse, and literacy as three ways teachers integrate inquiry. Findings of this review suggest inquiry-based instruction allows students to understand difficult science concepts, justify their ideas, and can create positive attitudes toward science.


Fluency And Instruction In The Elementary Grades, Stacey Bakken Jan 2017

Fluency And Instruction In The Elementary Grades, Stacey Bakken

Graduate Research Papers

Elementary teachers are being challenged to increase student's oral reading fluency. This can be attributed to today's high demands and focus on students fluency scores from required assessments, focusing mostly on correct words per minute. This project examines the history of reading instruction along with the five essential components highlighted by the National Reading Panel (2000), specifically, fluency. This project defines reading fluency and assessments used, as well as describing best practices in supporting and developing reading fluency in the elementary classroom.


Using Google Tools To Enhance Secondary Writing Instruction, Sarah Ebener Jan 2017

Using Google Tools To Enhance Secondary Writing Instruction, Sarah Ebener

Graduate Research Papers

This literature review analyzes the use of Google Apps for Education and other Google tools as a way for teachers to improve writing instruction. It focuses on 30 studies conducted in the United States and internationally which investigate varying uses of technology tools with secondary and college-aged students. The results showed that students’ writing improves and students experience more engagement when technology is used to enhance collaboration, feedback, editing, and revision, and that students generally enjoy using Google tools to accomplish writing tasks. Recommendations include guidelines for teachers when assigning technology-based writing activities, but further research needs to be conducted ...


Play-Based Early Childhood Classrooms And The Effect On Pre-Kindergarten Social And Academic Achievement, Amy Mcginn Jan 2017

Play-Based Early Childhood Classrooms And The Effect On Pre-Kindergarten Social And Academic Achievement, Amy Mcginn

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this literature review is to examine the effects of a play-based early childhood curriculum on the academic and social development of pre-kindergarten children. The findings in this literature review examine the relationships between free play, social skills, and academic outcomes in the early years of school. The reviewed research suggested a positive correlation between free play in early childhood and future school success in literacy and social development. The conclusion of this review includes recommendations for improving teacher practices and educational policies.


Benefits Of Movement For Academic Achievement And Classroom Behaviors, Allison A. Waltz Jan 2017

Benefits Of Movement For Academic Achievement And Classroom Behaviors, Allison A. Waltz

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this review is to discuss the benefits of using movement throughout the daily routine of an early childhood classroom. The research focused on using movement to increase literacy and mathematics knowledge, teach self-regulation skills and increase attention. and have different seating options that would allow for consistent movement. Findings of this review show that movement does have academic and behavioral benefits in the early childhood classroom. Limitations are recognized for the research presented and recommendations are given for ways to incorporate movement into the classroom. To conclude this review of literature. educational policies and future research are ...


Infant And Toddler Care, Maggie Trecker Jan 2017

Infant And Toddler Care, Maggie Trecker

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this review of recent research is to identify the quality of care that infants and toddlers are receiving in both home-based and center-based care settings. The review will also identify how infant and toddler caregivers perceive their work, and ways that professional development opportunities can positively impact the quality of care for infant and toddlers. The conclusion of this literature review includes recommendations for future action and education policies based on the research reviewed.


The Use Of Touchscreen Devices To Support Writing Development Of Preschoolers, Celeste Mortvedt Jan 2017

The Use Of Touchscreen Devices To Support Writing Development Of Preschoolers, Celeste Mortvedt

Graduate Research Papers

This review examines the use of touchscreen devices to support writing development of preschool children. Examination of the impact of touchscreen device writing on brain development of preschoolers is also included. Benefits and challenges of using touchscreen devices to support handwriting development are analyzed and reviewed along with recommendations for classroom implementation, future research, and educational policy.


The Effects Of Blended Learning On K-12th Grade Students, Laura Hesse Jan 2017

The Effects Of Blended Learning On K-12th Grade Students, Laura Hesse

Graduate Research Papers

Blended learning is used to incorporate technology into the classroom and to aid in instruction. This literature review examines the effects of blended learning on student engagement, student achievement, and student perception in K-12th grade classrooms. Twenty-five peer-reviewed studies published between 2008 and 2016 were selected for analysis in this review. The reviewed research indicates that student engagement, student achievement, and positive student perceptions of learning increased when blended learning was used. Students also developed additional skills through the use of blended learning, such as the ability to self-pace and self-direct. Future research into implementing blended learning in K-12 classrooms ...


Dungeons And Dragons And Literacy: The Role Tabletop Role-Playing Games Can Play In Developing Teenagers' Literacy Skills And Reading Interests, Stefanie L. B. Kaylor Jan 2017

Dungeons And Dragons And Literacy: The Role Tabletop Role-Playing Games Can Play In Developing Teenagers' Literacy Skills And Reading Interests, Stefanie L. B. Kaylor

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this study was to explore the role that tabletop role-playing games (TRPGs) play in developing the literacy skills and leisure reading interests of teenagers who play them. Additionally, this study sought to determine what role or roles educators should play in developing the gaming culture of teenage students. In order to answer these questions, seven people who played TRPGs as teenagers were interviewed about their past and current TRPG interests, past and current leisure reading habits, and the effects that playing TRPGs had on their literacy skills. This study revealed that all participants felt that playing TRPGs ...


Energy, Matter, And Change: A High School Chemistry Unit Development, Allison Schipper Jan 2017

Energy, Matter, And Change: A High School Chemistry Unit Development, Allison Schipper

Graduate Research Papers

The project I have chosen to focus on for the creative component of the Science Masters of Arts program is the creation of a high school chemistry instructional unit. The focus of this unit is on Energy, Matter, and Change, which is addressed in the Iowa Core/Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (Lead States, 2013a ). This unit will be adapted using Unit 2, Energy Particles in Motion and Unit 3, Energy and States of Matter of the Modeling Instruction curriculum developed by the American Modeling Teachers Association (Modeling Instruction for High School Chemistry, 2017). The Energy Particles in Motion unit ...