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Full-Text Articles in Education

Ethnography Of Language Planning And Policy, Nancy H. Hornberger, Aldo A. Tapia, David H. Hanks, Frances K. Dueñas Mar 2018

Ethnography Of Language Planning And Policy, Nancy H. Hornberger, Aldo A. Tapia, David H. Hanks, Frances K. Dueñas

GSE Publications

A decade ago, Hornberger & Johnson proposed that the ethnography of language planning and policy (ELPP) offers a useful way to understand how people create, interpret, and at times resist language policy and planning (LPP). They envisioned ethnographic investigation of layered LPP ideological and implementational spaces, taking up Hornberger's plea five years earlier for language users, educators, and researchers to fill up and wedge open ideological and implementational spaces for multiple languages, literacies, identities, and practices to flourish and grow rather than dwindle and disappear. With roots going back to the 1980s and 1990s, ethnographic research in LPP had been ...


A Quarter Century Of Changes In The Elementary And Secondary Teaching Force: From 1987 To 2012 - Statistical Analysis Report, Richard M. Ingersoll Apr 2017

A Quarter Century Of Changes In The Elementary And Secondary Teaching Force: From 1987 To 2012 - Statistical Analysis Report, Richard M. Ingersoll

GSE Publications

This report utilizes the nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) to examine changes in the elementary and secondary teaching force in the United States over the quarter century from 1987-88 to 2011-12. The report focuses on three key demographic characteristics: the size of the teaching force, the level of teaching experience of the teaching force, and the racial/ethnic composition of the teaching force.


Randomized Controlled Trials, Robert Boruch, Rui Yang, Jordan Hyatt, Herb Turner Iii Oct 2016

Randomized Controlled Trials, Robert Boruch, Rui Yang, Jordan Hyatt, Herb Turner Iii

GSE Publications

This paper covers the topic of randomized controlled trials in social, educational, criminological, health, and other human service sectors. It is studded with illustrations from developed and developing countries. We address the basic ideas that underlie trials in different ways, and cover contemporary definitions and vernacular, some history, and idea of cumulating evidence from such trials including recent work on replication and meta-analyses. Standards for evidence and reporting are considered. We attend to statistical matters and also recognize important non-statistical matters that must be taken into account in designing and executing such trials. Cluster randomized, place randomized, and other designs ...


Ambient Positional Instability Among Core Subject Arkansas Public School Teachers: Interim Report, Michael Frisone, Tom Hooks, Tianpeng Ye, Robert Boruch Aug 2016

Ambient Positional Instability Among Core Subject Arkansas Public School Teachers: Interim Report, Michael Frisone, Tom Hooks, Tianpeng Ye, Robert Boruch

GSE Publications

Ambient positional instability (API) here refers to any type of shift teachers may experience in their assigned position, including changes in school, grade, or subject assignment. API is a factor which has major research design and educational implications. Research designs which do not consider the instability of teaching positions may fail to obtain representative samples due to attrition. Controlled experiments must be designed to account for these potential shifts in teacher positions. Some evidence suggests a notable correlation between teacher turnover and poorer academic achievement among students. Finally, districts, organizations, and DOEs that create teacher training programs will have less ...


Language And Voice, Nancy H. Hornberger Apr 2016

Language And Voice, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

These resources cannot be neglected much longer without lasting negative effects. While we have introdu ed here the idea of a “resource-­language” to talk about cultural and linguistic maintenance, we must see the differences between these and material resources like coal and oil. We can leave the oil in the ground and it will still be there to use in a hundred years; the more we use it, and the more we use it unwisely, the less we have of it later. Just the opposite is true of language and culture. The more we use these, the more we ...


Revisiting Orientations In Language Planning: Problem, Right, And Resource As An Analytical Heuristic, Francis M. Hult, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2016

Revisiting Orientations In Language Planning: Problem, Right, And Resource As An Analytical Heuristic, Francis M. Hult, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

In 1984, Richard Ruiz set forth three orientations to language planning: language as problem, language as right, and language as resource. Since that time, the orientations have only become more powerful, rising to the level of paradigm in the field of language policy and planning (LPP). In this paper, we revisit Ruiz’s orientations. By drawing upon Ruiz’s own work as well as the work of other scholars who have been inspired by him, we unpack the ideas aligned with each orientation in order to reflect upon the application of the three orientations as a heuristic for LPP. In ...


Are There Metrics For Moocs From Social Media?, Alan Ruby, Laura W. Perna, Robert Boruch, Nicole Wang Dec 2015

Are There Metrics For Moocs From Social Media?, Alan Ruby, Laura W. Perna, Robert Boruch, Nicole Wang

GSE Publications

Since "the year of the MOOC" in 2012, the effectiveness of massive open online course (MOOCs) has been widely debated. Some argue that MOOCs are not an effective mode of instructional delivery because of low completion rates. In the interest of developing alternative indicators of performance this study draws from recent efforts to measure engagement in social media, as well as from research on indicators of student engagement in traditional college courses. Using data from 16 Coursera MOOCs offered by the University of Pennsylvania we calculate standardized access rates for lectures and assessments. While these indicators have clear limitations as ...


Mindfulness Training: A Transdisciplinary Approach To Assessing Efficacy In Education, Elizabeth Mackenzie Jul 2015

Mindfulness Training: A Transdisciplinary Approach To Assessing Efficacy In Education, Elizabeth Mackenzie

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Taken Out Of Context: Defending Civic Education From The Situationist Critique, Sigal R. Ben-Porath, Gideon Dishon Jan 2015

Taken Out Of Context: Defending Civic Education From The Situationist Critique, Sigal R. Ben-Porath, Gideon Dishon

GSE Publications

Situationists have suggested that educational efforts to improve character and instill virtues should be abandoned, as individuals’ behavior is predicted by contexts and situations rather than by character traits. More recently it has been suggested that civic education and especially the effort to cultivate civic virtues are ineffective for similar reasons and should be replaced by the introduction of desirable social norms and institutions. After surveying the debate on this topic in the first part of the essay, we suggest that in fact virtues should not be judged as existing within one person and absent from another based on their ...


Teacher Churn In Missouri’S Five Biggest Cities, 2005-2014: A Briefing, Jill Bowdon, Robert Boruch Sep 2014

Teacher Churn In Missouri’S Five Biggest Cities, 2005-2014: A Briefing, Jill Bowdon, Robert Boruch

GSE Publications

This policy brief:

(1) contrasts the proportion of math and science teachers who leave STEM fields within one year, three years, five years, and ten years with the proportion of English or Social Studies teachers who turnover during these intervals

(2) examines stability of the year-to-year turnover from STEM fields

(3) describes how teachers who leave math or science teaching assignments move into other STEM assignments, to non-STEM assignments, or leave the public schools of Missouri entirely, and

(4) describes the rates at which teachers who are still teaching in STEM fields remain in the same school and district, shift ...


Lessons Learned About Student Learning: Eight Test Cases, Peter D. Eckel Jan 2014

Lessons Learned About Student Learning: Eight Test Cases, Peter D. Eckel

GSE Publications

Takeaways

The progress—and setbacks—of eight institutions that served as test cases have yielded a set of lessons about board oversight of educational quality from which others can benefit:

1 Ensure a sufficient institutional-assessment capacity.

2 Start with what you already have.

3 Make academic quality a priority of the boad and institutional leaders.

4 Attach the effort to other activities.

5 Educate the board on education.

6 Find the right focus.

7 Allow for targeted deeper dives.

8 Develop new board processes and use time differently.

9 Deepen the engagement of the board with faculty.


The Sophistication Of Human Resources: The Learning Leader’S Challenge, Annie Mckee, Stanton Wortham Jan 2013

The Sophistication Of Human Resources: The Learning Leader’S Challenge, Annie Mckee, Stanton Wortham

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


In Search Of Leading Indicators In Education, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Ellen Foley, Jacob Mishook Jul 2012

In Search Of Leading Indicators In Education, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Ellen Foley, Jacob Mishook

GSE Publications

Data have long been considered a key factor in organizational decision-making (Simon, 1955; Lindblom & Cohen, 1979). Data offer perspective, guidance, and insights that inform policy and practice (Newell & Simon, 1972; Kennedy, 1984). Recently, education policymakers have invested in the use of data for organizational improvement in states and districts with such initiatives as Race to The Top (United States Department of Education, 2010) and the development of statewide longitudinal data systems (Institute for Education Sciences, 2010). These and other initiatives focus attention on how data can be used to foster learning and improvement. In other fields, including economics and business, much work has been done to identify leading indicators that predict organizational outcomes. In this paper ...


The Production Of Relevant Scales: Social Identification Of Migrants During Rapid Demographic Change In One American Town, Stanton Wortham, Catherine R. Rhodes Mar 2012

The Production Of Relevant Scales: Social Identification Of Migrants During Rapid Demographic Change In One American Town, Stanton Wortham, Catherine R. Rhodes

GSE Publications

This essay explores the question of relevant scale: which of the many potentially relevant processes – from interactional through local through global, from nearly instantaneous through those emergent over months, years or centuries – in fact contributes to social identification in any given case, and how do these heterogeneous processes interrelate? Contemporary answers to this question have moved beyond the détente of the “micro-macro dialectic,” in which purportedly homogeneous “macro” processes constrain events and actions, while being simultaneously constituted by “micro” events and actions. We review contemporary work on these issues, with particular reference to the use of language in social identification ...


Writing About Race, Leadership, And African American History, Marybeth Gasman Feb 2012

Writing About Race, Leadership, And African American History, Marybeth Gasman

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Understanding The Role Of Research Universities In Improving College Preparation And Access At Local Urban High Schools, Laura W. Perna, Ira Harkavy, Cory Bowman Jan 2012

Understanding The Role Of Research Universities In Improving College Preparation And Access At Local Urban High Schools, Laura W. Perna, Ira Harkavy, Cory Bowman

GSE Publications

Urban colleges and universities not only have a responsibility to engage in activities designed to improve the educational attainment of local urban youth, but also have extensive financial, human, intellectual, and organizational resources that may be directed productively toward this purpose. This article describes the multipronged approach that the University of Pennsylvania is using to improve college opportunities for students attending Philadelphia high schools. We conclude by offering lessons that other institutions may draw from this example.


Dell H. Hymes: His Scholarship And Legacy In Anthropology And Education, Nancy H. Hornberger Dec 2011

Dell H. Hymes: His Scholarship And Legacy In Anthropology And Education, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

Dell Hathaway Hymes, linguistic anthropologist and educational visionary extraordinaire, passed away in November 2009, leaving behind a voluminous scholarship and inspirational legacy in the study of language and inequality, ethnography, sociolinguistics, Native American ethnopoetics, and education. This essay provides a brief account of Hymes's life and scholarly contributions, especially his early and enduring influence in the anthropology of education; and goes on to comment briefly on this AEQ set of essays honoring Hymes.


The Minority Teacher Shortage: Fact Or Fable?, Richard M. Ingersoll, Henry May Sep 2011

The Minority Teacher Shortage: Fact Or Fable?, Richard M. Ingersoll, Henry May

GSE Publications

For several decades, shortages of minority teachers have been a big issue for the nation's schools. Policy makers and recent presidents have agreed that our elementary and secondary teaching force "should look like America." But the conventional wisdom is that as the nation's population and students have grown more diverse, the teaching force has done the opposite —grown more white and less diverse.


Working The Crevices: Granting Students Authority In Authoritarian Schools, Joan F. Goodman, Jessica Hoagland, Nadel Pierre-Toussaint, Celeste Rodriguez, Christina Sanabria May 2011

Working The Crevices: Granting Students Authority In Authoritarian Schools, Joan F. Goodman, Jessica Hoagland, Nadel Pierre-Toussaint, Celeste Rodriguez, Christina Sanabria

GSE Publications

Schools are beset with a serious “alienation gap” between teachers and students that is no less a problem than the “achievement gap.” Increasing student voice is thought to be one means to fill the gap, for it activates agency and thereby decreases passivity. The extent of agency ranges from attentive adult listening to strong student leadership. Here we concentrate on distinguishing elements of freedom, power, and authority in the enactment of agency, particularly how these elements can be distributed to students in urban authoritarian schools. In this article, four second-year Teach for America graduate students describe and reflect on their ...


Wondering About Dialogic Theory And Practice, Stanton Wortham Mar 2011

Wondering About Dialogic Theory And Practice, Stanton Wortham

GSE Publications

This commentary engages with essentially contestable questions raised by the School of the Dialogue of Cultures. It focuses on questions about how theory should relate to practice and how a "dialogic" approach can involve students in simultaneously rigorous and relevant academic discussions.


Do We Produce Enough Mathematics And Science Teachers?, Richard M. Ingersoll Jan 2011

Do We Produce Enough Mathematics And Science Teachers?, Richard M. Ingersoll

GSE Publications

For years, we've been told that we don't produce enough math and science teachers. Increasing teacher retirements and increasing student enrollments, we're told, have forced many school systems to lower standards to fill teaching openings, leading to high levels of underqualified teachers and, in turn, to lower student performance. Numerous high-profile reports have directly tied mathematics and science teacher shortages to a host of education and social problems, including the inability to meet student achievement goals, low U.S. performance compared to other nations, the minority achievement gap, poor national economic competitiveness, and even threats to national ...


Using Student Achievement Data To Support Instructional Decision Making, Laura Hamilton, Richard Halverson, Sharnell S. Jackson, Ellen Mandinach, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Jeffrey C. Wayman, Cassandra Pickens, Emma Sama Martin, Jennifer L. Steele Sep 2009

Using Student Achievement Data To Support Instructional Decision Making, Laura Hamilton, Richard Halverson, Sharnell S. Jackson, Ellen Mandinach, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Jeffrey C. Wayman, Cassandra Pickens, Emma Sama Martin, Jennifer L. Steele

GSE Publications

As educators face increasing pressure from federal, state, and local accountability policies to improve student achievement, the use of data has become more central to how many educators evaluate their practices and monitor students’ academic progress (Knapp et al., 2006). Despite this trend, questions about how educators should use data to make instructional decisions remain mostly unanswered. In response, this guide provides a framework for using student achievement data to support instructional decision making. These decisions include, but are not limited to, how to adapt lessons or assignments in response to students’ needs, alter classroom goals or objectives, or modify ...


Shifting The Onus From Racial/Ethnic Minority Students To Faculty: Accountability For Culturally Inclusive Pedagogy And Curricula, Stephen John Quaye, Ph.D., Shaun R. Harper, Ph.D. Jan 2007

Shifting The Onus From Racial/Ethnic Minority Students To Faculty: Accountability For Culturally Inclusive Pedagogy And Curricula, Stephen John Quaye, Ph.D., Shaun R. Harper, Ph.D.

GSE Publications

In this article, our goal is to personalize the concerns of diverse student populations and encourage faculty to intentionally incorporate cultural inclusion into their pedagogy and their courses. In light of a student's story (Julian) story and the responses of some of his peers, we emphasize that the onus needs to shift from students, who are expected to adjust to insensitive and monocultural classroom environments, to faculty, who need to change their teaching approaches to benefit an increasingly diverse array of students.


Discursive Approaches To Understanding Teacher Collaboration: Policy Into Practice, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2006

Discursive Approaches To Understanding Teacher Collaboration: Policy Into Practice, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Validity Of The Dynamic Indicators For Basic Early Literacy Skills As An Indicator Of Early Literacy For Urban Kindergarten Children, Heather L. Rouse, John Fantuzzo Jan 2006

Validity Of The Dynamic Indicators For Basic Early Literacy Skills As An Indicator Of Early Literacy For Urban Kindergarten Children, Heather L. Rouse, John Fantuzzo

GSE Publications

The validity of three subtests of the Dynamic Indicators for Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) was investigated for kindergarten children in a large urban school district. A stratified, random sample of 330 participants was drawn from an entire cohort of kindergarten children. Letter Naming Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency, and Nonsense Word Fluency evidenced significant concurrent and predictive validity when compared to general reading ability measured by teacher report, individual assessments, and group-administered nationally standardized tests. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity was also found when comparing these subtests to measures of specific literacy, cognitive, and social-behavioral constructs.


Voz Y Biliteracidad En La Revitalización De Lenguas Indígenas: Prácticas Contenciosas En Contextos Quechua, Guaraní, Y Maori, Nancy H. Hornberger Sep 2005

Voz Y Biliteracidad En La Revitalización De Lenguas Indígenas: Prácticas Contenciosas En Contextos Quechua, Guaraní, Y Maori, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

Portuguese:

Voz y Biliteracidad en la Revitalización de Lenguas Indígenas: Prácticas Contenciosas en Contextos Quechua, Guaraní, y Maori

Resumo: Este artigo examina instâncias de práticas educacionais de biletramento em contextos de revitalização de línguas indígenas envolvendo Quéchua nos Andes da América do Sul, Guarani no Paraguai e Maori em Aoteraroa, Nova Zelândia. Nesses contextos de opressão sociolingüística e sócio-histórica, a implementação de políticas de línguas multilíngües mediante educação multilíngüe acarreta escolhas, dilemas e até mesmo contradições em práticas educacionais. Examino exemplos de tais práticas educacionais contenciosas de um ponto de vista ecológico, empregando os contínuos de biletramento e a noção ...


No Child Left Behind: Repealing And “Unpeeling” Federal Language Education Policy In The United States, Bruce A. Evans, Nancy H. Hornberger Mar 2005

No Child Left Behind: Repealing And “Unpeeling” Federal Language Education Policy In The United States, Bruce A. Evans, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

For more than three decades U.S. language education policy was realized through the Bilingual Education Act (BEA), enacted in 1968 to meet the educational needs of language minority students. The BEA emphasized bilingual education and provided options for the development of students’ native language as well as their English language proficiency and academic achievement. In 2002 the BEA was replaced with the English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act. Current policy implicitly repeals the BEA and emphasizes the need for schools to quickly develop students' English language proficiency and move them to English only classrooms. Drawing on ...


Opening And Filling Up Implementational And Ideological Spaces In Heritage Language Education, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2005

Opening And Filling Up Implementational And Ideological Spaces In Heritage Language Education, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Transforming The First Year Of College For Students Of Color, Laura W. Perna, Michelle A. Cooper Jan 2005

Transforming The First Year Of College For Students Of Color, Laura W. Perna, Michelle A. Cooper

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Quechua Language Shift, Maintenance, And Revitalization In The Andes: The Case For Language Planning, Nancy H. Hornberger, Serafin M. Coronel-Molina Apr 2004

Quechua Language Shift, Maintenance, And Revitalization In The Andes: The Case For Language Planning, Nancy H. Hornberger, Serafin M. Coronel-Molina

GSE Publications

Although Quechua is spoken by eight to twelve million people across six South American countries, by most measures, Quechua is an endangered language. This article provides an overview of the current situation of Quechua language shift, maintenance, and revitalization, and makes a case for the importance of language planning for the survival and development of the language. We use Fishman’s notion of physical/demographic, social, and cultural dislocations as an organizing rubric for discussing Quechua’s current situation (Fishman 1991: 55–65), and the typology of status, corpus, and acquisition planning to discuss the role of language planning in ...