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Full-Text Articles in Education

Ethnography Of Language Planning And Policy, Nancy H. Hornberger, Aldo A. Tapia, David H. Hanks, Frances K. Dueñas Mar 2018

Ethnography Of Language Planning And Policy, Nancy H. Hornberger, Aldo A. Tapia, David H. Hanks, Frances K. Dueñas

GSE Publications

A decade ago, Hornberger & Johnson proposed that the ethnography of language planning and policy (ELPP) offers a useful way to understand how people create, interpret, and at times resist language policy and planning (LPP). They envisioned ethnographic investigation of layered LPP ideological and implementational spaces, taking up Hornberger's plea five years earlier for language users, educators, and researchers to fill up and wedge open ideological and implementational spaces for multiple languages, literacies, identities, and practices to flourish and grow rather than dwindle and disappear. With roots going back to the 1980s and 1990s, ethnographic research in LPP had been ...


Portraits Of Three Language Activists In Indigenous Language Reclamation, Nancy H. Hornberger Sep 2017

Portraits Of Three Language Activists In Indigenous Language Reclamation, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

In an approach inspired by portraiture and ‘history in person,’ this paper portrays three women Indigenous language activists engaged in language reclamation, highlighting the mutually constitutive nature of language and the enduring struggles of Indigenous peoples that are crucibles for forging their identities. Neri Mamani breaks down longstanding language and identity compartmentalisations in Peru by assuming a personal language policy of using Quechua and engaging in Indigenous practices in public, urban, and literate spaces. Nobuhle Hlongwa teaches a university course on language planning through isiZulu medium and is a key figure in advocating for, negotiating, and implementing multilingual language policy ...


Joshua A. Fishman: A Scholar Of Unfathomable Influence, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2017

Joshua A. Fishman: A Scholar Of Unfathomable Influence, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

In personal tribute to Joshua A. Fishman, I tell a few stories about this remarkable scholar as I got to know him – a glimpse of the person behind the great ideas that have so powerfully shaped our thinking. My many vivid memories of things Fishman said or wrote in my personal encounters with him – often pithy one-liners – are testimony to the power of his mind and voice, his spirit and soul. From my first year of Ph.D. study when I took his course Sociology of Bilingual Education at the 1980 Linguistic Society of America Summer Institute at the University ...


Language And Voice, Nancy H. Hornberger Apr 2016

Language And Voice, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

These resources cannot be neglected much longer without lasting negative effects. While we have introdu ed here the idea of a “resource-­language” to talk about cultural and linguistic maintenance, we must see the differences between these and material resources like coal and oil. We can leave the oil in the ground and it will still be there to use in a hundred years; the more we use it, and the more we use it unwisely, the less we have of it later. Just the opposite is true of language and culture. The more we use these, the more we ...


Revisiting Orientations In Language Planning: Problem, Right, And Resource As An Analytical Heuristic, Francis M. Hult, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2016

Revisiting Orientations In Language Planning: Problem, Right, And Resource As An Analytical Heuristic, Francis M. Hult, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

In 1984, Richard Ruiz set forth three orientations to language planning: language as problem, language as right, and language as resource. Since that time, the orientations have only become more powerful, rising to the level of paradigm in the field of language policy and planning (LPP). In this paper, we revisit Ruiz’s orientations. By drawing upon Ruiz’s own work as well as the work of other scholars who have been inspired by him, we unpack the ideas aligned with each orientation in order to reflect upon the application of the three orientations as a heuristic for LPP. In ...


On Not Taking Language Inequality For Granted: Hymesian Traces In Ethnographic Monitoring Of South Africa’S Multilingual Language Policy, Nancy H. Hornberger Sep 2014

On Not Taking Language Inequality For Granted: Hymesian Traces In Ethnographic Monitoring Of South Africa’S Multilingual Language Policy, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

South African higher education is at a critical juncture in the implementation of South Africa’s multilingual language policy promoting institutional status for nine African languages, English, and Afrikaans. South African scholars, not content merely to comment from the sidelines on the policy, its promise, and challenges, have also engaged in implementation efforts. This article explores two such initiatives, both focusing on the use of African languages in higher education institutions where English is already established as the medium of instruction, and both undertaken with explicit goals of righting South Africa’s longstanding social injustices. I collaborated with colleagues at ...


Negotiating Methodological Rich Points In The Ethnography Of Language Policy, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2013

Negotiating Methodological Rich Points In The Ethnography Of Language Policy, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

Building on Agar’s (1996: 26) notion of rich points as those times in ethnographic research when something happens that the ethnographer doesn’t understand, methodological rich points are by extension those points where our assumptions about the way research works and the conceptual tools we have for doing research are inadequate to understand the worlds we are researching. When we pay attention to those points and adjust our research practices accordingly, they become key opportunities to advance our research and our under­ standings. Drawing for illustrative purposes on ethnographic research on bi­ lingual intercultural education policy and practice in ...


Life As A Chord: Heterogeneous Resources In The Social Identification Of One Migrant Girl, Stanton Wortham, Catherine R. Rhodes Jan 2013

Life As A Chord: Heterogeneous Resources In The Social Identification Of One Migrant Girl, Stanton Wortham, Catherine R. Rhodes

GSE Publications

The social and natural worlds provide heterogeneous resources that contribute both to instances of social identification and to life trajectories. One might claim or be assigned membership in various groups, which emerge at different spatial and temporal scales, and resources for social identification are often combined in novel ways to yield unexpected identities. To account for the trajectories of identification that any individual travels, analysts must determine which configurations of resources become relevant in a given case. Of the many resources that might be relevant to identifying an individual, event, or setting, a few generally become salient—somewhat like several ...


The Production Of Relevant Scales: Social Identification Of Migrants During Rapid Demographic Change In One American Town, Stanton Wortham, Catherine R. Rhodes Mar 2012

The Production Of Relevant Scales: Social Identification Of Migrants During Rapid Demographic Change In One American Town, Stanton Wortham, Catherine R. Rhodes

GSE Publications

This essay explores the question of relevant scale: which of the many potentially relevant processes – from interactional through local through global, from nearly instantaneous through those emergent over months, years or centuries – in fact contributes to social identification in any given case, and how do these heterogeneous processes interrelate? Contemporary answers to this question have moved beyond the détente of the “micro-macro dialectic,” in which purportedly homogeneous “macro” processes constrain events and actions, while being simultaneously constituted by “micro” events and actions. We review contemporary work on these issues, with particular reference to the use of language in social identification ...


La Educación Multilingüe, Política Y Práctica: Diez Certezas, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2009

La Educación Multilingüe, Política Y Práctica: Diez Certezas, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


The Objectification Of Identity Across Events, Stanton Wortham Jul 2008

The Objectification Of Identity Across Events, Stanton Wortham

GSE Publications

This paper describes one way in which students develop durable, classroom-specific identities. When students enter new groups 8 their identities are often fluid. Over time, however, students and teachers generally come to identify individuals in predictable ways. 9 Durable identities emerge across events, as signs of identity come to presuppose a consistent trajectory of identification for a given 10 individual. This paper traces the social identification of one student across the course of a two-month curriculum unit in a middle 11 school science class, showing how he developed a complex but robust identity across several weeks in a new lab ...


The Relationship Between Mass Media And Classroom Discourse, Betsy R. Rymes Jan 2008

The Relationship Between Mass Media And Classroom Discourse, Betsy R. Rymes

GSE Publications

In this paper, I illustrate the cyclical proliferation of mass-mediated communicative repertoires through small-scale mechanisms of classroom discourse. I draw on examples of current advertising, classroom discourse data from diverse studies, my own study of an elementary ESL group's interaction, and mass mediated representations of classroom discourse on websites and TV shows about school to illustrate the relationship between mass media and classroom discourse. I analyze how mass-mediated metadiscourse creates new participation frameworks in classrooms that propel small-scale changes in classroom discourse and potentially facilitate the integration of new voices. Finally I discuss the implications of this analysis for ...


How Are Nonnative-English-Speaking Teachers Perceived By Young Learners?, Yuko G. Butler Dec 2007

How Are Nonnative-English-Speaking Teachers Perceived By Young Learners?, Yuko G. Butler

GSE Publications

The current study examined the effects of Korean elementary school teachers' accents on their students' listening comprehension. It also examined students' attitudes toward teachers with American-accented English (a native speaker model) and Korean-accented English (a nonnative speaker model). A matched-guised technique was used. A Korean American individual recorded texts in both American-accented English and Korean-accented English. The study randomly assigned 312 Grade 6 Korean students to listen to one of these two recorded oral texts and their comprehension was examined. Next, all of the students listened to both accented-English tapes and their attitudes toward the two speakers (which were in ...


Biliteracy, Transnationalism, Multimodality, And Identity: Trajectories Across Time And Space, Nancy H. Hornberger Dec 2007

Biliteracy, Transnationalism, Multimodality, And Identity: Trajectories Across Time And Space, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

Herein, we are privileged to be given a close and detailed look at the lives and literacies of transnational multilingual youth and adults of diverse origins and communities from across the United States. These are multilingual lives and literacies located on the west coast, or in western mountain, southwest, midwest, or northeast U.S. There are New Yorkers of Dominican, Colombian, Bengali, and Chabad Jewish-American heritage, Mexican immigrants from Guanajuato and Jalisco in Iowa and California, respectively, and adult women refugees from Bosnia, Iran, and Sudan now residing in the intermountain west.


A Unique Visual And Literary Art Form: Recent Research On Picturebooks, Carol Driggs Wolfenbarger, Lawrence Sipe Jan 2007

A Unique Visual And Literary Art Form: Recent Research On Picturebooks, Carol Driggs Wolfenbarger, Lawrence Sipe

GSE Publications

Picturebooks represent a unique visual and literary art form that engages young readers and older readers in many levels of learning and pleasure. This form, however, is changing rapidly and in turn generating new possibilities for teaching and research. Knowledge of recent developments in picturebooks, ways of reading these books, and bridging picturebook forms and innovations with reader response will enable practitioners to initiate fruitful conversations about the importance of picturebooks in the curriculum and inspire new directions in research.


Information Gap Tasks: Their Multiple Roles And Contributions To Interaction Research Methodology, Teresa Pica, Hyun-Sook Kang, Shannon Sauro Apr 2006

Information Gap Tasks: Their Multiple Roles And Contributions To Interaction Research Methodology, Teresa Pica, Hyun-Sook Kang, Shannon Sauro

GSE Publications

This article describes how information gap tasks can be designed as instruments for data collection and analysis and as treatments in interaction research. The development of such tasks is illustrated and data are presented on their role in drawing learners' attention to second language (L2) forms that are difficult to notice through classroom discussion alone. Because the tasks presented here are closed-ended and precision oriented and require the exchange of uniquely held information, they promote modified interaction among participants and orient their attention to form, function, and meaning. These processes can be observed by the researcher during task implementation. Thus ...


Discursive Approaches To Understanding Teacher Collaboration: Policy Into Practice, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2006

Discursive Approaches To Understanding Teacher Collaboration: Policy Into Practice, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Voice And Biliteracy In Indigenous Language Revitalization: Contentious Educational Practices In Quechua, Guarani, And Maori Contexts, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2006

Voice And Biliteracy In Indigenous Language Revitalization: Contentious Educational Practices In Quechua, Guarani, And Maori Contexts, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

This article considers instances of biliterate educational practice in contexts of indigenous language revitalization involving Quechua in the South American Andes, Guarani in Paraguay, and Maori in Aotearoa/NewZealand. In these indigenous contexts of sociohistorical and sociolinguistic oppression, the implementation of multilingual language policies through multilingual education brings with it choices, dilemmas, and even contradictions in educational practice. I consider examples of such contentious educational practices from an ecological perspective, using the continua of biliteracy and the notion of voice as analytical heuristics. I suggest that the biliterate use of indigenous children's own or heritage language as medium of ...


Voz Y Biliteracidad En La Revitalización De Lenguas Indígenas: Prácticas Contenciosas En Contextos Quechua, Guaraní, Y Maori, Nancy H. Hornberger Sep 2005

Voz Y Biliteracidad En La Revitalización De Lenguas Indígenas: Prácticas Contenciosas En Contextos Quechua, Guaraní, Y Maori, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

Portuguese:

Voz y Biliteracidad en la Revitalización de Lenguas Indígenas: Prácticas Contenciosas en Contextos Quechua, Guaraní, y Maori

Resumo: Este artigo examina instâncias de práticas educacionais de biletramento em contextos de revitalização de línguas indígenas envolvendo Quéchua nos Andes da América do Sul, Guarani no Paraguai e Maori em Aoteraroa, Nova Zelândia. Nesses contextos de opressão sociolingüística e sócio-histórica, a implementação de políticas de línguas multilíngües mediante educação multilíngüe acarreta escolhas, dilemas e até mesmo contradições em práticas educacionais. Examino exemplos de tais práticas educacionais contenciosas de um ponto de vista ecológico, empregando os contínuos de biletramento e a noção ...


Second Language Acquisition Research And Applied Linguistics, Teresa Pica Jan 2005

Second Language Acquisition Research And Applied Linguistics, Teresa Pica

GSE Publications

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the past several decades, and to highlight the ways in which it has retained its original applied and linguistic interests, and enhanced them by addressing questions about acquisition processes. As the paper will illustrate, SLA research has become increasingly bi-directional and multi-faceted in its applications. These many applications to and from the study of SLA reflect the robustness and vitality of the field.


Heritage/Community Language Education: Us And Australian Perspectives, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2005

Heritage/Community Language Education: Us And Australian Perspectives, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Opening And Filling Up Implementational And Ideological Spaces In Heritage Language Education, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2005

Opening And Filling Up Implementational And Ideological Spaces In Heritage Language Education, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Quechua Language Shift, Maintenance, And Revitalization In The Andes: The Case For Language Planning, Nancy H. Hornberger, Serafin M. Coronel-Molina Apr 2004

Quechua Language Shift, Maintenance, And Revitalization In The Andes: The Case For Language Planning, Nancy H. Hornberger, Serafin M. Coronel-Molina

GSE Publications

Although Quechua is spoken by eight to twelve million people across six South American countries, by most measures, Quechua is an endangered language. This article provides an overview of the current situation of Quechua language shift, maintenance, and revitalization, and makes a case for the importance of language planning for the survival and development of the language. We use Fishman’s notion of physical/demographic, social, and cultural dislocations as an organizing rubric for discussing Quechua’s current situation (Fishman 1991: 55–65), and the typology of status, corpus, and acquisition planning to discuss the role of language planning in ...


The Continua Of Biliteracy And The Bilingual Educator: Educational Linguistics In Practice, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2004

The Continua Of Biliteracy And The Bilingual Educator: Educational Linguistics In Practice, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

The continua model of biliteracy offers a framework in which to situate research, teaching, and language planning in linguistically diverse settings; bilingual teacher education represents a conjunction of all three of these and hence, a good candidate for applying the continua model. This paper uses selected experiences in language teacher education as practised at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education to illustrate the potential of the continua model as heuristic in continually (re)writing the bilingual or language educator's knowledge base in response to the demands of educational policy and practice. A series of vignettes serves as ...


Afterword: Ecology And Ideology In Multilingual Classrooms, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2003

Afterword: Ecology And Ideology In Multilingual Classrooms, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


La EducacióN BilingüE Intercultural, La Escrituralidad, Y Los, Derechos Humanos LingüÍSticos, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2003

La EducacióN BilingüE Intercultural, La Escrituralidad, Y Los, Derechos Humanos LingüÍSticos, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

Em muitos casos dispersos pelo mundo – incluindo grupos étnicos da Amazônia Brasileira, os guaranis bolivianos, grupos indígenas andinos e amazônicos dentre outros – a educação intercultural bilíngüe torna-se o veículo não somente para o desenvolvimento da escrita nas línguas indígenas e para o desenvolvimento acadêmico dos seus falantes, mas também para a mobilização dos povos indígenas e a manutenção, revitalização e incremento de suas línguas, se assim o desejarem. A questão não é tanto se ou como o letramento na língua indígena e a educação intercultural bilíngüe promovem os direitos lingüísticos, antes sim que tipos de letramento e direitos lingüísticos serão ...


Second Language Learners' Theories On The Use Of English Articles: An Analysis Of The Metalinguistic Knowledge Used By Japanese Students In Acquiring The English Article System., Yuko Goto Butler Sep 2002

Second Language Learners' Theories On The Use Of English Articles: An Analysis Of The Metalinguistic Knowledge Used By Japanese Students In Acquiring The English Article System., Yuko Goto Butler

GSE Publications

Although it is well known that many second language (L2) learners have trouble using articles “properly,” the primary causes of their difficulties remain unclear. This study addresses this problem by examining the metalinguistic knowledge of the English article system that learners employ when selecting articles in a given situation. By doing this, the present study attempts to better understand the process of “making sense” of the English article system by learners who are at different stages in their interlanguage development. Eighty Japanese college students with varying levels of English proficiency participated in this study. Immediately after completing a fill-in-thearticle test ...


Multilingual Language Policies And The Continua Of Biliteracy: An Ecological Approach, Nancy H. Hornberger Mar 2002

Multilingual Language Policies And The Continua Of Biliteracy: An Ecological Approach, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

The one language-one nation ideology of language policy and national identity is no longer the only available one worldwide (if it ever was). Multilingual language policies which recognize ethnic and linguistic pluralism as resources for nation-building are increasingly in evidence. These policies, many of which envision implementation through bilingual intercultural education, open up new worlds of possibility for oppressed indigenous and immigrant languages and their speakers, transforming former homogenizing and assimilationist policy discourses into discourses about diversity and emancipation. This paper uses the metaphor of ecology of language to explore the ideologies underlying multilingual language policies, and the continua of ...


Subject-Matter Content: How Does It Assist The Interactional And Linguistic Needs Of Classroom Language Learners?, Teresa Pica Jan 2002

Subject-Matter Content: How Does It Assist The Interactional And Linguistic Needs Of Classroom Language Learners?, Teresa Pica

GSE Publications

This study focused on the role of subject-matter content in second language (L2) learning. It sought to identify ways in which teachers modified classroom interaction about subject-matter content in order to assist the input, feedback, and production needs of L2 learners, and to promote their attention to developmentally difficult relationships of L2 form and meaning that they had not fully acquired. Data were collected from 6 preacademic English L2 classes, whose content consisted of thematic units on film and literature. Each class was composed of 10-15 high intermediate English L2 students and their teachers. Analysis of the data focused on ...


Authenticity And Unification In Quechua Language Planning, Nancy H. Hornberger, Kendall A. King Jan 1998

Authenticity And Unification In Quechua Language Planning, Nancy H. Hornberger, Kendall A. King

GSE Publications

With more than ten million speakers and numerous local and regional varieties, the unification and standardisation of Quechua/Quichua has been a complicated, politically charged, and lengthy process. In most Andean nations, great strides have been made towards unification of the language in recent decades. However, the process is far from complete, and multiple unresolved issues remain, at both national and local levels. A frequent sticking point in the process is the concern that the authenticity of the language will be lost in the move towards unification. This paper examines the potentially problematic tension between the goals of authenticity and ...