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University of Pennsylvania

2013

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Articles 1 - 30 of 66

Full-Text Articles in Education

Infrastructure Redesign And Instructional Reform In Mathematics: Formal Structure And Teacher Leadership, Megan Hopkins, James P. Spillane, Paula Jakopovic, Ruth M. Heaton Dec 2013

Infrastructure Redesign And Instructional Reform In Mathematics: Formal Structure And Teacher Leadership, Megan Hopkins, James P. Spillane, Paula Jakopovic, Ruth M. Heaton

CPRE Journal Articles

Designing infrastructures to support instruction remains a challenge in educational reform. This article reports on a study of one school system's efforts to redesign its infrastructure for mathematics instruction by promoting teacher leadership. Using social network and interview data from 12 elementary schools, we explore how the district's infrastructure redesign efforts were internally coherent with and built upon existing infrastructure components. We then explore relations between infrastructure and school practice as captured in the instructional advice- and information-seeking interactions among school staff, finding that teacher leaders emerged as central actors and brokers of advice and information about mathematics ...


Information And Quality When Motivation Is Intrinsic: Evidence From Surgeon Report Cards, Jonathan T. Kolstad Dec 2013

Information And Quality When Motivation Is Intrinsic: Evidence From Surgeon Report Cards, Jonathan T. Kolstad

Health Care Management Papers

If profit maximization is the objective of a firm, new information about quality should affect firm behavior only through its effects on market demand. I consider an alternate model in which suppliers are motivated by a desire to perform well in addition to profit. The introduction of quality "report cards" for cardiac surgery in Pennsylvania provides an empirical setting to isolate the relative role of extrinsic and intrinsic incentives in determining surgeon response. Information on performance that was new to surgeons and unrelated to patient demand led to an intrinsic response four times larger than surgeon response to profit incentives.


Reforming Rural Education: Understanding Teacher Expectations For Rural Youth, Lisa Yiu, Jennifer H. Adams Dec 2013

Reforming Rural Education: Understanding Teacher Expectations For Rural Youth, Lisa Yiu, Jennifer H. Adams

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

The Chinese state's commitment to improve teaching quality in rural regions is a key component of national efforts to close the rural–urban education gap. In this paper, we investigate an understudied but critical dimension of quality teaching: teacher expectations. We employ longitudinal data gathered in Gansu Province in 2000 and 2007 to first examine whether teacher expectations for rural youth are conditioned by students’ social origin and teacher background characteristics. Next, we determine the predictive accuracy of their expectations. Our results highlight the ways in which teacher expectations condition the sorting of rural children among different schooling tracks ...


Building District Capacity For System-Wide Instructional Improvement In Stamford Public Schools, Matthew Riggan, Ryan Fink Dec 2013

Building District Capacity For System-Wide Instructional Improvement In Stamford Public Schools, Matthew Riggan, Ryan Fink

CPRE Working Papers

This report summarizes findings from one component of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education’s (CPRE) evaluation of the General Electric Foundation’s (GEF) Developing FuturesTM in Education program in Stamford Public Schools (SPS). The purpose was to closely analyze the district’s capacity to support system-wide instructional improvement. To understand how SPS, one of the four Developing FuturesTM districts that were examined, built capacity for system-wide instructional improvement, our study focused on a single, overarching question: to what extent has SPS central office adopted and institutionalized the seven core principles of Developing FuturesTM?


Building District Capacity For System-Wide Instructional Improvement In Erie Public Schools, Matthew Riggan, Ryan Fink, Cecile Sam, Anne Darfler Dec 2013

Building District Capacity For System-Wide Instructional Improvement In Erie Public Schools, Matthew Riggan, Ryan Fink, Cecile Sam, Anne Darfler

CPRE Working Papers

This report summarizes findings from one component of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education’s (CPRE) evaluation of the General Electric Foundation’s (GEF) Developing FuturesTM in Education program in Erie Public Schools (EPS). The purpose was to closely analyze the district’s capacity to support system-wide instructional improvement. To understand how EPS, one of the four Developing FuturesTM districts that were examined, built capacity for system-wide instructional improvement, our study during Phase Two focused on a single, overarching question: to what extent has EPS central office adopted and institutionalized the seven core principles of Developing Futures ...


Building District Capacity For System-Wide Instructional Improvement In Cincinnati Public Schools, Cecile Sam, Matthew Riggan Dec 2013

Building District Capacity For System-Wide Instructional Improvement In Cincinnati Public Schools, Cecile Sam, Matthew Riggan

CPRE Working Papers

This report summarizes findings from one component of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education’s (CPRE) evaluation of the General Electric Foundation’s (GEF) Developing FuturesTM in Education program in Cincinnati Public Schools (CPS). The purpose was to closely analyze the district’s capacity to support system-wide instructional improvement. To understand how CPS, one of the four Developing FuturesTM districts that were examined, built capacity for system-wide instructional improvement, our study during Phase Two focused on a single, overarching question: to what extent has CPS central office adopted and institutionalized the seven core principles of Developing Futures ...


Evaluation Of The Ge Foundation-Supported Demonstration Schools Initiative In Milwaukee Public Schools, Sy 2012-2013, Cecile Sam, Anne Darfler, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Daniella Hall, Bobbi Newman Dec 2013

Evaluation Of The Ge Foundation-Supported Demonstration Schools Initiative In Milwaukee Public Schools, Sy 2012-2013, Cecile Sam, Anne Darfler, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Daniella Hall, Bobbi Newman

CPRE Working Papers

The Milwaukee Public School district (MPS) Demonstration Schools Initiative provided intensive support to 10 MPS elementary and middle schools implementing the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in mathematics and English language arts. This evaluation report was designed to answer two overarching questions:

  1. How did MPS implement the Demonstration Schools Initiative in Year One, and what factors shaped the implementation?
  2. Is there evidence of teachers' adoption of the instructional shifts associated with the CCSS?

This evaluation found that teachers in the Demonstration Schools ended the 2012-2013 school year with significantly higher CCSS knowledge in both mathematics and English language arts than ...


State Interventionism, Alan Ruby Nov 2013

State Interventionism, Alan Ruby

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of The Ge Foundation-Supported Coaching & Demonstration Schools Initiative In Erie Public Schools, Sy 2012-2013, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Cecile Sam, Bobbi Newman, Anne Darfler Nov 2013

Evaluation Of The Ge Foundation-Supported Coaching & Demonstration Schools Initiative In Erie Public Schools, Sy 2012-2013, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Cecile Sam, Bobbi Newman, Anne Darfler

CPRE Working Papers

This evaluation report summarizes the evidence of the implementation and early impacts of the General Electric Foundation’s (GEF) Demonstration Schools Initiative in the Erie Public School district (EPS) conducted by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) during the 2012-2013 school year. The Demonstration Schools Initiative provided intensive support to four schools (two elementary, one middle, and one high) implementing the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in mathematics and English language arts. Concurrently during the 2012- 2013 school year, EPS also continued their implementation of another GEF-supported initiative— the Coaching Initiative—using a cadre of instructional coaches in ...


Examining High And Low Value-Added Mathematics Instruction: Can Expert Observers Tell The Difference, Heather C. Hill, David Blazar, Andrea Humez, Erica Litke, Mary Beisiegel, Johanna Barmore, Mark Chin, Douglas Corey, Sara Roesler, Lucas R. Salzman, David Braslow, Samantha Rabinowicz Nov 2013

Examining High And Low Value-Added Mathematics Instruction: Can Expert Observers Tell The Difference, Heather C. Hill, David Blazar, Andrea Humez, Erica Litke, Mary Beisiegel, Johanna Barmore, Mark Chin, Douglas Corey, Sara Roesler, Lucas R. Salzman, David Braslow, Samantha Rabinowicz

CPRE Working Papers

The question of how to measure effective teachers and teaching has long been of interest to policymakers and school leaders. While recent policy initiatives have focused on the use of value-added measures (VAM) to assess teacher quality, there is a much longer tradition of using observations of practice to make such determinations. However, empirical evidence suggests these two indicators often identify different sets of teachers as effective. For example, the Measures of Effective Teaching project finds low correlations between teachers’ VAM scores and their quality of instruction as measured by observational metrics. Studies with the explicit intent of identifying differences ...


Roadmap For The Development Of Education In Kazakhstan: Higher Education Roadmap Recommendations, Mary Canning, Joni E. Finney, Dennis Jones, Aims Mcguinness Nov 2013

Roadmap For The Development Of Education In Kazakhstan: Higher Education Roadmap Recommendations, Mary Canning, Joni E. Finney, Dennis Jones, Aims Mcguinness

GSE Publications

This document presents a set of recommendations for the Roadmap Project of the Republic of Kazakhstan developed by the Higher Education Project Team (Mary Canning, Joni Finney, Dennis Jones and Aims McGuinness). It is based on the July 2013 report Development of Strategic Directions for Education Reforms in Kazakhstan for 2015-2020.and on the reports of the Steering Committee.


What Presidents Really Think About Their Boards, Peter D. Eckel Nov 2013

What Presidents Really Think About Their Boards, Peter D. Eckel

GSE Publications

Takeaways

Contrary to many recent headlines of tensions between presidents and boards, the clear majority of presidents report that their boards have a positive impact on the institution, they are satisfied overall with the baord, and they think boards are engaged at the right levels.

Understanding higher education better may help to increase board engagement...as well as micromanaging if boards, board leaders, and presidents don't have ongoing conversations about the appropriate role of the board.

Presidents and boards must work together to get governance right. Such goals require effort, intentionality, and candor.


Task Technical Report, Caroline Brayer Ebby, Philip M Sirinides, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Andrea Oettinger Oct 2013

Task Technical Report, Caroline Brayer Ebby, Philip M Sirinides, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Andrea Oettinger

CPRE Working Papers

This report reviews the development, piloting, and preliminary results from the large-scale field trial of the TASK Instrument (see cpre.org/task). In the first section, we review the need for an assessment of teachers’ capacity for learning trajectory-oriented instruction and the theoretical foundations that inform our work. We then describe the instrument and its development. Next, we detail the scoring process and the training of raters. The final section contains the analysis of the large-scale field trial conducted in 2012–13. We conclude with some directions for future work with this instrument.


Building Capacity Around Student Success At Minority Serving Institutions, Marybeth Gasman, Clifton F. Conrad, Todd Lundberg, Thai-Huy Nguyen, Heather Collins Oct 2013

Building Capacity Around Student Success At Minority Serving Institutions, Marybeth Gasman, Clifton F. Conrad, Todd Lundberg, Thai-Huy Nguyen, Heather Collins

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Is The United States Winning Or Losing The International Horse Race In Academic Achievement? Neither—It Is Running With Other Western G7 Nations, Erling E. Boe, Sujie Shin Oct 2013

Is The United States Winning Or Losing The International Horse Race In Academic Achievement? Neither—It Is Running With Other Western G7 Nations, Erling E. Boe, Sujie Shin

GSE Publications

It is widely believed and lamented that students from the US perform poorly in international comparisons of academic achievement. Such perceptions have led to grave concerns about the future economic competitiveness of the US internationally. These concerns have been based on a generation of older international surveys on mathematics and science achievement. Fortunately, a recent generation of high quality international achievement surveys has been completed since 1990 on a wider array of subjects—reading, mathematics, science, and civics. Accordingly, the purpose of this report is to assemble and organize the results of all major international achievement surveys re-ported since 1990 ...


Failure Analysis, Alan Ruby, Robert Boruch Sep 2013

Failure Analysis, Alan Ruby, Robert Boruch

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Consumers' Misunderstanding Of Health Insurance., George Loewenstein, Joelle Y Friedman, Barbara Mcgill, Sarah Ahmad, Suzanne Linck, Stacey Sinkula, John Beshears, James J Choi, Jonathan Kolstad, David Laibson, Brigitte C Madrian, John A List, Kevin. G. Volpp Sep 2013

Consumers' Misunderstanding Of Health Insurance., George Loewenstein, Joelle Y Friedman, Barbara Mcgill, Sarah Ahmad, Suzanne Linck, Stacey Sinkula, John Beshears, James J Choi, Jonathan Kolstad, David Laibson, Brigitte C Madrian, John A List, Kevin. G. Volpp

Health Care Management Papers

We report results from two surveys of representative samples of Americans with private health insurance. The first examines how well Americans understand, and believe they understand, traditional health insurance coverage. The second examines whether those insured under a simplified all-copay insurance plan will be more likely to engage in cost-reducing behaviors relative to those insured under a traditional plan with deductibles and coinsurance, and measures consumer preferences between the two plans. The surveys provide strong evidence that consumers do not understand traditional plans and would better understand a simplified plan, but weaker evidence that a simplified plan would have strong ...


Building District Capacity For System-Wide Instructional Improvement In Jefferson County Public Schools, Anne Darfler, Matthew Riggan Sep 2013

Building District Capacity For System-Wide Instructional Improvement In Jefferson County Public Schools, Anne Darfler, Matthew Riggan

CPRE Working Papers

This report summarizes findings from one component of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education’s (CPRE) evaluation of the General Electric Foundation’s (GEF) Developing FuturesTM in Education program in Jefferson County Public Schools (JCPS). The purpose was to closely analyze the district’s capacity to support system-wide instructional improvement. To understand how JCPS, one of the four Developing FuturesTM districts that were examined, built capacity for system-wide instructional improvement, our study focused on a single, overarching question: to what extent has JCPS central office adopted and institutionalized the seven core principles of Developing FuturesTM?


State Education Agencies' Acquisition And Use Of Research Knowledge For School Improvement Strategies, Margaret E. Goertz, Carol Barnes, Diane Massell, Ryan Fink, Anthony Tuf Francis Sep 2013

State Education Agencies' Acquisition And Use Of Research Knowledge For School Improvement Strategies, Margaret E. Goertz, Carol Barnes, Diane Massell, Ryan Fink, Anthony Tuf Francis

CPRE Research Reports

Over the last 20 years, state education agencies (SEAs) have been given considerably more responsibilities for directing and guiding the improvement of low-performing schools. At the same time, federal policies strongly pressed SEAs to use research to design these supports. Very few studies have explored the SEA as an organization, or its role in accessing and using research. Likewise, few, if any, have studied the role of social networks in the organization and flow of information in SEAs. This exploratory study was designed to fill those gaps by examining where and how a purposive sample of three SEAs searched for ...


Review Of Ethnography And Language Policy Edited By Teresa L. Mccarty, Coleman Donaldson Aug 2013

Review Of Ethnography And Language Policy Edited By Teresa L. Mccarty, Coleman Donaldson

GSE Graduate Student Research

No abstract provided.


Neuroscience For Educators: What Are They Seeking, And What Are They Finding?, Cayce J. Hook, Martha J. Farah Aug 2013

Neuroscience For Educators: What Are They Seeking, And What Are They Finding?, Cayce J. Hook, Martha J. Farah

Neuroethics Publications

What can neuroscience offer to educators? Much of the debate has focused on whether basic research on the brain can translate into direct applications within the classroom. Accompanying ethical concern has centered on whether neuroeducation has made empty promises to educators. Relatively little investigation has been made into educators’ expectations regarding neuroscience research and how they might find it professionally useful. In order to address this question, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 educators who were repeat attendees of the Learning & the Brain conferences. Responses suggest that ‘brain based’ pedagogical strategies are not all that is sought; indeed, respondents were more often drawn to the conference out of curiosity about the brain than a desire to ...


The Unanticipated Consequences Of Postponing The Employer Mandate, Mark. V. Pauly, Adam. A. Leive Aug 2013

The Unanticipated Consequences Of Postponing The Employer Mandate, Mark. V. Pauly, Adam. A. Leive

Health Care Management Papers

No abstract provided.


Youth Mentoring Partnership's Friend Fitness Program: Theoretical Foundations And Promising Preliminary Findings From A New Positive Psychology Intervention For Grit And Positive Youth Development, Chris Major Aug 2013

Youth Mentoring Partnership's Friend Fitness Program: Theoretical Foundations And Promising Preliminary Findings From A New Positive Psychology Intervention For Grit And Positive Youth Development, Chris Major

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Education reform and promotion of adolescent positive health (both physical and psychological) are two major public policy issues that can be impacted by direct intervention. The fields of positive psychology and positive youth development offer a theoretical foundation for scientific research as well as pragmatic, evidence-based methods of positive interventions (PIs). Mentoring is a unique intervention method geared towards both promotion and prevention. The Youth Mentoring Partnership’s Friend Fitness Program represents a new PI method with the goal of strengthening character traits in young people through a unique form of physical fitness-based mentoring in which adolescents must persevere through ...


Soaringwords Empirical Research To Measure The Well-Being Of Hospitalized Children, Lisa Buksbaum Aug 2013

Soaringwords Empirical Research To Measure The Well-Being Of Hospitalized Children, Lisa Buksbaum

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Positive psychology interventions can potentially significantly enhance the quality of life for pediatric patients and their loved ones. This study was designed to empirically measure the impact of a positive intervention on the well-being of pediatric patients. In a one-time 30-60 minute session, 220 patients received an inspirational SoaringSuperhero® message and artwork (from a stranger) and then were invited to create a superhero message/artwork for someone else. Before and after, participants completed a questionnaire, compiled from reliable, accredited survey instruments, administered by hospital employees, Child Life Specialists, and hospital volunteers. For every emotion, both adolescents and children were significantly ...


Towards Positive Education: A Mindful School Model, Chin Leng Ong Aug 2013

Towards Positive Education: A Mindful School Model, Chin Leng Ong

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

In a world of increasing emphasis on well-being, positive education, articulated as the teaching of skills of well-being alongside academic ones, can be a vehicle for educating both the mind and heart. The Singapore education system is moving towards a future curricula, C2015, fostering student-centric and values-driven education. This demands continued engagement of the whole-child through a co-constructive journey, a school ecosystem that encompasses total curricula and whole-school approach, and a future-oriented perspective with multiple pathways of excellence. Mindfulness is a crucial lever for enacting qualitative transformation by enabling individuals and systems to be skilful architects of internal and external ...


Character Education: A Role For Literature In Cultivating Character Strengths, Emily M. Fitzsimons Aug 2013

Character Education: A Role For Literature In Cultivating Character Strengths, Emily M. Fitzsimons

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Positive psychology is devoted to studying the flourishing human life beyond the mere absence of illness. The ability to know, measure and cultivate those elements that contribute to such a life is transforming many fields. The emerging applied field of positive education is using the findings of positive psychology to more effectively educate for psychological well-being alongside that of traditional academic learning. One crucial area of study in positive psychology is character strengths. Individuals who are not only cognizant of their strength profile but also use their strengths daily are happier, higher achieving, more resilient and more satisfied with their ...


How State Education Agencies Acquire And Use Research In School Improvement Strategies, Margaret E. Goertz, Carol Barnes, Diane Massell Aug 2013

How State Education Agencies Acquire And Use Research In School Improvement Strategies, Margaret E. Goertz, Carol Barnes, Diane Massell

CPRE Policy Briefs

Over the last two decades, state and federal laws and grant programs, such as state accountability polices, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Race to the Top, Title I School Improvement Grants, and State Longitudinal Data System Grants, have given state education agencies (SEAs) considerably more responsibilities for directing and guiding the improvement of low-performing schools. At the same time, they have pressed SEAs and school districts to incorporate research-based school improvement policies and practices in their statewide systems of support for low-performing schools, technical assistance for districts, professional development for teachers, and school improvement programs. Policymakers have urged ...


Apples And Oranges: Comparing The Backgrounds And Academic Trajectories Of International Baccalaureate (Ib) Students To A Matched Comparison Group, Henry May, Awilda Rodriguez, Philip M Sirinides, Laura W. Perna, April L Yee, Tafaya S. Ransom Aug 2013

Apples And Oranges: Comparing The Backgrounds And Academic Trajectories Of International Baccalaureate (Ib) Students To A Matched Comparison Group, Henry May, Awilda Rodriguez, Philip M Sirinides, Laura W. Perna, April L Yee, Tafaya S. Ransom

CPRE Research Reports

This report presents findings from a retrospective study of the academic histories of International Baccalaureate (IB) students and other students in the state of Florida. The IB Diploma Program is an internationally recognized college-preparatory curriculum designed to provide students with a rigorous and comprehensive academic experience. IB has grown dramatically in recent years and is thought by many to be among the best college-preparatory programs in existence. As such, there is tremendous interest in the potential impacts of IB, but any attempts to examine those impacts must deal with selection bias that results from the voluntary participation of schools ...


Evaluation Of The I3 Scale-Up Of Reading Recovery | Year One Report, 2011-12, Henry May, Abigail M. Gray, Jessica Gillespie, Philip M Sirinides, Cecile Sam, Heather Goldsworthy, Michael Armijo, Namrata Tognatta Aug 2013

Evaluation Of The I3 Scale-Up Of Reading Recovery | Year One Report, 2011-12, Henry May, Abigail M. Gray, Jessica Gillespie, Philip M Sirinides, Cecile Sam, Heather Goldsworthy, Michael Armijo, Namrata Tognatta

CPRE Research Reports

Reading Recovery (RR) is a short-term early intervention designed to help the lowest-achieving readers in first grade reach average levels of classroom performance in literacy. Students identified to receive Reading Recovery meet individually with a specially trained Reading Recovery (RR) teacher every school day for 30-minute lessons over a period of 12 to 20 weeks. The purpose of these lessons is to support rapid acceleration of each child’s literacy learning. In 2010, The Ohio State University received a Scaling Up What Works grant from the U.S. Department of Education’s Investing in Innovation (i3) Fund to expand the ...


The Lived Experience Of Standards Implementation In New York City Schools, 2011, Heather Goldsworthy, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Matthew Riggan Jul 2013

The Lived Experience Of Standards Implementation In New York City Schools, 2011, Heather Goldsworthy, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Matthew Riggan

CPRE Research Reports

The College and Career Readiness Standards, referred to as the Common Core Learning Standards (CCLS) in New York City, are increasingly the focus of educational reform efforts across the United States. Each year for the past several years, the New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) has created a set of focusing expectations for schools in order to guide their engagement with the CCLS. In the 2011-12 school year, which is the focus of this report, the New York Citywide Instructional Expectations (CIEs) asked schools to engage in two central activities. First, teachers in grade levels or subject areas were ...