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University of Pennsylvania

2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 44

Full-Text Articles in Education

Conceptualizing School Leadership And Management From A Distributed Perspective: An Exploration Of Some Study Operations And Measures, James P. Spillane, Kaleen Healey Dec 2010

Conceptualizing School Leadership And Management From A Distributed Perspective: An Exploration Of Some Study Operations And Measures, James P. Spillane, Kaleen Healey

CPRE Journal Articles

A distributed perspective on school leadership and management has garnered considerable attention from policy makers, practitioners, and researchers in many countries over the past decade. However, we should be skeptical of its appeal as a measure of worth. While optimism is high with respect to taking a distributed perspective, we urge caution by arguing for more attention to research fundamentals in the form of study operations and research measures before seeking causal inferences. The question is not, does distributed leadership work? but rather, how are leadership and management related to school and classroom conditions and school outcomes? To answer this ...


The Economics, Opportunities, And Challenges Of Health Insurance Exchanges, Mark Duggan, Robert Kocher Dec 2010

The Economics, Opportunities, And Challenges Of Health Insurance Exchanges, Mark Duggan, Robert Kocher

Health Care Management Papers

No abstract provided.


The Not So Open Door, Alan Ruby Nov 2010

The Not So Open Door, Alan Ruby

GSE Publications

Latest data on flow of international students to the U.S. raise questions about state quotas and tuition policies and how to calculate the economic value of students, writes Alan Ruby.


Parental Migration And Child Development In China, Leng Lee, Albert Park Nov 2010

Parental Migration And Child Development In China, Leng Lee, Albert Park

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

In recent years, China has witnessed a massive wave of rural-to-urban migration, which frequently results in family separations. This study uses panel data from a longitudinal study of rural children inwestern China to analyze the impact of migration by fathers on the development of children left behind in rural villages. Child development indicators include both measures of academic attainment, such as enrollment, years held back, and test scores in math and language; as well as measures of non-cognitive skills, specifically children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior which reflects their psychosocial development. To identify the effect of changes in parental migration ...


School Perspectives On Collaborative Inquiry: Lessons Learned From New York City, 2009-2010, Marian A. Robinson, Claire Passantino, Marsha Acerra, Lauren Bae, Katie Tiehen, Eric Pido, Patricia Kannapel, Mark Duffy, Connie Langland Nov 2010

School Perspectives On Collaborative Inquiry: Lessons Learned From New York City, 2009-2010, Marian A. Robinson, Claire Passantino, Marsha Acerra, Lauren Bae, Katie Tiehen, Eric Pido, Patricia Kannapel, Mark Duffy, Connie Langland

CPRE Research Reports

The New York City Department of Education has supported collaborative inquiry as a potentially powerful process for helping administrators and teachers use student data to improve instruction and raise student achievement. Beginning with a pilot project in 2006, teams of teachers have learned to work together to diagnose the needs of students who have not been successful in their classrooms and to develop strategies to improve their learning. Collaborative inquiry sits at the heart of the Department's larger Children First initiative and aims to help educators close the achievement gap in their schools. Each year New York City schools ...


School-Community-University Partnerships For A Sustainable Democracy: Education For Democratic Citizenship In Europe And The United States Of America, Matthew Hartley, Ted Huddleston Nov 2010

School-Community-University Partnerships For A Sustainable Democracy: Education For Democratic Citizenship In Europe And The United States Of America, Matthew Hartley, Ted Huddleston

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Expanding Access, Participation, And Success In International Baccalaureate Programmes: Year One Documentation Report, Thomas B. Corcoran, Gail Gerry Oct 2010

Expanding Access, Participation, And Success In International Baccalaureate Programmes: Year One Documentation Report, Thomas B. Corcoran, Gail Gerry

CPRE Research Reports

In fall 2009, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funded a three-year project (IB Access Project) with International Baccalaureate (IB) to increase participation of minority students and students in poverty in the Middle Years Programme (MYP) and Diploma Programme (DP).

The IB Access Project seeks to do four things:

  1. Improve teacher practice in designing curriculum and assessment that prepares students for the DP by providing new resources designed for this project; professional development and instructional support.
  2. Improve teacher access to resources for effective assessment design including increased use of online learning environments.
  3. Increase teacher onsite professional support around classroom practice ...


The Magnitude, Destinations, And Determinants Of Mathematics And Science Teacher Turnover, Richard Ingersoll, Henry May Oct 2010

The Magnitude, Destinations, And Determinants Of Mathematics And Science Teacher Turnover, Richard Ingersoll, Henry May

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


To Walk Out: Rural Parents’ Views On Education, Peggy A. Kong Sep 2010

To Walk Out: Rural Parents’ Views On Education, Peggy A. Kong

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

No abstract provided.


Helping Immigrants Identify As "University-Bound Students": Unexpected Difficulties In Teaching The Hidden Curriculum, Katherine Mortimer, Stanton Wortham, Elaine Allard Sep 2010

Helping Immigrants Identify As "University-Bound Students": Unexpected Difficulties In Teaching The Hidden Curriculum, Katherine Mortimer, Stanton Wortham, Elaine Allard

GSE Publications

Globalization has brought rapid migration to many regions previously unfamiliar with immigration. In these changing landscapes long-time residents must make sense of their new neighbors, and immigrants must adjust to hosts’ ideas about them and develop their own accounts of a new social context. How immigrants are viewed and how they view themselves have important implications for their future prospects-especially in schools, where students are measured against normative models of success. Yet as members of cultural and linguistic minority groups, and often as people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, immigrant students may not be aware of these models that are typically ...


Is The Supply Of Mathematics And Science Teachers Sufficient?, Richard Ingersoll, David A. Perda Sep 2010

Is The Supply Of Mathematics And Science Teachers Sufficient?, Richard Ingersoll, David A. Perda

GSE Publications

This study seeks to empirically ground the debate over mathematics/science teacher shortages, and evaluate the extent to which there is, or is not, a sufficient supply of teachers in these fields. Our analyses of nationally representative data from multiple sources show that mathematics and science are the most difficult-to-staff fields, but the factors behind these problems are complex. There are multiple sources of new teachers; those with education degrees are a minor source compared to those with degrees in mathematics and science, and the reserve pool. Over the past two decades, graduation requirements, student course taking, and teacher retirements ...


Mps Soars: Facilitating Elementary Transition Due To Building Closures In A Positive And Productive Way, Kathryn L. Snyder Aug 2010

Mps Soars: Facilitating Elementary Transition Due To Building Closures In A Positive And Productive Way, Kathryn L. Snyder

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Midland Public Schools (MPS) is closing five of 12 elementary buildings in the 2010-2011 school year for a variety of reasons. MPS SOARs is a two part modified Appreciative Inquiry process designed to both provide closure and optimism to end the 2009-2010 school year in the existing buildings and then to start the process of building a positive group morale for the 2010-2011 school year in the consolidated schools. The target population is elementary staff members, mainly teachers. The goal is to SOAR: to bring out Strengths, Opportunities, Aspirations, and a chance for Reflection. MPS SOARs I took place on ...


Intertemporal Pricing And Consumer Stockpiling, Xuanming Su Jul 2010

Intertemporal Pricing And Consumer Stockpiling, Xuanming Su

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We study a dynamic pricing problem for a class of products with stable consumption patterns (e.g., household items, staple foods). Consumers may stock up the product at current prices for future consumption, but they incur inventory holding costs. We model this situation as a dynamic game over an infinite time horizon: in each period, the seller sets a price, and each consumer chooses how many units to buy. We develop a solution methodology based on rational expectations. By endowing each player with beliefs, we decouple the dynamic game into individual dynamic programs for each player. We solve for the ...


Ability And Intrahousehold Allocation In Gansu Province, China, Jessica Leight May 2010

Ability And Intrahousehold Allocation In Gansu Province, China, Jessica Leight

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

This paper analyzes the strategies employed by households in rural China to allo- cate educational expenditure to children of dierent endowment, examining whether parents use educational funding to reinforce or compensate for variation in endow- ment. Employing climatic shocks as an instrument for children's endowment yields results indicating that parental expenditure is preferentially directed to children of lower endowment. This result appears robust to the potentially confounding eects of gender and grade level and holds across a number of measures of expenditure. This analysis is consistent with a hypothesis that parents use the allocation of household resources to compensate ...


Editors’ Introduction: Emerging Issues For Educational Research In East Asia, Emily C. Hannum, Hyunjoon Park, Yuko Goto Butler May 2010

Editors’ Introduction: Emerging Issues For Educational Research In East Asia, Emily C. Hannum, Hyunjoon Park, Yuko Goto Butler

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

In recent decades, globalization and regional integration have brought significant economic and demographic changes in East Asia, including rising economic inequality, growing population movements within and across borders, and the emergence or renewed geopolitical significance of cultural and linguistic minority populations. These trends have coincided with significant changes in family formation, dissolution, and structures. How have these changes played out in the diverse educational systems of East Asia? In what innovative ways are East Asian governments addressing the new demographic realities of their student populations? This volume offers a snapshot of key educational stratification issues in East Asian nations, and ...


Review Of "Teacher Layoffs: Rethinking 'Last Hired, First Fired' Policies", Richard Ingersoll, Lisa Merrill May 2010

Review Of "Teacher Layoffs: Rethinking 'Last Hired, First Fired' Policies", Richard Ingersoll, Lisa Merrill

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Negotiating The Cultural Turn As Universities Adopt A Corporate Model In An Economic Downturn, Timothy B. Powell May 2010

Negotiating The Cultural Turn As Universities Adopt A Corporate Model In An Economic Downturn, Timothy B. Powell

Departmental Papers (Religious Studies)

I would like to begin by thanking Jerry McGann for inviting me to engage in this vital discussion. As someone who works with Native American communities, which are rarely represented in forums like this one, it means a great deal to have these indigenous voices recognized and authorized. I would also like to thank Ken Price for his very thoughtful essay. This response seeks to pursue in greater depth an issue raised by Ken’s comparison between the Walt Whitman Archive, a “single author-based” project begun in 1995, and Civil War Washington, a “theme-based” archive currently in development. More specifically ...


Federal Policy And The Rise In Disability Enrollment: Evidence For The Veterans Affairs’ Disability Compensation Program, Mark Duggan May 2010

Federal Policy And The Rise In Disability Enrollment: Evidence For The Veterans Affairs’ Disability Compensation Program, Mark Duggan

Health Care Management Papers

The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs compensates 13 percent of the nation’s military veterans for service‐related disabilities through the Disability Compensation (DC) program. In 2001, a legislative change made it easier for Vietnam veterans to receive benefits for diabetes associated with military service. In this paper, we investigate this policy’s effect on DC enrollment and expenditures as well as the behavioral response of potential beneficiaries. Our findings demonstrate that the policy increased DC enrollment by 6 percentage points among Vietnam veterans and that an additional 1.7 percent experienced an increase in their DC benefits, which ...


Heart Start: A Paradigm Shift In Early Childhood Education, Elizabeth Gragg Elizardi Apr 2010

Heart Start: A Paradigm Shift In Early Childhood Education, Elizabeth Gragg Elizardi

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Children are born in potential as strong and powerful human beings. Their strengths and gifts of character are nurtured by the environment in which they are raised and the caring adults who surround them in their early years. Research demonstrates that the cornerstones of child well-being are positive relationships, nurturing environments, and the image of the child as a capable citizen, thus leading to flourishing adults and communities. However, these relationships and environments need not be limited to the home, but rather should include schools, neighborhoods and organizations where children and parents participate and contribute to building social capital within ...


Teacher Learning And Instructional Change: How Formal And On-The-Job Learning Opportunities Predict Change In Elementary School Teachers' Practice, Leigh Mesler Parise, James P. Spillane Mar 2010

Teacher Learning And Instructional Change: How Formal And On-The-Job Learning Opportunities Predict Change In Elementary School Teachers' Practice, Leigh Mesler Parise, James P. Spillane

CPRE Journal Articles

Recent education reform has emphasized the importance of teacher learning in improving classroom instruction and raising student achievement. This article focuses on teachers' learning opportunities, including formal professional development and on-the-job learning that occurs through interactions with colleagues. Using data from 30 elementary schools in a mid-sized urban school district, the authors concurrently explore the relationships between teachers' formal professional development and on-the-job learning opportunities and instructional change. Results suggest that formal professional development and on-the-job opportunities to learn are both significantly associated with changes in teachers' instructional practice in mathematics and English language arts.


Weather To Go To College, Uri Simonsohn Mar 2010

Weather To Go To College, Uri Simonsohn

Marketing Papers

Does current utility bias predictions of future utility for high stakes decisions? Here I provide field evidence consistent with such Projection Bias in one of life's most thought‐about decisions: college enrolment. After arguing and documenting with survey evidence that cloudiness increases the appeal of academic activities, I analyse the enrolment decisions of 1,284 prospective students who visited a university known for its academic strengths and recreational weaknesses. Consistent with the notion that current weather conditions influence decisions about future academic activities, I find that an increase in cloudcover of one standard deviation on the day of the ...


The Failure Of Education Policy In Israel: Politics Vs. Bureaucracy, Alexandra F. Leavy Mar 2010

The Failure Of Education Policy In Israel: Politics Vs. Bureaucracy, Alexandra F. Leavy

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

No abstract provided.


Healthy Aging: The Whole Woman Approach, Elizabeth Mackenzie, Birgit Rakel Feb 2010

Healthy Aging: The Whole Woman Approach, Elizabeth Mackenzie, Birgit Rakel

GSE Publications

The purpose of chapter 37 is to emphasize the potential for healthy aging. We know that our bodies change with age. Skin begins to lose its elasticity, wrinkles emerge, bones may become more brittle, muscle tone diminishes, and we gain weight more readily. Chronic conditions that have been forming for years may finally manifest as full-blown symptoms claiming our attention. Our energy levels may be lower, almost as though our vital force is leaking away. Still, there is potential for vibrant health if these challenges are approached with the proper perspective and if we are equipped with the best of ...


Beyond The Classroom: Using Title Ix To Measure The Return To High School Sports, Betsey Stevenson Jan 2010

Beyond The Classroom: Using Title Ix To Measure The Return To High School Sports, Betsey Stevenson

PSC Working Paper Series

Between 1972 and 1978 U.S. high schools rapidly increased their female athletic participation rates—to approximately the same level as their male athletic participation rates—in order to comply with Title IX, a policy change that provides a unique quasi-experiment in female athletic participation. This paper examines the causal implications of this expansion in female sports participation by using variation in the level of boys’ athletic participation across states before Title IX to instrument for the change in girls’ athletic participation. Analysis of differences in outcomes across states in changes between pre- and post-cohorts reveals that a 10-percentage point ...


India Is Opening Up. What Should American Colleges Do About It?, Alan Ruby Jan 2010

India Is Opening Up. What Should American Colleges Do About It?, Alan Ruby

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Building A Private School In China: A Case Study Of An Ordinary Private School In Jiangsu Province, Molin Zhong Jan 2010

Building A Private School In China: A Case Study Of An Ordinary Private School In Jiangsu Province, Molin Zhong

Social Impact Research Experience (SIRE)

This research paper is a case study of an ordinary private school in China. It specifically looks at what sorts of strategies the school in question used in order to compete in a confusing and nebulous sector of the Chinese economy. Through the effective management of external relationships with financiers, the local government, and the educational community as well as the internal relationships with the management structure, employees, and students, the school has achieved a measure of success. By success, the researcher means that the school has been able to survive in a difficult economic environment and maintain growth prospects ...


The Surprise Element: How Allaying Parents' Misconceptions Improves A Teacher's Communicative Process, Rashmi Kumar Jan 2010

The Surprise Element: How Allaying Parents' Misconceptions Improves A Teacher's Communicative Process, Rashmi Kumar

VPUL Works

Challenged by parents' misconceptions about the role of cooperative learning activities in developing their gifted children, a teacher began to mentor the parents. The act of mentoring those parents resulted in the teacher's longer-term professional development: specifically, creating a process of seeking structured feedback from parents and following up through iterative cycles of reflection, appraisal, and revision.

Many teachers can identify a critical learning juncture that has had a notable influence on their learning and professional growth. Often, teachers locate such epiphanies within everyday teaching practices, advanced studies, or opportunities for professional development (Clarke and Hollingsworth 1994, 2002). The ...


The Gender Gap In Secondary School Mathematics At High Achievement Levels: Evidence From The American Mathematics Competitions, Glenn Ellison, Ashley Swanson Jan 2010

The Gender Gap In Secondary School Mathematics At High Achievement Levels: Evidence From The American Mathematics Competitions, Glenn Ellison, Ashley Swanson

Health Care Management Papers

This paper uses a new data source, American Mathematics Competitions, to examine the gender gap among high school students at very high achievement levels. The data bring out several new facts. There is a large gender gap that widens dramatically at percentiles above those that can be examined using standard data sources. An analysis of unobserved heterogeneity indicates that there is only moderate variation in the gender gap across schools. The highest achieving girls in the U.S. are concentrated in a very small set of elite schools, suggesting that almost all girls with the ability to reach high math ...


Promotion Incentives And Teacher Effort In China, Naureen Karachiwalla Jan 2010

Promotion Incentives And Teacher Effort In China, Naureen Karachiwalla

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Dissertations

This paper examines the effort incentives of teachers in rural China. China employs a complex system of annual evaluations and promotions for civil servants in which good evaluations, along with a teacher's years of service and education, make teachers eligible to apply for rank promotions. A model of promotions is developed in which agents are both incentivized, and are sorted into ranks by ability. The model's predictions are then tested using panel data on teachers collected as part of the Gansu Survey of Children and Families (GSCF). We find that teachers respond to promotion incentives as predicted by ...


Why Are Teachers “Overpaid” In Developing Countries? --The Role Of The Nature Of Educational Production In Teachers’ Labor Markets, Qihui Chen Jan 2010

Why Are Teachers “Overpaid” In Developing Countries? --The Role Of The Nature Of Educational Production In Teachers’ Labor Markets, Qihui Chen

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

No abstract provided.