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University of Pennsylvania

2008

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Articles 1 - 17 of 17

Full-Text Articles in Education

Beyond Cost: Rural Perspectives On Barriers To Education, Emily C. Hannum, Jennifer Adams Dec 2008

Beyond Cost: Rural Perspectives On Barriers To Education, Emily C. Hannum, Jennifer Adams

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

In China, education plays an increasingly important role in the creation of wealth and poverty. In the reform era, education has become closely tied to earnings (Yang 2005; Zhang et al. 2005). Returns to education in urban China increased significantly from 1978 to 1993, though returns were still relatively low in 1993, at less than four percent per year of schooling (Zhao and Zhou 2006). More recent trend data based on National Bureau of Statistics surveys show rapid increases in economic returns to a year of education in urban China: returns nearly tripled during the period 1992 to 2003, rising ...


Family Sources Of Educational Gender Inequality In Rural China: A Critical Assessment, Emily C. Hannum, Peggy A. Kong, Yuping Zhang Nov 2008

Family Sources Of Educational Gender Inequality In Rural China: A Critical Assessment, Emily C. Hannum, Peggy A. Kong, Yuping Zhang

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

In this paper, we investigate the gender gap in education in rural northwest China. We first discuss parental perceptions of abilities and appropriate roles for girls and boys; parental concerns about old-age support; and parental perceptions of different labor market outcomes for girls' and boys' education. We then investigate gender disparities in investments in children, children's performance at school, and children's subsequent attainment. We analyze a survey of nine to twelve year-old children and their families conducted in rural Gansu Province in the year 2000, along with follow-up information about subsequent educational attainment collected seven years later. We ...


Teaching Quality And Student Outcomes: Academic Achievement And Educational Engagement In Rural Northwest China, Xuehui An, Emily C. Hannum, Tanja Sargent Sep 2008

Teaching Quality And Student Outcomes: Academic Achievement And Educational Engagement In Rural Northwest China, Xuehui An, Emily C. Hannum, Tanja Sargent

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

A central task of educational researchers has been to uncover factors that improve student academic achievement. Research in both developed and developing nations during the past few decades has analysed the links between educational outcomes and school physical resources, teacher quality and children's demographic and family background. Importantly, research on teacher and school effects in developing countries has focused on factors such as human capital, economic resources and physical infrastructure, the so-called input factors in the "black box" production function model of school outcomes. Fewer studies have focused on the "softer" classroom process factors that might be seen as ...


A Formative Study Of The Implementation Of The Inquiry Team Process In New York City Public Schools: 2007‐08 Findings, Marian A. Robinson, Patricia Kannapel, Joan Gujarati, Hakim Williams, Andrea Oettinger Sep 2008

A Formative Study Of The Implementation Of The Inquiry Team Process In New York City Public Schools: 2007‐08 Findings, Marian A. Robinson, Patricia Kannapel, Joan Gujarati, Hakim Williams, Andrea Oettinger

CPRE Research Reports

During the 2007-08 school year, the New York City Department of Education launched the second phase of its ambitious and innovative initiative known as Children First. The reform is guided by three principles: leadership, empowerment, and accountability. Key components include restructuring central-office services, increasing principal authority, providing schools access to new forms and sources of support through affiliate school support organizations (SSOs), and developing new data-driven accountability tools that hold schools responsible for student performance while providing rich diagnostic information to support organizational and instructional improvement. Ultimately, this initiative aims to intensify the focus by all educators on student performance ...


Teacher Turnover: Examining Exit Attrition, Teaching Area Transfer, And School Migration, Ed Boe, Lynne H. Cook, Robert J. Sunderland Sep 2008

Teacher Turnover: Examining Exit Attrition, Teaching Area Transfer, And School Migration, Ed Boe, Lynne H. Cook, Robert J. Sunderland

GSE Publications

The purposes of this research were to quantify trends in three components of teacher turnover and to investigate claims of excessive teacher turnover as the predominant source of teacher shortages. Attrition and teaching area transfer rates were comparable in special and general education and increased substantially from 1991-1992 to 2000-2001. School migration was stable over years, but higher in special than general education. Although annual turnover was high and increased to 1 in 4 teachers (25.6%) by 2000-2001, teacher attrition was lower than in other occupations. Evidence suggests that retention is unlikely to increase without dramatic improvements in the ...


Positive Psychology And Positive Interventions For Nurses, Catharine L. Parsons Ms. Aug 2008

Positive Psychology And Positive Interventions For Nurses, Catharine L. Parsons Ms.

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

This capstone project draws on concepts from the field of positive psychology and applies them to the practice of nurses. More specifically, the author is interested in the design of positive interventions that could be used by nurses to enhance their experience of work in the health care setting. The intended purpose of such interventions is to foster individual autonomy in the creation of positive emotions, and enhance meaning and engagement in the workplace. Foundational to the design of these positive interventions is relevant research from the fields of positive psychology and nursing. The context of the Canadian health care ...


High School Students' Perceptions Of Local, National, And Institutional Scholarships, Laura W. Perna Jul 2008

High School Students' Perceptions Of Local, National, And Institutional Scholarships, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

This study uses data from 15 descriptive case studies to explore high school students’ perceptions of scholarships and the forces that contribute to these perceptions. The findings describe six themes that emerged from the data analyses: (a) awareness of scholarships; (b) perceptions of institutional scholarships; (c) motivations for pursuing scholarships; (d) barriers to pursuing scholarships; (e) sources of information about scholarships; and (f) potential strategies for encouraging more students to pursue scholarships. The article concludes by identifying implications for policy, practice, and future research.


The Objectification Of Identity Across Events, Stanton Wortham Jul 2008

The Objectification Of Identity Across Events, Stanton Wortham

GSE Publications

This paper describes one way in which students develop durable, classroom-specific identities. When students enter new groups 8 their identities are often fluid. Over time, however, students and teachers generally come to identify individuals in predictable ways. 9 Durable identities emerge across events, as signs of identity come to presuppose a consistent trajectory of identification for a given 10 individual. This paper traces the social identification of one student across the course of a two-month curriculum unit in a middle 11 school science class, showing how he developed a complex but robust identity across several weeks in a new lab ...


Does Nonprofit Status Signal Quality?, Anup Malani, Guy David Jun 2008

Does Nonprofit Status Signal Quality?, Anup Malani, Guy David

Health Care Management Papers

A popular theory for why firms take nonprofit status is that it is a signal of quality. This paper offers a simple, empirical test of this theory. If nonprofit status signals quality, surely nonprofit firms would want to ensure that consumers are aware of this. A natural way for firms to do this is to indicate their nonprofit status in their advertising. Taking this cue, we conducted a survey of over 2,800 firms in the hospital, nursing home, or child care industries in order to determine whether nonprofit firms communicate their status to consumers on their Web sites or ...


On The Effects Of Consumer Search And Firm Entry In A Multiproduct Competitive Market, Gerard. P. Cachon, Christian Terwiesch, Yi Xu May 2008

On The Effects Of Consumer Search And Firm Entry In A Multiproduct Competitive Market, Gerard. P. Cachon, Christian Terwiesch, Yi Xu

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This paper studies a model in which consumers search among multiple competing firms for products that match their preferences at a reasonable price. We focus on how easier search, possibly due to the adoption of search-facilitating technologies such as the Internet, influences equilibrium prices, assortments, firm profits, and consumer welfare. Conventional wisdom suggests that easier search creates a competition-intensifying effect that puts pressure on firms to lower their prices and reduce assortments. However, in our model we demonstrate that search also exhibits a market-expansion effect that encourages firms to expand their assortment—easier search means that each firm is searched ...


The Inquiry Based Science And Technology Education Program (In-Step): The Evaluation Of The First Year, Thomas B. Corcoran Apr 2008

The Inquiry Based Science And Technology Education Program (In-Step): The Evaluation Of The First Year, Thomas B. Corcoran

CPRE Research Reports

This is the first report on the evaluation of the Inquiry Based Science and Technology Education Program (IN-STEP), an innovative and ambitious science education initiative being undertaken by a public-private partnership in Thailand. The IN-STEP project is being sponsored by MSD Thailand and supported by funding from its parent company, Merck & Co., Inc., and is being led and implemented by a public-private partnership of organizations committed to improving science education in Thailand. In response to the tsunami disaster in 2004, Merck and MSD Thailand donated US$500,000 to design and implement a science education program in the tsunami-affected province of Phang-nga. Managed by the Kenan Institute Asia, IN-STEP draws heavily on the experience and resources of the Merck Institute for Science Education (MISE), founded by Merck in 1993 to improve student performance in science in the United States. MISE’s efforts have shown that the use of well-designed materials and inquiry methods not only raises children’s achievement in science, but also their engagement and enthusiasm.

This report has three aims: first, to share the IN-STEP model with a broad audience of science educators and policymakers; second, to provide baseline information on the teachers and schools involved in the project; third, to provide the IN-STEP team with useful feedback from the first year of implementation. These multiple purposes result in a rather lengthy report. We hope that readers will be forgiving and seek out the ...


The Relationship Between Mass Media And Classroom Discourse, Betsy R. Rymes Jan 2008

The Relationship Between Mass Media And Classroom Discourse, Betsy R. Rymes

GSE Publications

In this paper, I illustrate the cyclical proliferation of mass-mediated communicative repertoires through small-scale mechanisms of classroom discourse. I draw on examples of current advertising, classroom discourse data from diverse studies, my own study of an elementary ESL group's interaction, and mass mediated representations of classroom discourse on websites and TV shows about school to illustrate the relationship between mass media and classroom discourse. I analyze how mass-mediated metadiscourse creates new participation frameworks in classrooms that propel small-scale changes in classroom discourse and potentially facilitate the integration of new voices. Finally I discuss the implications of this analysis for ...


The Objectification Of Identity Across Events, Stanton Wortham Jan 2008

The Objectification Of Identity Across Events, Stanton Wortham

GSE Publications

This paper describes one way in which students can develop durable local identities in science classrooms. When students enter new classrooms or lab groups their identities are indeterminate, to varying degrees. Over time, however, students and teachers generally come to identify a given student in robust and predictable ways. The process of developing a stable local identity is intertextual. A more durable identity emerges across events, as signs of identity come to presuppose a consistent trajectory of identification that extends across events. The various trajectories of identification that an individual could have traveled normally get narrowed down, as events of ...


The Role Of College Counseling In Shaping College Opportunity: Variations Across High Schools, Laura W. Perna Jan 2008

The Role Of College Counseling In Shaping College Opportunity: Variations Across High Schools, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

This study draws on data from descriptive case studies of 15 high schools, three in each of five states. The findings highlight constraints in the availability of college counseling, differences in the availability of college counseling across schools, and the influence of schools, districts, higher education institutions, and states on the availability and nature of college counseling. The study suggests that, in the context of limited fiscal and other resources, changes in federal and state financial aid policies, district policies pertaining to counseling, and relationships with higher education institutions will help ensure that all students receive sufficient college counseling.


Researcher Meets The Policy Realm: A Personal Account, Richard Ingersoll Jan 2008

Researcher Meets The Policy Realm: A Personal Account, Richard Ingersoll

GSE Publications

Few educational problems have received more attention in recent times than the failure to ensure that our nation’s elementary and secondary classrooms are all staffed with qualified teachers. Over the past couple of decades, dozens of studies, commissions, and national reports have bemoaned the quality of our teachers. As a result, there have been numerous policies and initiatives enacted at the federal, state, and local levels. The most significant of these efforts has been the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), enacted in 2002, which set an unprecedented goal to ensure that students are all taught by “highly qualified ...


The Dynamic Nature Of Knowledge: Future Challenges And Opportunities For College And University Leaders., Peter D. Eckel, Matthew Hartley Jan 2008

The Dynamic Nature Of Knowledge: Future Challenges And Opportunities For College And University Leaders., Peter D. Eckel, Matthew Hartley

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Today, All Children: Can Teach For America Bridge The Achievement Gap?, Sonia (Pascal) Steinway Jan 2008

Today, All Children: Can Teach For America Bridge The Achievement Gap?, Sonia (Pascal) Steinway

Honors Theses (PPE)

Since Teach for America's founding in 1989, it has weathered a number of criticisms: could young, well-intentioned corps members unknowingly harm children by virtue of a lack of experience in teaching and unfamiliarity with poverty-stricken, primarily Black and Latino communities? Would a two year time commitment destabilize the already unpredictable lives of poor children? Can a program recruit good teachers, even if it does not require rigorous training or experience with children? And will more educational advocates solve the seemingly intractable problems of low-income schools, if those that already exist have failed thus far? I aim to examine TFA ...