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University of Pennsylvania

2007

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Articles 1 - 25 of 25

Full-Text Articles in Education

A Randomized Evaluation Of Ohio's Personalized Assessment Reporting System (Pars), Henry May, Marian A. Robinson Dec 2007

A Randomized Evaluation Of Ohio's Personalized Assessment Reporting System (Pars), Henry May, Marian A. Robinson

CPRE Research Reports

In the 2006–07 school year, the Ohio Department of Education (ODE) launched a pilot of its Personalized Assessment Reporting System (PARS) for the Ohio Graduation Tests (OGT). The PARS program included several new OGT test score reports for teachers, administrators, students, and parents along with two new websites for educators and students. The new PARS test score reports and associated websites are designed to provide teachers, administrators, students and parents with more detailed information about student performance as well as numerous suggestions and resources for improving performance. One of the primary goals of PARS is to increase student motivation ...


How Are Nonnative-English-Speaking Teachers Perceived By Young Learners?, Yuko G. Butler Dec 2007

How Are Nonnative-English-Speaking Teachers Perceived By Young Learners?, Yuko G. Butler

GSE Publications

The current study examined the effects of Korean elementary school teachers' accents on their students' listening comprehension. It also examined students' attitudes toward teachers with American-accented English (a native speaker model) and Korean-accented English (a nonnative speaker model). A matched-guised technique was used. A Korean American individual recorded texts in both American-accented English and Korean-accented English. The study randomly assigned 312 Grade 6 Korean students to listen to one of these two recorded oral texts and their comprehension was examined. Next, all of the students listened to both accented-English tapes and their attitudes toward the two speakers (which were in ...


Biliteracy, Transnationalism, Multimodality, And Identity: Trajectories Across Time And Space, Nancy H. Hornberger Dec 2007

Biliteracy, Transnationalism, Multimodality, And Identity: Trajectories Across Time And Space, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

Herein, we are privileged to be given a close and detailed look at the lives and literacies of transnational multilingual youth and adults of diverse origins and communities from across the United States. These are multilingual lives and literacies located on the west coast, or in western mountain, southwest, midwest, or northeast U.S. There are New Yorkers of Dominican, Colombian, Bengali, and Chabad Jewish-American heritage, Mexican immigrants from Guanajuato and Jalisco in Iowa and California, respectively, and adult women refugees from Bosnia, Iran, and Sudan now residing in the intermountain west.


Identifying Best Practices In Civic Education: Lessons From The Student Voices Program, Lauren Feldman, Josh Pasek, Daniel Romer, Kathleen Hall Jamieson Nov 2007

Identifying Best Practices In Civic Education: Lessons From The Student Voices Program, Lauren Feldman, Josh Pasek, Daniel Romer, Kathleen Hall Jamieson

Departmental Papers (ASC)

School‐based civic education is increasingly recognized as an effective means for increasing political awareness and participation in American youth. This study examines the Student Voices curriculum, implemented in 22 Philadelphia high schools, to assess program activities that mediate gains in outcomes linked to future political participation (following of politics, political knowledge, and political efficacy). The results indicate that class deliberative discussions, community projects, and informational use of the Internet produce favorable outcomes that build over the course of two semesters. Effects were comparable for both white and nonwhite students.


Improving The Transition From High School To College In Minnesota: Recommendations Based On A Review Of Effective Programs, Laura W. Perna Nov 2007

Improving The Transition From High School To College In Minnesota: Recommendations Based On A Review Of Effective Programs, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

This paper provides information to inform a discussion of how to allocate resources to increase the educational attainment of Minnesota’s population by focusing on one aspect of the educational pipeline: the transition from high school to college. The paper draws on existing research and policy reports that examine: (1) demographic characteristics, college enrollment, and degree attainment for the United States and the state of Minnesota; (2) promising practices in Minnesota and the nation that are designed to facilitate the transition from high school to college; and (3) the effectiveness (including the cost effectiveness) of programs that facilitate the transition ...


Aching To Retire? The Rise In The Full Retirement Age And Its Impact On The Social Security Disability Rolls, Mark Duggan, Perry Singleton, Jae Song Aug 2007

Aching To Retire? The Rise In The Full Retirement Age And Its Impact On The Social Security Disability Rolls, Mark Duggan, Perry Singleton, Jae Song

Health Care Management Papers

The Social Security Amendments of 1983 reduced the generosity of Social Security retired worker benefits in the U.S. by increasing the program's full retirement age from 65 to 67 and increasing the penalty for claiming benefits at the early retirement age of 62. These changes were phased in gradually, so that individuals born in or before 1937 were unaffected and those born in 1960 or later were fully affected. No corresponding changes were made to the program's disabled worker benefits, and thus the relative generosity of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits increased. In this paper, we ...


Children’S Direct Exposure To Types Of Domestic Violence Crime: A Population-Based Investigation, John Fantuzzo, Rachel Fusco Jul 2007

Children’S Direct Exposure To Types Of Domestic Violence Crime: A Population-Based Investigation, John Fantuzzo, Rachel Fusco

GSE Publications

Police officers served as public health sentinels to collect data on children exposed to domestic violence across an entire municipality for one year. This study extended research by investigating a typology of domestic violence crimes and children's direct sensory exposure to these types. Police officers used a standard, validated protocol to collect data on all substantiated domestic violence. Findings revealed that almost half of all events had children present, and 81% of these children were directly exposed to the violence. Children under the age of 6 years old were at greater risk of exposure. Identified domestic violence households with ...


Constraint-Based Ontology Induction From Online Customer Reviews, Thomas Lee May 2007

Constraint-Based Ontology Induction From Online Customer Reviews, Thomas Lee

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We present an unsupervised, domain-independent technique for inducing a product-specific ontology of product features based upon online customer reviews. We frame ontology induction as a logical assignment problem and solve it with a bounds consistency constrained logic program. Using shallow natural language processing techniques, reviews are parsed into phrase sequences where each phrase refers to a single concept. Traditional document clustering techniques are adapted to collect phrases into initial concepts. We generate a token graph for each initial concept cluster and find a maximal clique to define the corresponding logical set of concept sub-elements. The logic program assigns tokens to ...


Clouds Make Nerds Look Good: Field Evidence Of The Impact Of Incidental Factors On Decision Making, Uri Simonsohn Apr 2007

Clouds Make Nerds Look Good: Field Evidence Of The Impact Of Incidental Factors On Decision Making, Uri Simonsohn

Marketing Papers

Abundant experimental research has documented that incidental primes and emotions are capable of influencing people's judgments and choices. This paper examines whether the influence of such incidental factors is large enough to be observable in the field, by analyzing 682 actual university admission decisions. As predicted, applicants' academic attributes are weighted more heavily on cloudier days and non‐academic attributes on sunnier days. The documented effects are of both statistical and practical significance: changes in cloud cover can increase a candidate's predicted probability of admission by an average of up to 11.9%. These results also shed light ...


Learning To Teach In The 21st Century, Peter T. Struck Feb 2007

Learning To Teach In The 21st Century, Peter T. Struck

Departmental Papers (Classical Studies)

No doubt all of us, with a few exceptions, face a challenge in making the material we teach relevant and compelling to a contemporary audience. I am a classicist. The following recounts my own struggle with the issue.


Redesigning School Finance Systems, Allan Odden Feb 2007

Redesigning School Finance Systems, Allan Odden

CPRE Policy Briefs

CPRE researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have been working on school finance redesign since 1990. The issue that has driven this effort has been the goal of state standards-based education reform and, more recently, of the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act to teach all students to high standards. This goal has shifted the orientation of the education system from inputs to outcomes--student achievement to rigorous performance standards--with an attendant accountability focus at the school site. In the broader school finance community, this focus has induced a shift from "equity" to "adequacy," for both litigation and policy. Though ...


Teaching Matters: How State And Local Policymakers Can Improve The Quality Of Teachers And Teaching, Thomas B. Corcoran Feb 2007

Teaching Matters: How State And Local Policymakers Can Improve The Quality Of Teachers And Teaching, Thomas B. Corcoran

CPRE Policy Briefs

A growing body of evidence confirms what common sense has suggested all along: The quality of teaching in the public schools matters for how well students learn. An important corollary is that poor children, minority children, and children from nonEnglish-speaking homes are even more dependent on the quality of their teachers than are more affluent, English-speaking, White children. Pressures to improve teacher quality stem mainly from state efforts to hold local schools accountable for student achievement and from the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act.

Policymakers want to know how to train, license, recruit, select, deploy, assign, develop ...


Misdiagnosing The Teacher Quality Problem, Richard Ingersoll Feb 2007

Misdiagnosing The Teacher Quality Problem, Richard Ingersoll

CPRE Policy Briefs

Few educational issues have received more attention in recent times than the problem of ensuring that our nation's elementary and secondary classrooms are all staffed with quality teachers. There is consensus that the quality of teachers and teaching matter--and undoubtedly are among the most important factors shaping the learning and growth of students. Moreover, there is consensus that serious problems exist with the quality of teachers and teaching in the United States. Beyond that, however, there appears to be little consensus and much disagreement--especially over what teacher quality entails and what the sources of, and solutions to, the problem ...


Teacher Performance Pay: Synthesis Of Plans, Research, And Guidelines For Practice, Herbert G. Heneman Iii, Anthony Milanowski, Steven Kimball Feb 2007

Teacher Performance Pay: Synthesis Of Plans, Research, And Guidelines For Practice, Herbert G. Heneman Iii, Anthony Milanowski, Steven Kimball

CPRE Policy Briefs

The single salary schedule has ruled the delivery of teacher pay for decades, despite long-standing criticism that it fails to link some portion of teachers'pay to their performance. In recent years, there has been some experimentation with performance pay for teachers. Early attempts focused on the development of merit pay, in which pay raises were linked to subjective evaluations of teacher performance. Subsequent evaluations of merit pay plans questioned their effectiveness, especially given their limited survival, though it was acknowledged that the problem was not necessarily merit pay per se, but the way the plans were designed, implemented, and ...


Historically Black Colleges And Universities: Recent Trends (2007), Marybeth Gasman, Benjamin Baez, Noah D. Drezner, Katherine V. Sedgwick, Christopher Tudico, Julie M. Schmid Feb 2007

Historically Black Colleges And Universities: Recent Trends (2007), Marybeth Gasman, Benjamin Baez, Noah D. Drezner, Katherine V. Sedgwick, Christopher Tudico, Julie M. Schmid

GSE Publications

The nation’s historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are diverse. Although we discuss them as a category based on their historical racial makeup, these institutions are in fact quite different from one another. According to the government’s definition, black colleges are bound together by the fact that they were established prior to 1964 (the year of the Civil Rights Act) with the express purpose of educating African Americans. These institutions, of which there are 103, are public, private, large, small, religious, nonsectarian, selective, and open-enrolling. They educate 300,000 students and employ over 14,000 faculty members.1 ...


Foreign Language Education At Elementary Schools In Japan: Searching For Solutions Amidst Growing Diversification, Yuko G. Butler Jan 2007

Foreign Language Education At Elementary Schools In Japan: Searching For Solutions Amidst Growing Diversification, Yuko G. Butler

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


What's A Testlet And Why Do We Need Them?, Howard Wainer, Eric T. Bradlow, Xiaohui Wang Jan 2007

What's A Testlet And Why Do We Need Them?, Howard Wainer, Eric T. Bradlow, Xiaohui Wang

Marketing Papers

In 1987, Wainer and Kiely proposed a name for a packet of test items that are administered together; they called such an aggregation a "testlet." Testlets had been in existence for a long time prior to 1987, albeit without this euphonious appellation. They had typically been used to boost testing efficiency in situations that examined an individual's ability to understand some sort of stimulus, for example, a reading passage, an information graph, a musical passage, or a table of numbers. In such situations, a substantial amount of examinee time is spent in processing the stimulus, and it was found ...


Study Of School Leadership: Working Paper - Measuring Leadership Practice, Jason Huff Jan 2007

Study Of School Leadership: Working Paper - Measuring Leadership Practice, Jason Huff

CPRE Working Papers

No abstract provided.


Investigation Of Dimensions Of Social-Emotional Classroom Behavior And School Readiness For Low-Income Urban Preschool Children, John Fantuzzo, Rebecca Bulotsky-Shearer, Paul Mcdermott, Christine Mcwayne, Douglas Frye, Staci Perlman Jan 2007

Investigation Of Dimensions Of Social-Emotional Classroom Behavior And School Readiness For Low-Income Urban Preschool Children, John Fantuzzo, Rebecca Bulotsky-Shearer, Paul Mcdermott, Christine Mcwayne, Douglas Frye, Staci Perlman

GSE Publications

The present study identified higher-order relationships among teacher assessments of approaches to learning and emotional and behavioral adjustment constructs for urban, low-income preschool children. It examined the unique contribution of these dimensions to cognitive and social competencies and risk of poor academic outcomes. Analyses of a large, representative sample of urban Head Start children revealed two distinct and reliable, higher-order dimensions of classroom adjustment behavior: Regulated and Academically Disengaged Behavior. Both of the dimensions contributed unique variance to the prediction of early mathematics ability and general classroom competencies prior to kindergarten entry, controlling for child demographics. Each dimension also contributed ...


A Unique Visual And Literary Art Form: Recent Research On Picturebooks, Carol Driggs Wolfenbarger, Lawrence Sipe Jan 2007

A Unique Visual And Literary Art Form: Recent Research On Picturebooks, Carol Driggs Wolfenbarger, Lawrence Sipe

GSE Publications

Picturebooks represent a unique visual and literary art form that engages young readers and older readers in many levels of learning and pleasure. This form, however, is changing rapidly and in turn generating new possibilities for teaching and research. Knowledge of recent developments in picturebooks, ways of reading these books, and bridging picturebook forms and innovations with reader response will enable practitioners to initiate fruitful conversations about the importance of picturebooks in the curriculum and inspire new directions in research.


Shifting The Onus From Racial/Ethnic Minority Students To Faculty: Accountability For Culturally Inclusive Pedagogy And Curricula, Stephen John Quaye, Ph.D., Shaun R. Harper, Ph.D. Jan 2007

Shifting The Onus From Racial/Ethnic Minority Students To Faculty: Accountability For Culturally Inclusive Pedagogy And Curricula, Stephen John Quaye, Ph.D., Shaun R. Harper, Ph.D.

GSE Publications

In this article, our goal is to personalize the concerns of diverse student populations and encourage faculty to intentionally incorporate cultural inclusion into their pedagogy and their courses. In light of a student's story (Julian) story and the responses of some of his peers, we emphasize that the onus needs to shift from students, who are expected to adjust to insensitive and monocultural classroom environments, to faculty, who need to change their teaching approaches to benefit an increasingly diverse array of students.


Hurricane Katrina And Our Nation’S Black Colleges, Marybeth Gasman, Noah D. Drezner Jan 2007

Hurricane Katrina And Our Nation’S Black Colleges, Marybeth Gasman, Noah D. Drezner

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Improving Educational Opportunities For Students Who Work, Laura W. Perna, Michelle Asha Cooper, Chunyan Li Jan 2007

Improving Educational Opportunities For Students Who Work, Laura W. Perna, Michelle Asha Cooper, Chunyan Li

GSE Publications

College students who cannot pay the price of attendance from some combination of personal financial resources and grants typically have three options: do not attend college, borrow money using public and private loans, and/or work. Data show that increasing shares of students are utilizing both loans and work to pay for college-related expenses (Baum, 2005). Much attention has focused on growth in borrowing (e.g., Baum, 2005; Perna, 2001), as well as potential consequences of borrowing for various aspects of students’ educational experiences, including persistence and degree completion (DesJardins, Ahlburg, & McCall, 2002; St. John, 2003) and graduate school enrollment (Choy & Carroll, 2000; Ehrenberg ...


Redefining Competition Constructively: The Challenges Of Privatisation, Competition And Market-Based State Policy In The United States, Peter D. Eckel Jan 2007

Redefining Competition Constructively: The Challenges Of Privatisation, Competition And Market-Based State Policy In The United States, Peter D. Eckel

GSE Publications

In the United States, the relationship between state governments and public colleges and universities is being redefined with new notions of autonomy and accountability, and with funding policies that are highly market-driven (often referred to as "privatisation") as the centerpieces. Situations and institutional strategies unthinkable only a few years ago are becoming increasingly commonplace. For instance, a few business and law schools at public institutions are moving toward privatisation, distancing themselves from both the states and their parent universities.

While American higher education has traditionally been competitive and market driven, emerging state market-based policies, which will clearly benefit some types ...


A Comparative Study Of Teacher Preparation And Qualifications In Six Nations, Richard Ingersoll Jan 2007

A Comparative Study Of Teacher Preparation And Qualifications In Six Nations, Richard Ingersoll

CPRE Research Reports

Across the educational systems of the world, few issues have received more attention in recent years than the problem of ensuring that elementary and secondary-school classrooms are all staffed with adequately qualified teachers (Mullis, et al., 2000; OECD, 1994, 2005; Wang, et al., 2003). Even in nations where students routinely score high on international exams, the issue of teacher quality is the subject of much concern. This is not surprising. Elementary and secondary schooling is mandatory in almost all nations and children are legally placed in the care of teachers for a significant portion of their lives. It is widely ...