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University of Pennsylvania

2000

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Articles 1 - 19 of 19

Full-Text Articles in Education

Does Regulation Drive Out Competition In Pharmaceutical Markets?*, Patricia. M. Danzon, Li-Wei Chao Oct 2000

Does Regulation Drive Out Competition In Pharmaceutical Markets?*, Patricia. M. Danzon, Li-Wei Chao

Health Care Management Papers

Most countries regulate pharmaceutical prices, either directly or indirectly, on the assumption that competition is at best weak in this industry. This paper tests the hypothesis that regulation of manufacturer prices and retail pharmacy margins undermines price competition. We use data from seven countries for 1992 to examine price competition between generic competitors (different manufacturers of the same compound) and therapeutic substitutes (similar compounds) under different regulatory regimes. We find that price competition between generic competitors is significant in unregulated or less regulated markets (United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and Germany) but that regulation undermines generic competition in strict regulatory ...


Achieving Educational Adequacy Through School Finance Reform, Andrew Reschovsky, Jennifer Imazeki Oct 2000

Achieving Educational Adequacy Through School Finance Reform, Andrew Reschovsky, Jennifer Imazeki

CPRE Research Reports

In this report, researchers demonstrate a statistical approach to the measurement of the costs of public education, using data from K-12 school districts in Wisconsin and Texas. They then demonstrate how to integrate information on costs into school aid formulas designed to provide the funding necessary to achieve educational adequacy.


The District Role In Building Capacity: Four Strategies, Diane Massell Sep 2000

The District Role In Building Capacity: Four Strategies, Diane Massell

CPRE Policy Briefs

School districts strongly influence the strategic choices that schools make to improve teaching and learning. Districts—composed of local school boards, superintendents, and central office staff—act as gatekeepers for federal and state policy by translating, interpreting, supporting, or blocking actions on their schools’ behalf. In fact, the efforts of districts to build the capacity of students, teachers, and schools are often the major, and sometimes only, source of external assistance that schools receive. In an effort to revisit the often forgotten role of districts in the improvement process, this policy brief explores the promises and challenges of four major ...


Bridging The K-12/Postsecondary Divide With A Coherent K-16 System, Consortium For Policy Research In Education Jun 2000

Bridging The K-12/Postsecondary Divide With A Coherent K-16 System, Consortium For Policy Research In Education

CPRE Policy Briefs

This Policy Brief originates from a conference held at Stanford University titled, “Education Reform into the Millennium: The State Legislatures’ Role in Building a Consensus for Systemic Change.” The conference, which was held from September 30 to October 2, 1999, was sponsored by the National Conference of State Legislatures, the Consortium for Policy Research in Education, the Education Commission of the States, and the Institute for Educational Leadership. It was funded by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement of the U.S. Department of Education. Fifty-three legislators and representatives from 15 states attended the conference. The presenters included an ...


Literacy, Technological Literacy, And The Digital Divide, Daniel A. Wagner May 2000

Literacy, Technological Literacy, And The Digital Divide, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The United Nations estimates that there are one billion illiterate adults in the world today (about one-quarter of the world's adult population), the vast majority of whom are located in the poorest half of the world. Furthermore, recent surveys suggest that this situation is even more serious than previously believed. Industrialized (OECD) countries now admit to having very serious problems of their own in literacy and basic skills, with up to 25% of adults considered to be lacking the basic skills needed to function effectively in the workforce (see OECD/Statistics Canada, 1995; Tuijnman et al., 1997).


School-Based Performance Award Programs, Teacher Motivation, And School Performance: Findings From A Study Of Three Programs, Carol Kelley, Herbert G. Heneman Iii, Anthony Milanowski Apr 2000

School-Based Performance Award Programs, Teacher Motivation, And School Performance: Findings From A Study Of Three Programs, Carol Kelley, Herbert G. Heneman Iii, Anthony Milanowski

CPRE Research Reports

Building on a strong foundation of research and experience with educational reform across the nation, in the 1990s educational policymakers undertook sophisticated comprehensive educational reform efforts. The centerpiece of these reforms was the creation of state educational standards, assessments, and goals, and the realignment of state and local resources to support the achievement of these goals. A number of states and districts have embraced the idea of performance-based accountability (Fuhrman, 1999), in which rewards and sometimes sanctions are used as incentives for measurable improvement in student achievement. Some jurisdictions have modified their teacher compensation systems in order to provide incentives ...


Literacy And Adult Education: Thematic Studies, Daniel A. Wagner Apr 2000

Literacy And Adult Education: Thematic Studies, Daniel A. Wagner

Working Papers (Literacy.org)

The 1990 World Conference on Education for All (WCEFA) in Jomtien, Thailand, included adult literacy as one of its six major worldwide goals. Although the complete elimination of illiteracy by the year 2000 was adopted as a goal of UNESCO and a significant number of its Member States in the Udaipur Declaration of two decades ago, the Jomtien Conference scaled back such promises, and chose a more modest, and theoretically achievable, goal of cutting illiteracy rates in half by the year 2000. The reasons for this reduction in targeted goal were numerous. As this report describes, important gains have been ...


From Research To Practice And Back Again: Timss As A Tool For Educational Improvement, Marlies Dunson Apr 2000

From Research To Practice And Back Again: Timss As A Tool For Educational Improvement, Marlies Dunson

CPRE Policy Briefs

The U.S. Department of Education released data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) to serve as a “starting point to examine U.S. education, student achievement, teaching and curricula.” The researchers and administrators of TIMSS hoped that these findings would provoke reflective discussions by providing a different lens through which schools could reevaluate their current practices and education policymakers could benefit from new insights. In the three years following the release of the first set of data, a number of states, districts, and schools have delved deeply into TIMSS for policy development and school improvement, receiving ...


Racial/Ethnic Group Differences In The Realization Of Educational Plans, Laura W. Perna Apr 2000

Racial/Ethnic Group Differences In The Realization Of Educational Plans, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

This study examines racial/ethnic group differences in two-and four-year college enrollment rates of bachelor's degree aspirants,controlled for differences in expected costs and benefits, financial resources, academic characteristics, and social and cultural capital. The sample (n=7,832) is drawn from the National Educational Longitudinal Study(NELS:90/94), which surveys students during middle and high school and two years after high school. The study finds that despite an increase in the predisposition toward college, only 28 percent of African Americans and 20 percent of Hispanics were actually enrolled in a four-year institution during the fall after their ...


Differences In The Decision To Attend College Among African Americans, Hispanics, And Whites, Laura W. Perna Mar 2000

Differences In The Decision To Attend College Among African Americans, Hispanics, And Whites, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

Over the past decade, the number of African American and Hispanic undergraduates enrolled in colleges and universities nationwide has increased by 32% and 98%, respectively, whereas the number of White undergraduates has declined by 1% (Nettles & Perna, 1997). Over the same period, the number of bachelor's degrees awarded increased by 43% for African Americans and 90% for Hispanics, com- pared with an 11% increase for Whites. Although more African Americans and Hispanics are attending college and receiving degrees than ever before (Nettles & Perna, 1997), African Americans and Hispanics continue to be underrepresented among both undergraduates (at 10.0% and 8.0%, respectively) and bachelor's degree recipients (7.0% and 4.2%) relative to their representation in the traditional college-age population (14.3% and 13.7%).

Although much is known about the factors that affect college attendance, only recently have researchers begun to explore variations in college enrollment behavior among students of different racial/ethnic groups (e.g., Freeman, 1997; Hurtado, Inkelas, Briggs, & Rhee, 1997; Jackson, 1990; McDonough, Antonio, & Trent, 1997; St. John & Noell, 1989). Freeman (1997) examined the barriers African American high- school students perceive to limit access to higher education for African Americans. McDonough, Antonio, and Trent (1997) explored differences in the variables related to the decision of African Americans to at- tend historically Black rather than predominantly White institutions. Hurtado and her colleagues (1997) examined ...


Salary, Promotion, And Tenure Status Of Minority And Women Faculty In U.S. Colleges And Universities, Laura W. Perna, Michael T. Nettles, Ellen M. Bradburn Mar 2000

Salary, Promotion, And Tenure Status Of Minority And Women Faculty In U.S. Colleges And Universities, Laura W. Perna, Michael T. Nettles, Ellen M. Bradburn

GSE Publications

This report examines differences among postsecondary faculty members by gender and by race/ethnicity. Comparisons were made on several human capital (e.g., education and experience) and structural (e.g., academic discipline and institution type) variables as well as faculty outcomes (salary, tenure, and rank). A multivariate analysis of factors associated with salary was also conducted. Male faculty in this group were compared to female faculty, and comparisons were also made among four racial/ethnic groups: black, non-Hispanic; white, non- Hispanic; Hispanic; and Asian/Pacific Islander.

Generated from the 1992-93 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:93), the analyses presented ...


The Motivational Effects Of School-Based Performance Awards, Caroline Kelley, Allan Odden, Anthony Milanowski, Herbert G. Heneman Iii Feb 2000

The Motivational Effects Of School-Based Performance Awards, Caroline Kelley, Allan Odden, Anthony Milanowski, Herbert G. Heneman Iii

CPRE Policy Briefs

From 1995-1998, CPRE teacher compensation researchers conducted extensive interviews and survey questionnaires of teachers and principals in three sites to measure the motivational effects of school-based performance award (SBPA) programs. When a school met preset educational objectives, usually related to increases in student achievement, the SBPA programs in Charlotte-Mecklenburg (North Carolina) and Kentucky provided salary bonuses to all the teachers in the school and the SBPA program in Maryland provided a monetary award to the school for school improvements.

CPRE researchers found that the SBPA programs in two of the three sites helped teachers focus on student performance goals. However ...


America's Choice Comprehensive School Reform Design: First-Year Implementation Evaluation Summary, Thomas B. Corcoran, Margaret Hoppe, Theresa Luhm, Jonathan A. Supovitz Feb 2000

America's Choice Comprehensive School Reform Design: First-Year Implementation Evaluation Summary, Thomas B. Corcoran, Margaret Hoppe, Theresa Luhm, Jonathan A. Supovitz

CPRE Research Reports

In the fall of 1998, the National Center on Education and the Economy (NCEE) contracted with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) to conduct the evaluation of the America’s Choice School Design. This is a summary of CPRE’s first report of a three-year evaluation of the design. The evaluation of America’s Choice seeks to answer four basic questions: Are schools successfully implementing the America’s Choice program design? What environmental characteristics are facilitating or impeding implementation? How effective is America Choice’s implementation strategy? And what are the impacts of the program on teachers and ...


On Pattern-Directed Search Of Archives And Collections, Garett Dworman, Steven. O. Kimbrough, Chuck Patch Jan 2000

On Pattern-Directed Search Of Archives And Collections, Garett Dworman, Steven. O. Kimbrough, Chuck Patch

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This article begins by presenting and discussing the distinction between record-oriented and pattern-oriented search. Examples of record-oriented (or item-oriented) questions include: “What (or how many, etc.) glass items made prior to 100 A.D. do we have in our collection?” and “How many paintings featuring dogs do we have that were painted during the 19th century, and who painted them?” Standard database systems are well suited to answering such questions, based on the data in, for example, a collections management system. Examples of pattern-oriented questions include: “How does the (apparent) production of glass objects vary over time between 400 B ...


Basic Skills In Adult Education And The Digital Divide, Lynda Ginsburg, John Sabatini, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 2000

Basic Skills In Adult Education And The Digital Divide, Lynda Ginsburg, John Sabatini, Daniel A. Wagner

Book Chapters (Literacy.org)

Traditionally, basic adult education has had a particular concern with the skills of literacy and numeracy, seeing these as essential for entry to the world of work. Adult education teachers may therefore be reluctant to adopt ICT, unsure of the part it should play, and worried about the time it takes away from the development of these basic skills. As we enter the 21st century, however, ICT has already become a necessary and important component of adult education. Formal and non-formal education are being delivered at a distance via technology — particularly the Internet — with the promise that learning can take ...


Interactional Positioning And Narrative Self-Construction, Stanton Wortham Jan 2000

Interactional Positioning And Narrative Self-Construction, Stanton Wortham

GSE Publications

Many have proposed that autobiographical stories do more than describe a pre-existing self. Sometimes narrators can change who they are, in part, by telling stories about themselves. But how does this narrative self-construction happen? Most explanations rely on the representational function of autobiographical discourse. These representational accounts of narrative self-construction are necessarily incomplete, because autobiographical narratives have interactional as well as representational functions. While telling their stories autobiographical narrators often enact a characteristic type of self, and through such performances they can become that type of self. A few others have proposed that interactional positioning is central to narrative self-construction ...


Sponsors Of Early Intervention Programs, Laura W. Perna, W. Scott Swail Jan 2000

Sponsors Of Early Intervention Programs, Laura W. Perna, W. Scott Swail

GSE Publications

Learning about early intervention programs can be a challenge for parents and students not only because programs are so small—programs administered by individual colleges and universities serve a median of 82 students (Chaney, Lewis, and Farris, 1995)—but also because of the wide variation in the types of organizations that sponsor such programs. Although this variety can make learning about programs difficult, it also helps ensure that, once existing programs are identified and located, a student will find a program that is well suited to his or her individual needs and characteristics. Unfortunately, no comprehensive directory, compendium, or national ...


Higher Education's Changing Contours: The Policy Implications Of An Emerging System, Patrick M. Callan, Joni E. Finney Jan 2000

Higher Education's Changing Contours: The Policy Implications Of An Emerging System, Patrick M. Callan, Joni E. Finney

GSE Publications

American higher education is remarkably adaptive. A "system" only in the broadest sense of the term, it has been flexible enough to absorb and adapt to broad changes that, at the time, were outside the traditional purview of mainstream colleges and universities—for example, the land grant movement, the creation of community colleges, the passage of the GI Bill, and the need to serve increasing numbers of adult students. On the threshold of the twenty-first century, American higher education faces yet another new movement, one that has been described variously as "part-time," "postbaccalaureate," or "non-degree" education. But for public policy ...


Promoting College Enrollment Through Early Intervention, Laura W. Perna Jan 2000

Promoting College Enrollment Through Early Intervention, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

For more than 30 years, the federal government has focused on increasing the postsecondary educational opportunities for individuals and groups by providing students with financial aid to offset the costs of attendance. Although financial resources are important, policymakers, researchers, and other observers are increasingly concluding that merely making financial aid available to students is not enough to ensure equal educational opportunity for all students, particularly those who are economically and educationally disadvantaged (Gladieux, Astor, and Swail, 1998; Gladieux and Swail, 1998).

This article sets the stage for understanding early intervention by describing the ways in which such programs recognize and ...