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Series

University of Pennsylvania

1998

Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in Education

The Contribution Of Financial Aid To Undergraduate Persistence, Laura W. Perna Dec 1998

The Contribution Of Financial Aid To Undergraduate Persistence, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Language Policy, Language Education, Language Rights: Indigenous, Immigrant, And International Perspectives, Nancy H. Hornberger Dec 1998

Language Policy, Language Education, Language Rights: Indigenous, Immigrant, And International Perspectives, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

Indigenous languages are under siege, not only in the US but around the world – in danger of disappearing because they are not being transmitted to the next generation. Immigrants and their languages worldwide are similarly subjected to seemingly irresistible social, political, and economic pressures. This article discusses a number of such cases, including Shawandawa from the Brazilian Amazon, Quechua in the South American Andes, the East Indian communities of South Africa, Khmer in Philadelphia, Welsh, Maori, Turkish in the UK, and Native Californian languages. At a time when phrases like “endangered languages” and “linguicism” are invoked to describe the plight ...


Teaching For High Standards: What Policymakers Need To Know And Be Able To Do, Linda Darling-Hammond, Deborah Loewenberb Ball Nov 1998

Teaching For High Standards: What Policymakers Need To Know And Be Able To Do, Linda Darling-Hammond, Deborah Loewenberb Ball

CPRE Research Reports

In this report, Ball and Darling-Hammond discuss the relationship between teacher knowledge and student performance; they summarize what the research suggest about what kinds of teacher education and professional development teachers need in order to learn how ot teach to high standards; and they describe what states are doing to provide these opportunities for teacher learning, and with what effects.


Teaching For High Standards: What Policymakers Need To Know And Be Able To Do, Linda Darling-Hammond, Deborah Loewenberg Ball Nov 1998

Teaching For High Standards: What Policymakers Need To Know And Be Able To Do, Linda Darling-Hammond, Deborah Loewenberg Ball

CPRE Research Reports

In this report, Ball and Darling-Hammond discuss the relationship between teacher knowledge and student performance; they summarize what the research suggest about what kinds of teacher education and professional development teachers need in order to learn how ot teach to high standards; and they describe what states are doing to provide these opportunities for teacher learning, and with what effects.


Experiences Of Minority Primary Care Physicians With Managed Care: A National Survey, Elizabeth Mackenzie, Lynne S. Taylor, Risa Lavizzo-Mourey Oct 1998

Experiences Of Minority Primary Care Physicians With Managed Care: A National Survey, Elizabeth Mackenzie, Lynne S. Taylor, Risa Lavizzo-Mourey

GSE Publications

OBJECTIVES:

To determine if ethnic minority physicians experience more barriers in acquiring and maintaining managed care contracts than white physicians, and to determine if the physician's perceptions of his or her ability to provide appropriate care to patients varies with physician ethnicity.

STUDY DESIGN:

Using a national sample, we identified 4 research areas germane to this topic and analyzed them by physician ethnic group.

METHODS:

Analysis involved a pre-existing data set from a national survey that employed a random sampling approach to achieve reasonably accurate national population estimates with acceptable margins of error (95% CI = +/- 2).

RESULTS:

A total ...


Creating School Finance Policies That Facilitate New Goals, Allan Odden Sep 1998

Creating School Finance Policies That Facilitate New Goals, Allan Odden

CPRE Policy Briefs

In this policy brief, Allan Odden argues that it may be time to redesign state and district school finance systems to align them more closely to the standards-based education reform movement and the national goal of teaching all students to rigorous performance standards.

Historically, a major focus of the school finance policy debate was the fiscal disparities across school districts within states. These disparities in per-pupil spending were inversely linked to tax efforts and strongly linked to the size of the local property tax base per pupil. Although the strength of the connection between spending and education quality was debated ...


Creating School Finance Policies That Facilitate New Goals, Allan Odden Sep 1998

Creating School Finance Policies That Facilitate New Goals, Allan Odden

CPRE Policy Briefs

In this policy brief, Allan Odden argues that it may be time to redesign state and district school finance systems to align them more closely to the standards-based education reform movement and the national goal of teaching all students to rigorous performance standards.

Historically, a major focus of the school finance policy debate was the fiscal disparities across school districts within states. These disparities in per-pupil spending were inversely linked to tax efforts and strongly linked to the size of the local property tax base per pupil. Although the strength of the connection between spending and education quality was debated ...


Research Qestions And Data Resource Needs For Examining Student Access To Higher Education, Michael T. Nettles, Laura W. Perna, Catherine M. Millett Aug 1998

Research Qestions And Data Resource Needs For Examining Student Access To Higher Education, Michael T. Nettles, Laura W. Perna, Catherine M. Millett

GSE Publications

This paper examines some of the important policy issues pertaining to student access to higher education and raises evaluation questions for which evaluation research is needed. For illustrative purposes, the paper presents data that show the progress the nation has made in expanding access persistence and degree completion for various segments of the population at different levels, types and qualities of colleges and universities


State Strategies For Building Capacity: Addressing The Needs Of Standards-Based Reform, Diane Massell Jul 1998

State Strategies For Building Capacity: Addressing The Needs Of Standards-Based Reform, Diane Massell

CPRE Policy Briefs

Over the past decade or more, state policymakers have concentrated on putting the architecture of standards-based reform in place: setting challenging academic content standards and performance standards for all students; and instituting compatible tests, incentives, and accountability systems to reinforce these ambitious outcomes. Many states and districts have also restructured their governance systems to delegate more authority to local decision-makers.

But clearly defined learning goals and accountability systems do not by themselves yield continued improvement in student learning. Some states with high standards and related assessment and accountability programs in place are finding that their early gains in student achievement ...


State Strategies For Building Capacity: Addressing The Needs Of Standards-Based Reform, Diane Massell Jul 1998

State Strategies For Building Capacity: Addressing The Needs Of Standards-Based Reform, Diane Massell

CPRE Policy Briefs

Over the past decade or more, state policymakers have concentrated on putting the architecture of standards-based reform in place: setting challenging academic content standards and performance standards for all students; and instituting compatible tests, incentives, and accountability systems to reinforce these ambitious outcomes. Many states and districts have also restructured their governance systems to delegate more authority to local decision-makers.

But clearly defined learning goals and accountability systems do not by themselves yield continued improvement in student learning. Some states with high standards and related assessment and accountability programs in place are finding that their early gains in student achievement ...


Core Values And The Road To Change, Madeleine F. Green, Peter D. Eckel, Barbara Hill Jul 1998

Core Values And The Road To Change, Madeleine F. Green, Peter D. Eckel, Barbara Hill

GSE Publications

Higher education draws much of the vocabulary and many of the concepts about change from the corporate sector. Corporations "downsized" and "restructured" in the early 1990s in response to competitive and financial pressures; higher education currently is experiencing similar pressures. Yet change and renewal in higher education are not just about money and becoming more cost-effective. Although these are important objectives, higher education must incorporate changes that improve student learning, foster closer connections with their communities, and adapt to the demands of an increasingly technological society. Reorganizing and cutting costs alone do not suggest how colleges and universities might become ...


State And Districts And Comprehensive School Reform, University Of Pennsylvania May 1998

State And Districts And Comprehensive School Reform, University Of Pennsylvania

CPRE Policy Briefs

In this policy brief, we discuss implications of the use of school-level reform designs for state and local policymakers. The more schools choose such reforms, the more is being learned about the importance of the state and local roles in facilitating appropriate matches between designs and schools and in supporting design-based improvement over time.

In the Fall of 1997, Congress authorized competitive grants to provide up to $50,000 per year per school for the use of comprehensive reform models. Beginning in July, 1998, Title I schools will be eligible for $120 million of the funds provided; non-Title I schools ...


State And Districts And Comprehensive School Reform, Consortium For Policy Research In Education May 1998

State And Districts And Comprehensive School Reform, Consortium For Policy Research In Education

CPRE Policy Briefs

In this policy brief, we discuss implications of the use of school-level reform designs for state and local policymakers. The more schools choose such reforms, the more is being learned about the importance of the state and local roles in facilitating appropriate matches between designs and schools and in supporting design-based improvement over time.

In the Fall of 1997, Congress authorized competitive grants to provide up to $50,000 per year per school for the use of comprehensive reform models. Beginning in July, 1998, Title I schools will be eligible for $120 million of the funds provided; non-Title I schools ...


Do Curriculum-Based External Exit Exams Enhance Student Achievement?, John Bishop Apr 1998

Do Curriculum-Based External Exit Exams Enhance Student Achievement?, John Bishop

CPRE Research Reports

Two presidents, the National Governors Association and numerous blue ribbon panels have called for the development of state content standards for core subjects and examinations that assess the achievement of these standards. The Competitiveness Policy Council, for example, advocates that "external assessments be given to individual students at the secondary level and that the results should be a major but not exclusive factor qualifying for college and better jobs at better wages (1993, p. 30)." The American Federation of Teachers advocates a system in which:

Students are periodically tested on whether they're reaching the standards, and if they are ...


Do Curriculum-Based External Exit Exams Enhance Student Achievement?, John Bishop Apr 1998

Do Curriculum-Based External Exit Exams Enhance Student Achievement?, John Bishop

CPRE Research Reports

Two presidents, the National Governors Association and numerous blue ribbon panels have called for the development of state content standards for core subjects and examinations that assess the achievement of these standards. The Competitiveness Policy Council, for example, advocates that "external assessments be given to individual students at the secondary level and that the results should be a major but not exclusive factor qualifying for college and better jobs at better wages (1993, p. 30)." The American Federation of Teachers advocates a system in which:

Students are periodically tested on whether they' reaching the standards, and if they are re ...


Instructional Policy And Classroom Performance: The Mathematics Reform In California, David K. Cohen, Heather C. Hill Feb 1998

Instructional Policy And Classroom Performance: The Mathematics Reform In California, David K. Cohen, Heather C. Hill

CPRE Research Reports

Educational reformers increasingly seek to manipulate policies regarding assessment, curriculum, and professional development in order to improve instruction. They assume that manipulating these elements of instructional policy will change teachers' practice, which will then improve student performance. We formalize these ideas into a rudimentary model of the relations among instructional policy, teaching, and learning. We propose that successful instructional policies are themselves instructional in nature: because teachers figure as a key connection between policy and practice, their opportunities to learn about and from policy are a crucial influence both on their practice, and, at least indirectly, on student achievement. Using ...


Does Financial Aid Help Students To Attend Higher Priced Colleges?, Laura W. Perna Feb 1998

Does Financial Aid Help Students To Attend Higher Priced Colleges?, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Children Achieving: Philadelphia's Education Reform, Year Two Report, Consortium For Policy Research In Education, Research For Action, Omg Center For Collaborative Learning Jan 1998

Children Achieving: Philadelphia's Education Reform, Year Two Report, Consortium For Policy Research In Education, Research For Action, Omg Center For Collaborative Learning

CPRE Research Reports

Children Achieving Progress Report Series 1996-1997.

In February 1995, The Annenberg Foundation designated Philadelphia as one of a small number of American cities to receive a five-year $50 million Annenberg Challenge grant to improve public education. CPRE and its partners, Research for Action and OMG Center for Collaborative Learning, conducted a four-year evaluation of Philadelphia's Children Achieveing initiative, funded by the Annenberg Challenge grant. This summary describes finding from Year 2.


Children Achieving: Philadelphia's Education Reform, Year Two Report, University Of Pennsylvania Jan 1998

Children Achieving: Philadelphia's Education Reform, Year Two Report, University Of Pennsylvania

CPRE Research Reports

In February 1995, The Annenberg Foundation designated Philadelphia as one of a small number of American cities to receive a five-year $50 million Annenberg Challenge grant to improve public education. CPRE and its partners, Research for Action and OMG Center for Collaborative Learning, conducted a four-year evaluation of Philadelphia's Children Achieving initiative, funded by the Annenberg Challenge grant. This summary describes finding from Year 2.


State Policy And Classroom Performance: Mathematics Reform In California, David Cohen, Heather Hill Jan 1998

State Policy And Classroom Performance: Mathematics Reform In California, David Cohen, Heather Hill

CPRE Policy Briefs

In the early 1990's many states tried to devise more robust and coherent instructional policies, in efforts to make teaching and learning more thoughtful and demanding. Policymakers and reformers pressed teachers to help students understand mathematical concepts, to interpret serious literature, to write creatively about their own ideas and experiences, and to converse thoughtfully about history and social science. But these efforts to reform instruction encountered skepticism about the link between policy and pedagogy. Skeptics ask if it is reasonable to expect state policies to steer teaching and learning sharply away from long-established conventional practice, noting that previous efforts ...


State Policy And Classroom Performance: Mathematics Reform In California, David K. Cohen, Heather C. Hill Jan 1998

State Policy And Classroom Performance: Mathematics Reform In California, David K. Cohen, Heather C. Hill

CPRE Policy Briefs

In the early 1990's many states tried to devise more robust and coherent instructional policies, in efforts to make teaching and learning more thoughtful and demanding. Policymakers and reformers pressed teachers to help students understand mathematical concepts, to interpret serious literature, to write creatively about their own ideas and experiences, and to converse thoughtfully about history and social science. But these efforts to reform instruction encountered skepticism about the link between policy and pedagogy. Skeptics ask if it is reasonable to expect state policies to steer teaching and learning sharply away from long-established conventional practice, noting that previous efforts ...


Instructional Policy And Classroom Performance: The Mathematics Reform In California, David K. Cohen, Heather C. Hill Jan 1998

Instructional Policy And Classroom Performance: The Mathematics Reform In California, David K. Cohen, Heather C. Hill

CPRE Research Reports

Educational reformers increasingly seek to manipulate policies regarding assessment, curriculum, and professional development in order to improve instruction. They assume that manipulating these elements of instructional policy will change teachers' practice, which will then improve student performance. We formalize these ideas into a rudimentary model of the relations among instructional policy, teaching, and learning. We propose that successful instructional policies are themselves instructional in nature: because teachers figure as a key connection between policy and practice, their opportunities to learn about and from policy are a crucial influence both on their practice, and, at least indirectly, on student achievement. Using ...


Are They Singing From The Same Hymn Book?, Peter D. Eckel Jan 1998

Are They Singing From The Same Hymn Book?, Peter D. Eckel

GSE Publications

A fact of academic life is that faculty and presidents primarily concern themselves with different institutional tasks, attend different institutional meetings, and pursue different institutional goals. In short, faculty do "faculty things" and presidents do "presidential things." They have different perceptions of institutional life (Peterson and White 1992). Differing perspectives can easily lead to standoffs between the two powers in academe—those who teach and those who administer—and those standoffs happen quite frequently (American Council on Education & Pew Higher Education Roundtable 1996; Schuster et al. 1994). Faculty-administrator differences are not a new phenomenon; examples exist at Williams and Dartmouth Colleges from 100 years ago ...


Authenticity And Unification In Quechua Language Planning, Nancy H. Hornberger, Kendall A. King Jan 1998

Authenticity And Unification In Quechua Language Planning, Nancy H. Hornberger, Kendall A. King

GSE Publications

With more than ten million speakers and numerous local and regional varieties, the unification and standardisation of Quechua/Quichua has been a complicated, politically charged, and lengthy process. In most Andean nations, great strides have been made towards unification of the language in recent decades. However, the process is far from complete, and multiple unresolved issues remain, at both national and local levels. A frequent sticking point in the process is the concern that the authenticity of the language will be lost in the move towards unification. This paper examines the potentially problematic tension between the goals of authenticity and ...