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Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Holding The Hunger Games Hostage At The Gym: An Evaluation Of Temptation Bundling, Katherine L. Milkman, Julia A. Minson, Kevin. G. Volpp Feb 2014

Holding The Hunger Games Hostage At The Gym: An Evaluation Of Temptation Bundling, Katherine L. Milkman, Julia A. Minson, Kevin. G. Volpp

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We introduce and evaluate the effectiveness of temptation bundling—a method for simultaneously tackling two types of self-control problems by harnessing consumption complementarities. We describe a field experiment measuring the impact of bundling instantly gratifying but guilt-inducing “want” experiences (enjoying page-turner audiobooks) with valuable “should” behaviors providing delayed rewards (exercising). We explore whether such bundles increase should behaviors and whether people would pay to create these restrictive bundles. Participants were randomly assigned to a full treatment condition with gym-only access to tempting audio novels, an intermediate treatment involving encouragement to restrict audiobook enjoyment to the gym, or a control condition ...


Risk Management And Climate Change, Howard Kunreuther, Geoffrey Heal, Myles Allen, Ottmar Edenhofer, Christopher B. Field, Gary Yohe May 2013

Risk Management And Climate Change, Howard Kunreuther, Geoffrey Heal, Myles Allen, Ottmar Edenhofer, Christopher B. Field, Gary Yohe

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

The selection of climate policies should be an exercise in risk management reflecting the many relevant sources of uncertainty. Studies of climate change and its impacts rarely yield consensus on the distribution of exposure, vulnerability or possible outcomes. Hence policy analysis cannot effectively evaluate alternatives using standard approaches, such as expected utility theory and benefit-cost analysis. This Perspective highlights the value of robust decision-making tools designed for situations such as evaluating climate policies, where consensus on probability distributions is not available and stakeholders differ in their degree of risk tolerance. A broader risk-management approach enables a range of possible outcomes ...


Correcting The Past: Failures To Replicate Psi, Jeff Galak, Robyn. A. Leboeuf, Leif. D. Nelson, Joseph. P. Simmons Dec 2012

Correcting The Past: Failures To Replicate Psi, Jeff Galak, Robyn. A. Leboeuf, Leif. D. Nelson, Joseph. P. Simmons

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Across 7 experiments (N = 3,289), we replicate the procedure of Experiments 8 and 9 from Bem (2011), which had originally demonstrated retroactive facilitation of recall. We failed to replicate that finding. We further conduct a meta-analysis of all replication attempts of these experiments and find that the average effect size (d = 0.04) is no different from 0. We discuss some reasons for differences between the results in this article and those presented in Bem (2011).


Protective Measures, Personal Experience, And The Affective Psychology Of Time, Ellen Peters, Howard Kunreuther, Namika Sagara, Paul Slovic, Dan R. Schley Dec 2012

Protective Measures, Personal Experience, And The Affective Psychology Of Time, Ellen Peters, Howard Kunreuther, Namika Sagara, Paul Slovic, Dan R. Schley

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We examined the role of time and affect in intentions to purchase a risk-protective measure (Studies 1 and 2) and explored participant abilities to factor time into the likelihood judgments that presumably underlie such intentions (Study 3). Participants worried more about losing their possessions and were more likely to purchase a protective measure given a longer term lease than a short-term lease, but only if their belongings were described in affect-poor terms. If described instead as being particularly special and affect-rich, participants neglected time and were about equally likely to purchase a risk-protective measure for shorter and longer term leases ...


Usercentric Operational Decision Making In Distributed Information Retrieval, Kartik Hosanagar Dec 2011

Usercentric Operational Decision Making In Distributed Information Retrieval, Kartik Hosanagar

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Information specialists in enterprises regularly use distributed information retrieval (DIR) systems that query a large number of information retrieval (IR) systems, merge the retrieved results, and display them to users. There can be considerable heterogeneity in the quality of results returned by different IR servers. Further, because different servers handle collections of different sizes and have different processing and bandwidth capacities, there can be considerable heterogeneity in their response times. The broker in the DIR system has to decide which servers to query, how long to wait for responses, and which retrieved results to display based on the benefits and ...


Intuitive Biases In Choice Versus Estimation: Implications For The Wisdom Of Crowds, Joseph P. Simmons, Lief D. Nelson, Jeffrey Galak, Shane Fredrick Jun 2011

Intuitive Biases In Choice Versus Estimation: Implications For The Wisdom Of Crowds, Joseph P. Simmons, Lief D. Nelson, Jeffrey Galak, Shane Fredrick

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Although researchers have documented many instances of crowd wisdom, it is important to know whether some kinds of judgments may lead the crowd astray, whether crowds’ judgments improve with feedback over time, and whether crowds’ judgments can be improved by changing the way judgments are elicited. We investigated these questions in a sports gambling context (predictions against point spreads) believed to elicit crowd wisdom. In a season-long experiment, fans wagered over $20,000 on NFL football predictions. Contrary to the wisdom-of-crowds hypothesis, faulty intuitions led the crowd to predict “favorites” more than “underdogs” against point spreads that disadvantaged favorites, even ...


Intertemporal Pricing And Consumer Stockpiling, Xuanming Su Jul 2010

Intertemporal Pricing And Consumer Stockpiling, Xuanming Su

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We study a dynamic pricing problem for a class of products with stable consumption patterns (e.g., household items, staple foods). Consumers may stock up the product at current prices for future consumption, but they incur inventory holding costs. We model this situation as a dynamic game over an infinite time horizon: in each period, the seller sets a price, and each consumer chooses how many units to buy. We develop a solution methodology based on rational expectations. By endowing each player with beliefs, we decouple the dynamic game into individual dynamic programs for each player. We solve for the ...


Group Cooperation Under Uncertainty, Min Gong, Joanne Baron, Howard Kunreuther Dec 2009

Group Cooperation Under Uncertainty, Min Gong, Joanne Baron, Howard Kunreuther

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Previous research has shown an ‘interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect’: intergroup interactions generally lead to less cooperative outcomes than interindividual interactions. We replicate the discontinuity effect in the deterministic prisoner’s dilemma, but find that groups are more cooperative than individuals in a stochastic version of the game. Three major factors that underlie the usual discontinuity effect are reduced in the stochastic environment: greed, fear, and persuasion power. Two group mechanisms are proposed to explain the reversed discontinuity effect: the motivation to avoid guilt and blame when making decisions that affect others’ welfare, and the social pressure to conform to certain norms ...


Impact Of Workload On Service Time And Patient Safety: An Econometric Analysis Of Hospital Operations, Diwas S. Kc, Christian Terwiesch Sep 2009

Impact Of Workload On Service Time And Patient Safety: An Econometric Analysis Of Hospital Operations, Diwas S. Kc, Christian Terwiesch

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Much of prior work in the area of service operations management has assumed service rates to be exogenous to the level of load on the system. Using operational data from patient transport services and cardiothoracic surgery—two vastly different health-care delivery services—we show that the processing speed of service workers is influenced by the system load. We find that workers accelerate the service rate as load increases. In particular, a 10% increase in load reduces length of stay by two days for cardiothoracic surgery patients, whereas a 20% increase in the load for patient transporters reduces the transport time ...


Purchasing, Pricing, And Quick Response In The Presence Of Strategic Consumers, Gerard. P. Cachon, Robert Swinney Mar 2009

Purchasing, Pricing, And Quick Response In The Presence Of Strategic Consumers, Gerard. P. Cachon, Robert Swinney

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We consider a retailer that sells a product with uncertain demand over a finite selling season. The retailer sets an initial stocking quantity and, at some predetermined point in the season, optimally marks down remaining inventory. We modify this classic setting by introducing three types of consumers: myopic consumers, who always purchase at the initial full price; bargain-hunting consumers, who purchase only if the discounted price is sufficiently low; and strategic consumers, who strategically choose when to make their purchase. A strategic consumer chooses between a purchase at the initial full price and a later purchase at an uncertain markdown ...


On The Effects Of Consumer Search And Firm Entry In A Multiproduct Competitive Market, Gerard. P. Cachon, Christian Terwiesch, Yi Xu May 2008

On The Effects Of Consumer Search And Firm Entry In A Multiproduct Competitive Market, Gerard. P. Cachon, Christian Terwiesch, Yi Xu

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This paper studies a model in which consumers search among multiple competing firms for products that match their preferences at a reasonable price. We focus on how easier search, possibly due to the adoption of search-facilitating technologies such as the Internet, influences equilibrium prices, assortments, firm profits, and consumer welfare. Conventional wisdom suggests that easier search creates a competition-intensifying effect that puts pressure on firms to lower their prices and reduce assortments. However, in our model we demonstrate that search also exhibits a market-expansion effect that encourages firms to expand their assortment—easier search means that each firm is searched ...


Constraint-Based Ontology Induction From Online Customer Reviews, Thomas Lee May 2007

Constraint-Based Ontology Induction From Online Customer Reviews, Thomas Lee

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We present an unsupervised, domain-independent technique for inducing a product-specific ontology of product features based upon online customer reviews. We frame ontology induction as a logical assignment problem and solve it with a bounds consistency constrained logic program. Using shallow natural language processing techniques, reviews are parsed into phrase sequences where each phrase refers to a single concept. Traditional document clustering techniques are adapted to collect phrases into initial concepts. We generate a token graph for each initial concept cluster and find a maximal clique to define the corresponding logical set of concept sub-elements. The logic program assigns tokens to ...


The Motion Picture Industry: Critical Issues In Practice, Current Research, And New Research Directions, Jehoshua Eliashberg, Anita Elberse Nov 2006

The Motion Picture Industry: Critical Issues In Practice, Current Research, And New Research Directions, Jehoshua Eliashberg, Anita Elberse

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

The motion picture industry has provided a fruitful research domain for scholars in marketing and other disciplines. The industry has high economic importance and is appealing to researchers because it offers both rich data that cover the entire product lifecycle for many new products and because it provides many unsolved “puzzles.” Although the amount of scholarly research in this area is rapidly growing, its impact on practice has not been as significant as in other industries (e.g., consumer packaged goods). In this article, we discuss critical practical issues for the motion picture industry, review existing knowledge on those issues ...


Achieving Breakthrough Service Delivery Through Dynamic Asset Deployment Strategies, Morris. A. Cohen, Narendra Agrawal, Vipul Agrawal Jun 2006

Achieving Breakthrough Service Delivery Through Dynamic Asset Deployment Strategies, Morris. A. Cohen, Narendra Agrawal, Vipul Agrawal

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Many firms have shifted their focus from their products to their customers and the value derived from owning and using the products. They see after-sales service as an important source of revenue and profit, customer acquisition and retention, and competitive differentiation. However, they also find it challenging to manage their service-supply chain. Service organizations must position and manage service-supply-chain resources optimally to support the delivery of after-sales service. They must also develop capabilities to respond rapidly to the demand for service in a cost-effective manner. To succeed in implementing a service-centric strategy, firms must determine what items in their products ...


When Online Reviews Meet Hyperdifferentiation: A Study Of The Craft Beer Industry, Eric K. Clemons, Guodong G. Gao, Lorin M. Hitt Jan 2006

When Online Reviews Meet Hyperdifferentiation: A Study Of The Craft Beer Industry, Eric K. Clemons, Guodong G. Gao, Lorin M. Hitt

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We analyze how online reviews are used to evaluate the effectiveness of product differentiation strategies based on the theories of hyperdifferentiation and resonance marketing. Hyperdifferentiation says that firms can now produce almost anything that appeals to consumers and they can manage the complexity of the increasingly diverse product portfolios that result. Resonance marketing says that informed consumers will purchase products that they actually truly want. When consumers become more informed, firms that provide highly differentiated products should experience higher growth rates than firms with less differentiated offerings. We construct measures of product positioning based on online ratings and find supportive ...


Managing Patient Service In A Diagnostic Medical Facility, Linda V. Green, Sergei Savin, Ben Wang Jan 2006

Managing Patient Service In A Diagnostic Medical Facility, Linda V. Green, Sergei Savin, Ben Wang

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Hospital diagnostic facilities, such as magnetic resonance imaging centers, typically provide service to several diverse patient groups: outpatients, who are scheduled in advance; inpatients, whose demands are generated randomly during the day; and emergency patients, who must be served as soon as possible. Our analysis focuses on two interrelated tasks: designing the outpatient appointment schedule, and establishing dynamic priority rules for admitting patients into service.

We formulate the problem of managing patient demand for diagnostic service as a finite-horizon dynamic program and identify properties of the optimal policies. Using empirical data from a major urban hospital, we conduct numerical studies ...


Toward Intelligent Assistance For A Data Mining Process: An Ontology-Based Approach For Cost-Sensitive Classification, Abraham Bernstein, Shawndra Hill, Foster Provost Apr 2005

Toward Intelligent Assistance For A Data Mining Process: An Ontology-Based Approach For Cost-Sensitive Classification, Abraham Bernstein, Shawndra Hill, Foster Provost

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

A data mining (DM) process involves multiple stages. A simple, but typical, process might include preprocessing data, applying a data mining algorithm, and postprocessing the mining results. There are many possible choices for each stage, and only some combinations are valid. Because of the large space and nontrivial interactions, both novices and data mining specialists need assistance in composing and selecting DM processes. Extending notions developed for statistical expert systems we present a prototype intelligent discovery assistant (IDA), which provides users with 1) systematic enumerations of valid DM processes, in order that important, potentially fruitful options are not overlooked, and ...


Local Residential Sorting And Public Goods Provision: A Classroom Demonstration, Keith Brouhle, Jay Corrigan, Rachel Croson, Martin Farnham, Selhan Garip, Luba Habodaszova, Laurie T. Johnson, Martin Johnson, David Reiley Jan 2005

Local Residential Sorting And Public Goods Provision: A Classroom Demonstration, Keith Brouhle, Jay Corrigan, Rachel Croson, Martin Farnham, Selhan Garip, Luba Habodaszova, Laurie T. Johnson, Martin Johnson, David Reiley

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This classroom exercise illustrates the Tiebout (1956) hypothesis that residential sorting across multiple jurisdictions leads to a more efficient allocation of local public goods. The exercise places students with heterogeneous preferences over a public good into a single classroom community. A simple voting mechanism determines the level of public good provision in the community. Next, the classroom is divided in two, and students may choose to move between the two smaller communities, sorting themselves according to their preferences for public goods. The exercise places cost on movement at first, then allows for costless sorting. Students have the opportunity to observe ...


Cooperative Agent Systems: Artificial Agents Play The Ultimatum Game, Fang Zhong, Steven. O. Kimbrough, D.J. Wu Nov 2002

Cooperative Agent Systems: Artificial Agents Play The Ultimatum Game, Fang Zhong, Steven. O. Kimbrough, D.J. Wu

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We explore computational approaches for artificial agents to play the ultimatum game. We compare our agents' behavior with that predicted by classical game theory, as well as behavior found in experimental (or behavioral) economics investigations. In particular, we study the following questions: How do artificial agents perform in playing the ultimatum game against fixed rules, dynamic rules, and rotating rules? How do coevolving artificial agents perform? Will learning software agents do better? What is the value of intelligence? What will happen when smart learning agents play against dumb (no-learning) agents? What will be the impact of agent memory size on ...


Redefining Event Variables For Efficient Modeling Of Continuous-Time Batch Processing, Siqun Wang, Monique Guignard Oct 2002

Redefining Event Variables For Efficient Modeling Of Continuous-Time Batch Processing, Siqun Wang, Monique Guignard

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We define events so as to reduce the number of events and decision variables needed for modeling batch-scheduling problems such as described in. We propose a new MILP formulation based on this concept, defining non-uniform time periods as needed and decision variables that are not time-indexed. It can handle complicated multi-product/multi-stage machine processes, with production lines merging and diverging, and with minimum and maximum batch sizes. We compare it with earlier models and show that it can solve problems with small to medium demands relative to batch sizes in reasonable computer times.


Implementing And Evaluating Silverscreener: A Marketing Management Support System For Movie Exhibitors, Jehoshua Eliashberg, Sanjeev Swami, Charles B. Weinberg, Berend Wierenga Jan 2001

Implementing And Evaluating Silverscreener: A Marketing Management Support System For Movie Exhibitors, Jehoshua Eliashberg, Sanjeev Swami, Charles B. Weinberg, Berend Wierenga

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Every Monday morning, Pathé Theaters in the Netherlands decides which movies in its cinemas to retain and which to replace. It must choose replacement movies from those available at that time. We implemented the SilverScreener model, a mathematical-programming system [Swami, Eliashberg, and Weinberg 1999] to help Pathe ́ managers make those decisions for one six-screen theater and tested its performance against the performance of two unaided similar multiscreen cinemas. Using Pathe ́’s historica ldata, manageria ljudgment, and theater-specific factors, we developed an attendance-forecasting system. While a fully controlled experiment was not possible, the revenues at the theater using the SilverScreener recommendations ...


On Pattern-Directed Search Of Archives And Collections, Garett Dworman, Steven. O. Kimbrough, Chuck Patch Jan 2000

On Pattern-Directed Search Of Archives And Collections, Garett Dworman, Steven. O. Kimbrough, Chuck Patch

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This article begins by presenting and discussing the distinction between record-oriented and pattern-oriented search. Examples of record-oriented (or item-oriented) questions include: “What (or how many, etc.) glass items made prior to 100 A.D. do we have in our collection?” and “How many paintings featuring dogs do we have that were painted during the 19th century, and who painted them?” Standard database systems are well suited to answering such questions, based on the data in, for example, a collections management system. Examples of pattern-oriented questions include: “How does the (apparent) production of glass objects vary over time between 400 B ...


Gender And Culture: International Experimental Evidence From Trust Games, Rachel Croson, Nancy Buchan May 1999

Gender And Culture: International Experimental Evidence From Trust Games, Rachel Croson, Nancy Buchan

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

No abstract provided.


Sums Of Squares Of Edge Lengths And Spacefilling Curve Heuristics For The Traveling Salesman Problem, Jun Gao, John M. Steele May 1994

Sums Of Squares Of Edge Lengths And Spacefilling Curve Heuristics For The Traveling Salesman Problem, Jun Gao, John M. Steele

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

The sum of squares of the edge lengths of the tour provided by the spacefilling curve heuristic applied to a random sample of n points from the unit square is proved to be asymptotically equal to a periodic function of the logarithm of the sample size.