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Full-Text Articles in Education

El Aprendizaje En La Base De La Pirámide: Restricciones, Comparabilidad Y Política En Países En Vías De Desarrollo, Daniel A. Wagner, Nathan M. Castillo Jan 2017

El Aprendizaje En La Base De La Pirámide: Restricciones, Comparabilidad Y Política En Países En Vías De Desarrollo, Daniel A. Wagner, Nathan M. Castillo

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Los objetivos para el desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas han asignado, de manera sostenida, una alta prioridad a la calidad educativa —y a la del aprendizaje. Esto ha llevado a avances sustanciales en ayuda para el desarrollo internacional hacia la educación, y también a una mayor atención, a nivel mundial, a la importancia del aprendizaje de los niños. Sin embargo, tales metas son principalmente normativas: tienden a representar promedios entre naciones, brindando limitada atención a las variaciones dentro de dichos países. La presente investigación proporciona un análisis de las tensiones científicas en la comprensión del aprendizaje en poblaciones pobres y ...


Review Of The World Bank World Development Report, Mind, Society, And Behavior, Daniel A. Wagner, Katharine W. Buek, Alejandro Adler, Nathan M. Castillo, Fatima T. Zahra, Jinsol Lee, Deepti Chittamuru, Selene S. Lee Aug 2016

Review Of The World Bank World Development Report, Mind, Society, And Behavior, Daniel A. Wagner, Katharine W. Buek, Alejandro Adler, Nathan M. Castillo, Fatima T. Zahra, Jinsol Lee, Deepti Chittamuru, Selene S. Lee

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The World Development Report is an annual World Bank publication that highlights the latest research and trends in international development programming. This major review carries substantial weight in setting the policy and program agenda for donor and recipient agencies around the world. The 2015 Mind, Society, and Behavior report is remarkable in that, in a field typically driven by economic principles and interventions, it focuses on the human cognitive processes that underlie social and economic decision making. This important, but often neglected, perspective is a substantial contribution to the development discussion. The report represents a noteworthy effort in identifying and ...


Review Of William Easterly, The Tyranny Of Experts: Economists, Dictators, And The Forgotten Rights Of The Poor, Daniel A. Wagner May 2015

Review Of William Easterly, The Tyranny Of Experts: Economists, Dictators, And The Forgotten Rights Of The Poor, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Toilets, plumbers, and development economists. This book is provocative at several levels—designed to disturb the professional development specialist and force a change in the public discourse on economic development. Does Easterly really mean to criticize the accumulated knowledge of so many who have fought so hard to bring knowledge and empiricism to the forefront of development? Yes and no. Yes, because he views accumulated knowledge or "expertise" as being consciously or unconsciously biased against those who strive hard (on their own) for success. No, because he recognizes, as reflected in the above quote, that knowledge (read experts) can really ...


Moocs For Development: Trends, Challenges, And Opportunities, Nathan M. Castillo, Jinsol Lee, Fatima T. Zahra, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 2015

Moocs For Development: Trends, Challenges, And Opportunities, Nathan M. Castillo, Jinsol Lee, Fatima T. Zahra, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The recent rise of massive open online courses (MOOCs) has generated significant media attention for their potential to disrupt the traditional modes of education trough ease of access and free or low-cost content delivery. MOOCs offer the potential to enable access to high-quality education to students, even in the most underserved regions of the world. However, much of the excitement surrounding opportunities for MOOCs in non-OECD contexts remains unproven. Challenges with regard to infrastructure, sustainability, and evaluation have disrupted early attempts to expand inclusion for those least educated. Drawing on proceedings from a recent international conference on MOOCs for Development ...


Learning At The Bottom Of The Pyramid: Constraints, Comparability And Policy In Developing Countries, Daniel A. Wagner, Nathan M. Castillo Dec 2014

Learning At The Bottom Of The Pyramid: Constraints, Comparability And Policy In Developing Countries, Daniel A. Wagner, Nathan M. Castillo

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

United Nations development goals have consistently placed a high priority on the quality of education—and of learning. This has led to substantive increases in international development assistance to education, and also to broader attention, worldwide, to the importance of children’s learning. Yet, such goals are mainly normative: they tend to be averages across nations, with relatively limited attention to variations within countries. This review provides an analysis of the scientific tensions in understanding learning among poor and marginalized populations: those at the bottom of the pyramid (BOP). While international agencies such as UNESCO and OECD often invoke these ...


Mobiles For Literacy In Developing Countries: An Effectiveness Framework, Daniel A. Wagner, Nathan M. Castillo, Katie M. Murphy, Molly Crofton, Fatima T. Zahra Mar 2014

Mobiles For Literacy In Developing Countries: An Effectiveness Framework, Daniel A. Wagner, Nathan M. Castillo, Katie M. Murphy, Molly Crofton, Fatima T. Zahra

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

In recent years, the advent of low-cost digital and mobile devices has led to a strong expansion of social interventions, including those that try to improve student learning and literacy outcomes. Many of these are focused on improving reading in low-income countries, and particularly among the most disadvantaged. Some of these early efforts have been called successful, but little credible evidence exists for those claims. Drawing on a robust sample of projects in the domain of mobiles for literacy, this article introduces a design solution framework that combines intervention purposes with devices, end users, and local contexts. In combination with ...


Gold Standard? The Use Of Randomized Controlled Trials For International Educational Policy. Review Of Abhijit V. Bannerjee And Esther Duflo, Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking Of The Way To Fight Global Poverty; Barbara Bruns, Deon Filmer, And Harry A. Patrinos, Making Schools Work: New Evidence On Accountability Reforms; Dean Karlan And Jacob Appel, More Than Good Intentions: How A New Economics Is Helping To Solve Global Poverty, Nathan M. Castillo, Daniel A. Wagner Feb 2014

Gold Standard? The Use Of Randomized Controlled Trials For International Educational Policy. Review Of Abhijit V. Bannerjee And Esther Duflo, Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking Of The Way To Fight Global Poverty; Barbara Bruns, Deon Filmer, And Harry A. Patrinos, Making Schools Work: New Evidence On Accountability Reforms; Dean Karlan And Jacob Appel, More Than Good Intentions: How A New Economics Is Helping To Solve Global Poverty, Nathan M. Castillo, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Edward Miguel and Michael Kremer Pioneered a new kind of development research in their 2004 study of a school deworming program in Kenya. Their experimental design incorporated the random assignment of primary school students to either a treatment or a control group for receiving medicine to eliminate intestinal parasites. Findings revealed significant benefits to the treatment group in not only improved health but also lowered school absences (Miguel and Kremer 2004). One policy consequence was an increased awareness for more evidence-based decision making under the banner of accountability reform in international development.1 The driving focus for such reform is ...


What Should Be Learned From Learning Assessments?, Daniel A. Wagner Mar 2012

What Should Be Learned From Learning Assessments?, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Learning assessments have grown increasingly important as policy makers and other educational consumers (agencies, schools, communities, parents, individuals, etc.) have sought to understand what is (and isn’t) learned as a function of information inputs. Increasingly, ministers of education are no longer satisfied with who is attending school, but also how well what is being taught is learned, and perhaps how well the minister is doing relative to ministers in other countries. Even at the individual level, in both wealthy and poor countries, both parents and children want to know whether or not they will succeed in school, or in ...


What Happened To Literacy? Historical And Conceptual Perspectives On Literacy In Unesco, Daniel A. Wagner May 2011

What Happened To Literacy? Historical And Conceptual Perspectives On Literacy In Unesco, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

For more than six decades, UNESCO has dedicated itself to be the international agency leader in literacy, even though other aspects of educational development have received greater attention and resources by the broader international community. Resources for UNESCO's literacy work have not increased, and its programmatic activities have been increasingly debated when seen in relationship to the scope of literacy challenges across the globe. Moving forward in a time of restricted budgets will require UNESCO to strengthen itself as a professional innovator and thought leader.


Review Of Agneta Lind, Literacy For All: Making A Difference And John Oxenham, Effective Literacy Programmes: Options For Policy-Makers, Gina Arnone, Daniel A. Wagner Feb 2011

Review Of Agneta Lind, Literacy For All: Making A Difference And John Oxenham, Effective Literacy Programmes: Options For Policy-Makers, Gina Arnone, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The 1990 World Conference on Education for All (EFA) in Jomtien (Thailand) spurred a collective global movement to meet the basic learning needs of each person, with a special focus on developing countries. Ten years later, with the stated goals not met, and indeed far from it, the international community renewed its commitments in Dakar, Senegal. At the World Education Forum in 2000, national and organizational representatives resolved to improve educational opportunities and services and set six objectives for 2015, including a 50 percent increase in adult literacy. Despite this pledge and others (e.g., launch of the UN Literacy ...


How Much Is Learning Measurement Worth? Assessment Costs In Low-Income Countries, Daniel A. Wagner, Andrew Babson, Katie M. Murphy Jan 2011

How Much Is Learning Measurement Worth? Assessment Costs In Low-Income Countries, Daniel A. Wagner, Andrew Babson, Katie M. Murphy

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Timely and credible data on student learning has become a global issue in the ongoing effort to improve educational outcomes. With the potential to serve as a powerful diagnostic tool to gauge the overall health and well-being of an educational system, educational assessments have received increasing attention among specialists and the media. Though the stakes are high, relatively little is known about the cost-benefit ratio of various assessments compared to other educational expenditures. This paper presents an overview of four major types of assessments — national, regional, international and hybrid — and the costs that each has incurred within 13 distinct contexts ...


Technology And Mother-Tongue Literacy In Southern India: Impact Studies Among Young Children And Out-Of-School Youth, Daniel A. Wagner, C. J. Daswani, Romilla Karnati Jan 2010

Technology And Mother-Tongue Literacy In Southern India: Impact Studies Among Young Children And Out-Of-School Youth, Daniel A. Wagner, C. J. Daswani, Romilla Karnati

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The present research began with one main question: How can new technologies be effective for poor and illiterate children and youth in developing countries? We addressed this question through a research-based implementation project in India that included the development of local language multimedia software for literacy; a built-in, user-friendly interface; and the use of existing computer infrastructure. Two studies were undertaken in Andhra Pradesh state. One included a sample of youth and young adults who had never gone to school (or dropped out early) in peri-urban Hyderabad, and the other was composed of young second- and third-grade school children in ...


Quality Of Education, Comparability, And Assessment Choice In Developing Countries, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 2010

Quality Of Education, Comparability, And Assessment Choice In Developing Countries, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Over the past decade, international development agencies have begun to emphasize the improvement of the quality (rather than simply quantity) of education in developing countries. This new focus has been paralleled by a significant increase in the use of educational assessments as a way to measure gains and losses in quality. As this interest in assessment has grown, low-income countries have begun to adopt and adapt international and other assessments for a variety of uses, including the comparability of national quality with other countries, improved ways of measuring reading achievement, and further attempts to reach marginalized populations within a country ...


Information Technologies And Education For The Poor In Africa: Recommendations For A Pro-Poor Ict4d Non-Formal Education Policy, Daniel A. Wagner, Bob Day, Joseph S. Sun May 2004

Information Technologies And Education For The Poor In Africa: Recommendations For A Pro-Poor Ict4d Non-Formal Education Policy, Daniel A. Wagner, Bob Day, Joseph S. Sun

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

More than half of Africa's youth and adults do not have basic literacy skills and/or have not completed primary or secondary school. It is deeply concerning how little serious attention has been paid to the potential ways in which ICT can enhance such skills, as part of a pro-poor model of ICT for Development (ICT4D). Such work is crucial if the goals of Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) are to be achieved. The present effort, "Information Technologies and Education for the Poor in Africa" (ITEPA), is designed to focus attention on what is ...


It And Education For The Poorest Of The Poor: Constraints, Possibilities, And Principles, Daniel A. Wagner Jul 2001

It And Education For The Poorest Of The Poor: Constraints, Possibilities, And Principles, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Long before the term "Digital Divide" became a common term to describe gaps between the rich and poor in the effective access and use of information technology (IT), most policy makers, researchers and practitioners could at least agree on one thing: Reaching the poorest of the poor was going to be the most difficult of challenges.


Literacy, Technological Literacy, And The Digital Divide, Daniel A. Wagner May 2000

Literacy, Technological Literacy, And The Digital Divide, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The United Nations estimates that there are one billion illiterate adults in the world today (about one-quarter of the world's adult population), the vast majority of whom are located in the poorest half of the world. Furthermore, recent surveys suggest that this situation is even more serious than previously believed. Industrialized (OECD) countries now admit to having very serious problems of their own in literacy and basic skills, with up to 25% of adults considered to be lacking the basic skills needed to function effectively in the workforce (see OECD/Statistics Canada, 1995; Tuijnman et al., 1997).


Assessing Basic Learning Competencies Among Youth And Young Adults In Developing Countries: Analytic Survey Framework And Implementation Guidelines, Daniel A. Wagner Sep 1999

Assessing Basic Learning Competencies Among Youth And Young Adults In Developing Countries: Analytic Survey Framework And Implementation Guidelines, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The World Conference on Education for All (WCEFA) in 190 at Jomtien, Thailand, included a number of educational targets related to out-of-school youth and adults, including: (1) to reduce the number of adilt illiterates to half of the 1990 level by the year 2000; and (2) to improve learning achievement to an agreed percentage of an appropriate age cohort. WCEFA also stresed the need to monitor and evaluate the performance of individual learners as well as the delivery mechanisms and outcomes of literacy and other non-formal education programmes. At the Mid-Decade Review meeting on EFA in Amman (in June 1996 ...


To Read Or Not To Read: The Enduring Question Of Low Adult Literacy In America, Daniel A. Wagner Oct 1995

To Read Or Not To Read: The Enduring Question Of Low Adult Literacy In America, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

In 1990, America's governors reached a historic consensus on a set of national educational goals as targets for the year 2000. Among these national goals was that " ... every adult American shall be literate." While this goal was widely applauded by those in the literacy community, much more national attention (and nearly 15 times the budgetary resources) has been devoted to the other goals that focus almost exclusively on improving the formal K-12 school system. Now, with the new Adult Education Act, welfare-reform legislation pending in Congress, and renewed debate over the Goals 2000: Educate America Act, the troubling (and ...


A Contribution To Cross-Cultural Child Development Research. Review Of Gustav Jahoda And I.M. Lewis (Eds.), Acquiring Culture: Cross Cultural Studies In Child Development, Daniel A. Wagner, Laurel Diana Puchner Jan 1991

A Contribution To Cross-Cultural Child Development Research. Review Of Gustav Jahoda And I.M. Lewis (Eds.), Acquiring Culture: Cross Cultural Studies In Child Development, Daniel A. Wagner, Laurel Diana Puchner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The field now termed cultural psychology has begun to take on more importance in theories of child development and psychology as we have come to better understand the Eurocentric bias of Western science. However, cross-cultural studies that combine both psychological and anthropological methods are still rare. This book attempts to show the value of such a combined approach to research in child development.


On Being An Adolescent In Zawiya. Review Of Susan S. Davis And Douglas A. Davis, Adolescence In A Moroccan Towan: Making Social Sense, Daniel A. Wagner, Laurel Diana Puchner Jan 1991

On Being An Adolescent In Zawiya. Review Of Susan S. Davis And Douglas A. Davis, Adolescence In A Moroccan Towan: Making Social Sense, Daniel A. Wagner, Laurel Diana Puchner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Although adolescence is a well-accepted stage of life in Western society, the issue of whether it exists as a separate life stage in all cultures remains an open and important question. As part of the cross-cultural Harvard Adolescence Project directed by Beatrice and John Whiting, this book is an assessment of traditional concepts of adolescence in Morocco. Based on 11 months of intensive fieldwork, as well as multiple years of work in the same village, the authors used ethnographic observation, interviews, and psychological testing to collect a wide array of data on about 50 families including 150 children in the ...


Who's A Literate? Assessment Issues In A Global Perspective, Daniel A. Wagner Mar 1990

Who's A Literate? Assessment Issues In A Global Perspective, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Demographic and economic changes around the world and the linkage between literacy and development have made literacy a critical issue especially in the developing countries. But the uncertainty about the nature and extent of literacy has necessitated taking a new look at literacy assessment. Policy-makers have been hampered not only by too little data, but also by a failure to capture varying types and levels of literacy in each society. Dichotomies like "literate—illiterate" are inappropriate for conceptualising the problem and limit the potential for more effective decision-making. The paper analyses the problems of determining reliable and valid criteria for ...


Literacy Assessment In The Third World: An Overview And Proposed Schema For Survey Use, Daniel A. Wagner Feb 1990

Literacy Assessment In The Third World: An Overview And Proposed Schema For Survey Use, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Many countries have sought to increase literacy among their populations. Rationales for such efforts usually involve the consequences for economic development, as well as for human development, health, and lower fertility. Programs for increasing literacy have often involved the expansion of educational programs, in particular primary schooling, and the creation of literacy programs and campaigns. However, a central paradox in efforts to reduce illiteracy in today's world is that much effort has been invested and little knowledge gained about how best to achieve success. According to one recent analysis by a Unesco expert, the well-known Experimental World Literacy Program ...


Indigenous Cognition? Review Of J.W. Berry, S.H. Irvine, E.B. Hunt (Eds.), Indigenous Cognition: Functioning In Cultural Context, Daniel A. Wagner, Iddo Gal Jan 1990

Indigenous Cognition? Review Of J.W. Berry, S.H. Irvine, E.B. Hunt (Eds.), Indigenous Cognition: Functioning In Cultural Context, Daniel A. Wagner, Iddo Gal

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

"What is known about the cognitive functions of other peoples that could enable extant psychology to become more comprehensive, to attain a 'universal' cognitive psychology?" This question was the focus of a 1986 NATO workshop held at Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario, Canada) whose working theme was "indigenous cognition and models of information processing." The primary goal of the present volume, which contains 13 papers, is to bring together evidence from "studies of cognition in those populations that have remained well outside industrialised society: the hunting people, the nomads, and the peasants of the contemporary world" (p. 2). The volume ...


Literacy Campaigns: Past, Present, And Future. Review Of Robert F. Arnove And Harvey J. Graff (Eds.), National Literacy Campaigns: Historical And Comparative Aspects; Paulo Freire And Donaldo Macedo, Literacy: Reading The Word And The World; Ali Hamadache And Daniel Martin, Theory And Practice Of Literacy Work: Policies, Strategies And Examples, Daniel A. Wagner May 1989

Literacy Campaigns: Past, Present, And Future. Review Of Robert F. Arnove And Harvey J. Graff (Eds.), National Literacy Campaigns: Historical And Comparative Aspects; Paulo Freire And Donaldo Macedo, Literacy: Reading The Word And The World; Ali Hamadache And Daniel Martin, Theory And Practice Of Literacy Work: Policies, Strategies And Examples, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The topic of literacy seems to be returning to the top of the development agenda. Since the 1960s, with UNESCO's Experimental World Literacy Programme (EWLP), there has been a drift away from large-scale literacy programs for development, if not in the minds of Third World educators, then at least in the minds of development planners in major policy-making centers such as the World Bank, UN agencies, and bilateral funding agencies. Perhaps this was due to the problems of EWLP (described in A. Gillette's chapter in Arnove & Graff) or simply to economists' reactions to literacy as a "basic human right," which may have struck policymakers as not sufficiently linked to development outcomes such as economic growth, improved agricultural practices, and so forth. At least part of the resurgence of interest in literacy stems from the realization that illiteracy is not just a Third World problem; attention to and research on illiteracy in North American and Europe have ...


Education And Childhood In Japan: Lessons To Be Learned? Review Of Merry White, The Japanese Educational Challenge: A Commitment To Children, And Harold W. Stevenson, Hiroshi Azuma, And Kenji Hakuta (Eds.), Child Development And Education In Japan, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 1988

Education And Childhood In Japan: Lessons To Be Learned? Review Of Merry White, The Japanese Educational Challenge: A Commitment To Children, And Harold W. Stevenson, Hiroshi Azuma, And Kenji Hakuta (Eds.), Child Development And Education In Japan, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

America's increased concern about its economic productivity has led government and public officials to start searching for policy responses. Some suggest economic remedies tied to interest rates, tariffs, and the like. Others have sought to link the current malaise with a number of differences that distinguish America from its most obvious economic rival, Japan. Representing the latter perspective, the former Secretary of Education, William Bennett, has suggested that is is education that is the critical factor in producing different human capital between the two industrial powers. He, and many others, claim that the Japanese culture in general, and Japanese ...


Review Of S.A. Ashraf, New Horizons In Muslim Education, Daniel A. Wagner Feb 1987

Review Of S.A. Ashraf, New Horizons In Muslim Education, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Between 1977 and 1982, a series of four world conferences on Muslim education were held in various Muslim countries that all dealt with aspects of how contemporary Muslims can maintain Islamic values in the modern educational world. Ashraf was one of the principal organizers of these conferences and contributed a key-note address for each one. The present small volume is a collection of these papers, which range from the general nature of the Islamic education to the development of curricula, new textbooks, and new teaching methods.


Le Developpement Precoce De La Memoire Specialisee, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 1987

Le Developpement Precoce De La Memoire Specialisee, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The study of specialized memory skills has a relative long history in experimental psychology, particularly with research on adults who practice their mnemonic skills within particular domains. The present study was designed to investigate the development of specialized mnemonic skills among young children. The study was undertaken in Morocco, which provided a context where 350 6-7 year old children were selected in such a way which allowed contrasts in terms of: preschool experience (none vs. Quranic vs. modern preschool); environment (urban vs. rural); maternal language (Arabic vs. Berber); and gender. Six differenct memory tests were employed including 4 different tests ...


Review Of H.S. Bhola, Campaigning For Literacy: Eight National Experiences Fo The Twentieth Century And Valerie Miller, Between Struggle And Hope: The Nicaraguan Literacy Crusade, Daniel A. Wagner Aug 1986

Review Of H.S. Bhola, Campaigning For Literacy: Eight National Experiences Fo The Twentieth Century And Valerie Miller, Between Struggle And Hope: The Nicaraguan Literacy Crusade, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The "eradication of illiteracy by the year 2000 has been adopted as a goal of Unesco and a significant number of its member states. In a manner similar to successful attempts to eliminate certain diseases, such as smallpox and malaria, the eradication of illiteracy is seen as something that might be possible if only a big push could "innoculate" adults along with their school-aged children so that all might be protected from illiteracy for generations to come. Efforts to reduce illiteracy in today's world contain a central paradox: that so much effort has been invested with so little knowledge ...


Ethno-Graphies: An Introduction, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 1983

Ethno-Graphies: An Introduction, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

'Literacy is a remarkable term. While seeming to refer to simple individual possession of the complementary mental technologies of reading and writing, literacy is not only difficult to define in individuals and delimit within societies, but it is also charged with emotional and political meaning. It was not long ago that newspapers and scholars referred to whole societies as 'illiterate and uncivilized' as a single referent, and 'illiterate' is still a term which carries a negative connotation.


Learning To Read By 'Rote', Daniel A. Wagner, Abdelhamid Lotfi Jan 1983

Learning To Read By 'Rote', Daniel A. Wagner, Abdelhamid Lotfi

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Information about traditional Islamic (or Quranic) education dates back to its inception over 1400 years ago in the Arabian Peninsula. During this millennium, Islamic religious schools have spread with Islam to more than 40 countries, spanning half the globe and teaching tens of millions of children (although exact statistics are still unavailable). Until recently, most research on Islamic schooling was historical, focused on philosophy, and was based on secondary sources (e.g., Ahmed 1968; Nakosteen 1964; Rosenthal 1947; Tales 1939; Tritton 1957; Yacoub 1890). In the last several years, a number of investigators have begun to study the various roles ...