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Health Care Management Papers

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Do Schools Mater For High Math Achievement? Evidence From The American Mathematics Competitions, Glenn Ellison, Ashley Swanson Jun 2016

Do Schools Mater For High Math Achievement? Evidence From The American Mathematics Competitions, Glenn Ellison, Ashley Swanson

Health Care Management Papers

This paper uses data from the American Mathematics Competitions to examine the rates at which different high schools produce high-achieving math students. There are large differences in the frequency with which students from seemingly similar schools reach high achievement levels. The distribution of unexplained school effects includes a thick tail of schools that produce many more high-achieving students than is typical. Several additional analyses suggest that the differences are not primarily due to unobserved differences in student characteristics. The differences are persistent across time, suggesting that differences in the effectiveness of educational programs are not primarily due to direct peer ...


Information And Quality When Motivation Is Intrinsic: Evidence From Surgeon Report Cards, Jonathan T. Kolstad Dec 2013

Information And Quality When Motivation Is Intrinsic: Evidence From Surgeon Report Cards, Jonathan T. Kolstad

Health Care Management Papers

If profit maximization is the objective of a firm, new information about quality should affect firm behavior only through its effects on market demand. I consider an alternate model in which suppliers are motivated by a desire to perform well in addition to profit. The introduction of quality "report cards" for cardiac surgery in Pennsylvania provides an empirical setting to isolate the relative role of extrinsic and intrinsic incentives in determining surgeon response. Information on performance that was new to surgeons and unrelated to patient demand led to an intrinsic response four times larger than surgeon response to profit incentives.


Consumers' Misunderstanding Of Health Insurance., George Loewenstein, Joelle Y Friedman, Barbara Mcgill, Sarah Ahmad, Suzanne Linck, Stacey Sinkula, John Beshears, James J Choi, Jonathan Kolstad, David Laibson, Brigitte C Madrian, John A List, Kevin. G. Volpp Sep 2013

Consumers' Misunderstanding Of Health Insurance., George Loewenstein, Joelle Y Friedman, Barbara Mcgill, Sarah Ahmad, Suzanne Linck, Stacey Sinkula, John Beshears, James J Choi, Jonathan Kolstad, David Laibson, Brigitte C Madrian, John A List, Kevin. G. Volpp

Health Care Management Papers

We report results from two surveys of representative samples of Americans with private health insurance. The first examines how well Americans understand, and believe they understand, traditional health insurance coverage. The second examines whether those insured under a simplified all-copay insurance plan will be more likely to engage in cost-reducing behaviors relative to those insured under a traditional plan with deductibles and coinsurance, and measures consumer preferences between the two plans. The surveys provide strong evidence that consumers do not understand traditional plans and would better understand a simplified plan, but weaker evidence that a simplified plan would have strong ...


The Unanticipated Consequences Of Postponing The Employer Mandate, Mark. V. Pauly, Adam. A. Leive Aug 2013

The Unanticipated Consequences Of Postponing The Employer Mandate, Mark. V. Pauly, Adam. A. Leive

Health Care Management Papers

No abstract provided.


The Economics, Opportunities, And Challenges Of Health Insurance Exchanges, Mark Duggan, Robert Kocher Dec 2010

The Economics, Opportunities, And Challenges Of Health Insurance Exchanges, Mark Duggan, Robert Kocher

Health Care Management Papers

No abstract provided.


Federal Policy And The Rise In Disability Enrollment: Evidence For The Veterans Affairs’ Disability Compensation Program, Mark Duggan May 2010

Federal Policy And The Rise In Disability Enrollment: Evidence For The Veterans Affairs’ Disability Compensation Program, Mark Duggan

Health Care Management Papers

The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs compensates 13 percent of the nation’s military veterans for service‐related disabilities through the Disability Compensation (DC) program. In 2001, a legislative change made it easier for Vietnam veterans to receive benefits for diabetes associated with military service. In this paper, we investigate this policy’s effect on DC enrollment and expenditures as well as the behavioral response of potential beneficiaries. Our findings demonstrate that the policy increased DC enrollment by 6 percentage points among Vietnam veterans and that an additional 1.7 percent experienced an increase in their DC benefits, which ...


The Gender Gap In Secondary School Mathematics At High Achievement Levels: Evidence From The American Mathematics Competitions, Glenn Ellison, Ashley Swanson Jan 2010

The Gender Gap In Secondary School Mathematics At High Achievement Levels: Evidence From The American Mathematics Competitions, Glenn Ellison, Ashley Swanson

Health Care Management Papers

This paper uses a new data source, American Mathematics Competitions, to examine the gender gap among high school students at very high achievement levels. The data bring out several new facts. There is a large gender gap that widens dramatically at percentiles above those that can be examined using standard data sources. An analysis of unobserved heterogeneity indicates that there is only moderate variation in the gender gap across schools. The highest achieving girls in the U.S. are concentrated in a very small set of elite schools, suggesting that almost all girls with the ability to reach high math ...


A Randomized, Controlled Trial Of Financial Incentives For Smoking Cessation., Kevin. G. Volpp, Andrea. B. Troxel, Mark. V. Pauly, Henry. A. Glick, Andrea Puig, David A. Asch, Robert Galvin, Jingsan Zhu, Fei Wan, Jill Deguzman, Elizabeth Corbett, Janet Weiner, Janet Audrain-Mcgovern Feb 2009

A Randomized, Controlled Trial Of Financial Incentives For Smoking Cessation., Kevin. G. Volpp, Andrea. B. Troxel, Mark. V. Pauly, Henry. A. Glick, Andrea Puig, David A. Asch, Robert Galvin, Jingsan Zhu, Fei Wan, Jill Deguzman, Elizabeth Corbett, Janet Weiner, Janet Audrain-Mcgovern

Health Care Management Papers

BACKGROUND: Smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Previous studies of financial incentives for smoking cessation in work settings have not shown that such incentives have significant effects on cessation rates, but these studies have had limited power, and the incentives used may have been insufficient.

METHODS: We randomly assigned 878 employees of a multinational company based in the United States to receive information about smoking-cessation programs (442 employees) or to receive information about programs plus financial incentives (436 employees). The financial incentives were $100 for completion of a smoking-cessation program, $250 for cessation ...


Why Are The Disability Rolls Skyrocketing? The Contribution Of Population Characteristics, Economic Conditions, And Program Generosity, Mark Duggan, Scott. A. Imberman Jan 2009

Why Are The Disability Rolls Skyrocketing? The Contribution Of Population Characteristics, Economic Conditions, And Program Generosity, Mark Duggan, Scott. A. Imberman

Health Care Management Papers

This chapter, which addresses three categories of explanation—the characteristics of individuals insured by the Disability Insurance (DI) program, the state of the economy, and the generosity of program benefits—argues that the growth in DI rolls is likely to continue and perhaps accelerate going forward. The data indicate that the recessions of 1991 and 2001 can explain 24 percent of the growth in DI receipt among men and 12 percent of the growth among women. Changes in health during the past two decades have slowed rather than added to the growth of the DI rolls. DI awards for certain ...


Does Nonprofit Status Signal Quality?, Anup Malani, Guy David Jun 2008

Does Nonprofit Status Signal Quality?, Anup Malani, Guy David

Health Care Management Papers

A popular theory for why firms take nonprofit status is that it is a signal of quality. This paper offers a simple, empirical test of this theory. If nonprofit status signals quality, surely nonprofit firms would want to ensure that consumers are aware of this. A natural way for firms to do this is to indicate their nonprofit status in their advertising. Taking this cue, we conducted a survey of over 2,800 firms in the hospital, nursing home, or child care industries in order to determine whether nonprofit firms communicate their status to consumers on their Web sites or ...


Aching To Retire? The Rise In The Full Retirement Age And Its Impact On The Social Security Disability Rolls, Mark Duggan, Perry Singleton, Jae Song Aug 2007

Aching To Retire? The Rise In The Full Retirement Age And Its Impact On The Social Security Disability Rolls, Mark Duggan, Perry Singleton, Jae Song

Health Care Management Papers

The Social Security Amendments of 1983 reduced the generosity of Social Security retired worker benefits in the U.S. by increasing the program's full retirement age from 65 to 67 and increasing the penalty for claiming benefits at the early retirement age of 62. These changes were phased in gradually, so that individuals born in or before 1937 were unaffected and those born in 1960 or later were fully affected. No corresponding changes were made to the program's disabled worker benefits, and thus the relative generosity of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits increased. In this paper, we ...


Health Insurance And The Growth In Pharmaceutical Expenditures*, Patricia. M. Danzon, Mark V. Pauly Oct 2002

Health Insurance And The Growth In Pharmaceutical Expenditures*, Patricia. M. Danzon, Mark V. Pauly

Health Care Management Papers

This paper examines the contribution of insurance coverage to the recent unprecedented growth in spending on pharmaceuticals. Trends in drug spending over time closely paralleled the growth in drug coverage. Most of the coverage growth reflects an increase in the number of people with coverage, 65 percent from 1987 to 1996, rather than increased depth of coverage. The direct moral hazard effect of this insurance growth accounts for between one‐fourth and one‐half of the increase in drug spending. Technological change contributed to these changes, because both the flow of new drugs increased the demand for insurance and information ...


More Guns, More Crime, Mark Duggan Oct 2001

More Guns, More Crime, Mark Duggan

Health Care Management Papers

This paper examines the relationship between gun ownership and crime. Previous research has suffered from a lack of reliable data on gun ownership. I exploit a unique data set to reliably estimate annual rates of gun ownership at both the state and the county levels during the past two decades. My findings demonstrate that changes in gun ownership are significantly positively related to changes in the homicide rate, with this relationship driven almost entirely by an impact of gun ownership on murders in which a gun is used. The effect of gun ownership on all other crime categories is much ...


Workers’ Compensation Rate Regulation: How Price Controls Increase Costs*, Patricia. M. Danzon, Scott. E. Harrington Apr 2001

Workers’ Compensation Rate Regulation: How Price Controls Increase Costs*, Patricia. M. Danzon, Scott. E. Harrington

Health Care Management Papers

In the 1980s, regulation constrained workers’ compensation insurance premiums in the face of rapid growth in loss costs. We develop and test the hypothesis that rate suppression exacerbates loss growth, leading to higher losses and premiums. The empirical analysis using rating class data for eight states for the period 1985–91 confirms that rate suppression, measured by lagged residual‐market share of payroll, increased loss growth. The cost‐increasing effects are greater in the residual market than in the voluntary market, but premiums increased more rapidly in the voluntary market. The resulting pattern of cross subsidies between and within classes ...


Does Regulation Drive Out Competition In Pharmaceutical Markets?*, Patricia. M. Danzon, Li-Wei Chao Oct 2000

Does Regulation Drive Out Competition In Pharmaceutical Markets?*, Patricia. M. Danzon, Li-Wei Chao

Health Care Management Papers

Most countries regulate pharmaceutical prices, either directly or indirectly, on the assumption that competition is at best weak in this industry. This paper tests the hypothesis that regulation of manufacturer prices and retail pharmacy margins undermines price competition. We use data from seven countries for 1992 to examine price competition between generic competitors (different manufacturers of the same compound) and therapeutic substitutes (similar compounds) under different regulatory regimes. We find that price competition between generic competitors is significant in unregulated or less regulated markets (United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and Germany) but that regulation undermines generic competition in strict regulatory ...


Tort Liability: A Minefield For Managed Care?, Patricia. M. Danzon Jun 1997

Tort Liability: A Minefield For Managed Care?, Patricia. M. Danzon

Health Care Management Papers

The restructuring of health insurance contracts and health care delivery systems under managed care is the result of competitive attempts to reduce the inefficiencies that developed in medical markets under traditional indemnity insurance. Liability rules that continue to apply norms of customary care threaten to undermine these potential efficiency gains. Liability rules under managed care should treat claims for denial of coverage as contractual disputes, to be brought against health plans as residual claimants. Where contracts are ambiguous, appropriate coverage should be determined using a cost-benefit criterion based on beneficiaries’ willingness-to-pay. Liability claims for negligent care should be permitted only ...


Price Cutting In Liability Insurance Markets, Scott. E. Harrington, Patricia. M. Danzon Oct 1994

Price Cutting In Liability Insurance Markets, Scott. E. Harrington, Patricia. M. Danzon

Health Care Management Papers

This article analyzes alleged underpricing of general liability insurance prior to the mid-1980s liability insurance "crisis." The theoretical analysis considers whether moral hazard and/or heterogeneous information for forecasting claim costs can cause some firms to price too low and depress other firms' prices. Cross-sectional analysis of insurer loss forecast revisions (which should be greater for firms with low prices caused by moral hazard or hetero- geneous information) and premium growth provides evidence consistent with low pricing due to moral hazard but not heterogeneous information. The evidence also implies that shifts in the loss distribution produced large industrywide forecast errors.


Comment On Epstein, "Holdouts, Externalities, And The Single Owner: One More Salute To Ronald Coase", Patricia. M. Danzon Apr 1993

Comment On Epstein, "Holdouts, Externalities, And The Single Owner: One More Salute To Ronald Coase", Patricia. M. Danzon

Health Care Management Papers

No abstract provided.


The Economic Implications Of Public Disability Insurance In The United States, Patricia. M. Danzon Jan 1993

The Economic Implications Of Public Disability Insurance In The United States, Patricia. M. Danzon

Health Care Management Papers

A review of previous analyses of labor supply effects of Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) concludes that estimates of labor supply effects and net social costs are upward biased because they ignore interactions between DI and other insurances. A model of optimal insurance, postinjury accommodations, and labor supply shows that reduction in labor supply and increase in consumption when disabled do not necessarily imply moral hazard. Optimal postinjury accommodations vary inversely with firm size. The Americans with Disabilities Act will reduce wages and labor supply of healthy workers, particularly in small firms. Effects on labor supply of the disabled are ...


The Frequency And Severity Of Medical Malpractice Claims: New Evidence., Patricia. M. Danzon Jan 1986

The Frequency And Severity Of Medical Malpractice Claims: New Evidence., Patricia. M. Danzon

Health Care Management Papers

No abstract provided.


Comments On Landes And Posner: A Positive Economic Analysis Of Products Liability, Patricia. M. Danzon Dec 1985

Comments On Landes And Posner: A Positive Economic Analysis Of Products Liability, Patricia. M. Danzon

Health Care Management Papers

No abstract provided.


Settlement Out Of Court: The Disposition Of Medical Malpractice Claims, Patricia. M. Danzon, Lee. A. Lillard Jun 1983

Settlement Out Of Court: The Disposition Of Medical Malpractice Claims, Patricia. M. Danzon, Lee. A. Lillard

Health Care Management Papers

No abstract provided.


An Economic Analysis Of Eminent Domain, Patricia. M. Danzon Jun 1976

An Economic Analysis Of Eminent Domain, Patricia. M. Danzon

Health Care Management Papers

A theoretical analysis of land assembly with and without eminent domain concludes that, contrary to traditional assumptions, eminent domain is not necessarily a more efficient institution than the free market for consolidating many contiguous but separately owned parcels into a single ownership unit. In practice, prices paid under eminent domain may differ systematically from the "fair market value" standard, depending on court costs of buyer and seller. Evidence from urban renewal supports the hypothesis that, due to the structure of court costs, high-valued properties receive more than market value and low-valued properties receive less than market value.