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Full-Text Articles in Education

School Violence In China: A Multi-Level Analysis Of Student Victimization In Rural Middle Schools, Jennifer Adams, Emily C. Hannum Dec 2016

School Violence In China: A Multi-Level Analysis Of Student Victimization In Rural Middle Schools, Jennifer Adams, Emily C. Hannum

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

Motivation: Physical victimization at school is little studied in impoverished developing country contexts. Moreover, the role of school and classroom contexts as risk factors remains poorly understood.

Purpose: The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence of physical victimization in rural Chinese middle schools as well as the individual, teacher/classroom, and school level risk factors associated with experiencing physical victimization.

Design: We use two waves of longitudinal, representative survey data to perform a multi-level logistic regression analysis of physical victimization among middle school students from 100 villages in one of China’s poorest provinces. We focus on ...


Maternal Bargaining Power, Parental Compensation And Non-Cognitive Skills In Rural China, Jessica Leight, Elaine Liu Nov 2015

Maternal Bargaining Power, Parental Compensation And Non-Cognitive Skills In Rural China, Jessica Leight, Elaine Liu

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

The importance of non-cognitive skills in determining long-term human capital and labor market outcomes is widely acknowledged, but relatively little is known about how non-cognitive skills may shape educational investments by parents early in life. This paper evaluates the parental response to variation in non-cognitive skills among their children in rural Gansu province, China, employing a household fixed effects specification. The results suggest that on average, parents invest no more in terms of educational expenditure in children who have better non-cognitive skills relative to their siblings. However, there is significant heterogeneity with respect to maternal education; less educated mothers appear ...


The Impact Of Early Childhood Rainfall Shocks On The Evolution Of Cognitive And Non-Cognitive Skills, Jessica Leight, Paul Glewwe, Albert Park Oct 2015

The Impact Of Early Childhood Rainfall Shocks On The Evolution Of Cognitive And Non-Cognitive Skills, Jessica Leight, Paul Glewwe, Albert Park

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

This paper is the first to estimate the extent to which early childhood climatic shocks affect both cognitive and non-cognitive skills as measured at multiple points in childhood and adolescence. We assess the impact of rainfall observed in utero and during the first two years of life by analyzing a rich longitudinal study of rural youth in a poor province in China. Our empirical strategy entails estimating the impact of rainfall on various measures of cognitive and non-cognitive skills utilizing a reduced form strategy, conditional on county and year-of-birth fixed effects. The results indicate that there is a significant impact ...


Sibling Rivalry: Ability And Intrahousehold Allocation In Gansu Province, China, Jessica Leight Mar 2015

Sibling Rivalry: Ability And Intrahousehold Allocation In Gansu Province, China, Jessica Leight

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

This paper evaluates the strategies employed by households in rural China to allocate educational expenditure to children of different physical endowments, examining whether parents use educational funding to reinforce or compensate for these differences. Climatic shocks are employed as an instrument for endowment, measured as height-for-age, allowing for the identification of the impact of quasi-exogenous variation in endowment on parental allocations conditional on household fixed effects. The results suggest that educational expenditure is directed to the relatively weaker child; in response to the mean differences in height-for-age be- tween siblings, parents redirect around 25% of discretionary educational spending to the ...


Reforming Rural Education: Understanding Teacher Expectations For Rural Youth, Lisa Yiu, Jennifer H. Adams Dec 2013

Reforming Rural Education: Understanding Teacher Expectations For Rural Youth, Lisa Yiu, Jennifer H. Adams

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

The Chinese state's commitment to improve teaching quality in rural regions is a key component of national efforts to close the rural–urban education gap. In this paper, we investigate an understudied but critical dimension of quality teaching: teacher expectations. We employ longitudinal data gathered in Gansu Province in 2000 and 2007 to first examine whether teacher expectations for rural youth are conditioned by students’ social origin and teacher background characteristics. Next, we determine the predictive accuracy of their expectations. Our results highlight the ways in which teacher expectations condition the sorting of rural children among different schooling tracks ...


The Hopes Carry Them On: Early Educational Expectations And Later Educational Outcomes In Rural Gansu, China, Yuping Zhang Jan 2012

The Hopes Carry Them On: Early Educational Expectations And Later Educational Outcomes In Rural Gansu, China, Yuping Zhang

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

It is commonly held in the education literature that parents’ and children’s educational expectations are important factors in predicting children's educational achievement and attainment. However, very little is known about the significance of parents’ and children’s early expectations in developing country settings. This study employs a case study of children in 100 rural villages in a poor province in Northwest China to explore the impact of parents’ and children’s early expectations on children’s later school persistence and completion of compulsory and secondary education. I pay special attention to the agreement and disagreement in early educational ...


Mothers' Educational Expectations And Children's Enrollment: Evidence From Rural China, Yuping Zhang Feb 2011

Mothers' Educational Expectations And Children's Enrollment: Evidence From Rural China, Yuping Zhang

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

How much would mothers' educational expectations influence their children's actual school attainment in the rural setting of China? This study explores the impact of mothers' educational expectations on children’s schooling by focusing on the discrepancy in expectations between mothers and children. Going beyond existing literature, this study pays special attention to the directions of mother-child discrepancy. I analyze Gansu Survey of Children and Families (GSCF), the longitudinal data, from rural Gansu, China. The analysis reveals that mother-child discrepancy in educational expectations is substantial. Children have a much better chance to stay in school when their mothers share with ...


Influence Of Home Environment On Children’S Schooling: From Teacher’S Perspective, Yuping Zhang Jan 2011

Influence Of Home Environment On Children’S Schooling: From Teacher’S Perspective, Yuping Zhang

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

Previous research in educational stratification has revealed that one of the mechanisms a child’s family background may affect school outcomes is through its influence on teacher-student relationships at school. Going beyond the conventional modeling of using only measures of the family’s socioeconomic situation, this article incorporate the teachers’ perspectives of the importance of the children’s family background into the examination of teachers’ evaluations of children’s learning capacity and their expectations for the children’s future school attainment, using a unique dataset from rural Gansu in northwest China. The analysis results reveal that teachers’ perceptions of the ...


Parental Migration And Child Development In China, Leng Lee, Albert Park Nov 2010

Parental Migration And Child Development In China, Leng Lee, Albert Park

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

In recent years, China has witnessed a massive wave of rural-to-urban migration, which frequently results in family separations. This study uses panel data from a longitudinal study of rural children inwestern China to analyze the impact of migration by fathers on the development of children left behind in rural villages. Child development indicators include both measures of academic attainment, such as enrollment, years held back, and test scores in math and language; as well as measures of non-cognitive skills, specifically children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior which reflects their psychosocial development. To identify the effect of changes in parental migration ...


To Walk Out: Rural Parents’ Views On Education, Peggy A. Kong Sep 2010

To Walk Out: Rural Parents’ Views On Education, Peggy A. Kong

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

No abstract provided.


Ability And Intrahousehold Allocation In Gansu Province, China, Jessica Leight May 2010

Ability And Intrahousehold Allocation In Gansu Province, China, Jessica Leight

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

This paper analyzes the strategies employed by households in rural China to allo- cate educational expenditure to children of dierent endowment, examining whether parents use educational funding to reinforce or compensate for variation in endow- ment. Employing climatic shocks as an instrument for children's endowment yields results indicating that parental expenditure is preferentially directed to children of lower endowment. This result appears robust to the potentially confounding eects of gender and grade level and holds across a number of measures of expenditure. This analysis is consistent with a hypothesis that parents use the allocation of household resources to compensate ...


Why Are Teachers “Overpaid” In Developing Countries? --The Role Of The Nature Of Educational Production In Teachers’ Labor Markets, Qihui Chen Jan 2010

Why Are Teachers “Overpaid” In Developing Countries? --The Role Of The Nature Of Educational Production In Teachers’ Labor Markets, Qihui Chen

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

No abstract provided.


Family Background, Ability And Student Achievement In Rural China –Identifying The Effects Of Unobservable Ability Using Famine-Generated Instruments, Qihui Chen Jul 2009

Family Background, Ability And Student Achievement In Rural China –Identifying The Effects Of Unobservable Ability Using Famine-Generated Instruments, Qihui Chen

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

This paper investigates the effects of family background on academic achievement in basic education (grade 1-9) in rural China, using information on a sample of children aged 9-12 in 2000 from Gansu, China. The instrumental variable method developed by Mason and Griliches (1972), and Blackburn and Neumark (1992) is applied to control for unobserved child ability. Scores of a cognitive ability tests are first used to proxy unobservable child innate ability. This error-ridden measure of child innate ability is then instrumented by an instrumental variable generated by the Great Famine in China, 1958-1961. Empirical results indicate that omission of child ...


Doing More With Less: Teacher Professional Learning Communities In Resource-Constrained Primary Schools In Rural China, Tanja C. Sargent, Emily C. Hannum May 2009

Doing More With Less: Teacher Professional Learning Communities In Resource-Constrained Primary Schools In Rural China, Tanja C. Sargent, Emily C. Hannum

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

Teacher professional learning communities provide environments in which teachers engage in regular research and collaboration. They have been found effective as a means for connecting professional learning to the day-to-day realities faced by teachers in the classroom. In this article, the authors draw on survey data collected in primary schools serving 71 villages in rural Gansu Province as well as transcripts from in-depth interviews with 30 teachers. Findings indicate that professional learning communities penetrate to some of China’s most resource-constrained schools but that their nature and development are shaped by institutional supports, principal leadership, and teachers’ own initiative.


Beyond Cost: Rural Perspectives On Barriers To Education, Emily C. Hannum, Jennifer Adams Dec 2008

Beyond Cost: Rural Perspectives On Barriers To Education, Emily C. Hannum, Jennifer Adams

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

In China, education plays an increasingly important role in the creation of wealth and poverty. In the reform era, education has become closely tied to earnings (Yang 2005; Zhang et al. 2005). Returns to education in urban China increased significantly from 1978 to 1993, though returns were still relatively low in 1993, at less than four percent per year of schooling (Zhao and Zhou 2006). More recent trend data based on National Bureau of Statistics surveys show rapid increases in economic returns to a year of education in urban China: returns nearly tripled during the period 1992 to 2003, rising ...


Family Sources Of Educational Gender Inequality In Rural China: A Critical Assessment, Emily C. Hannum, Peggy A. Kong, Yuping Zhang Nov 2008

Family Sources Of Educational Gender Inequality In Rural China: A Critical Assessment, Emily C. Hannum, Peggy A. Kong, Yuping Zhang

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

In this paper, we investigate the gender gap in education in rural northwest China. We first discuss parental perceptions of abilities and appropriate roles for girls and boys; parental concerns about old-age support; and parental perceptions of different labor market outcomes for girls' and boys' education. We then investigate gender disparities in investments in children, children's performance at school, and children's subsequent attainment. We analyze a survey of nine to twelve year-old children and their families conducted in rural Gansu Province in the year 2000, along with follow-up information about subsequent educational attainment collected seven years later. We ...


Teaching Quality And Student Outcomes: Academic Achievement And Educational Engagement In Rural Northwest China, Xuehui An, Emily C. Hannum, Tanja Sargent Sep 2008

Teaching Quality And Student Outcomes: Academic Achievement And Educational Engagement In Rural Northwest China, Xuehui An, Emily C. Hannum, Tanja Sargent

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

A central task of educational researchers has been to uncover factors that improve student academic achievement. Research in both developed and developing nations during the past few decades has analysed the links between educational outcomes and school physical resources, teacher quality and children's demographic and family background. Importantly, research on teacher and school effects in developing countries has focused on factors such as human capital, economic resources and physical infrastructure, the so-called input factors in the "black box" production function model of school outcomes. Fewer studies have focused on the "softer" classroom process factors that might be seen as ...


Keeping Teachers Happy: Job Satisfaction Among Primary School Teachers In Rural Northwest China, Tanja Sargent, Emily Hannum May 2005

Keeping Teachers Happy: Job Satisfaction Among Primary School Teachers In Rural Northwest China, Tanja Sargent, Emily Hannum

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

Numerous empirical studies from developing countries have noted that parental education has a robust and positive effect on child learning, a result that is often attributed to more educated parents making greater investments in their children's human capital. However, the nature of any such investment has not been well understood. This study examines how parental education affects various parental investments in goods and time used in children's human capital production via an unusually detailed survey from rural China. It is found that more educated parents make greater educational investments in both goods and time and that these relationships ...