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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Role Of External Support Providers In Improving K-3 Reading Outcomes In New York, Thomas Hatch, Meesuk Ahn, Daniel Ferguson, Alyson Rumberger Feb 2019

The Role Of External Support Providers In Improving K-3 Reading Outcomes In New York, Thomas Hatch, Meesuk Ahn, Daniel Ferguson, Alyson Rumberger

CPRE Policy Briefs

No abstract provided.


School Vouchers In The Trump Era: How Political Ideology And Religion Shape Public Opinion, Rand Quinn, Tina Cheuk Jan 2018

School Vouchers In The Trump Era: How Political Ideology And Religion Shape Public Opinion, Rand Quinn, Tina Cheuk

CPRE Policy Briefs

Expanding school vouchers is a central component of the Trump Administration’s education agenda.1 However, the extent to which the Administration can fully realize this policy goal may hinge, in part, on the level of public support or opposition for the voucher method of reform and on the particular components of any proposed voucher system. In this policy brief, we report on a randomized survey experiment we conducted to identify how two key dimensions of school voucher systems—source of funding and scope of coverage—affect public opinion across various sectors of the American public.


How State Education Agencies Can Support College And Career Ready Standards, Emily Hodge, Serena Salloum, Susanna Benko Jun 2017

How State Education Agencies Can Support College And Career Ready Standards, Emily Hodge, Serena Salloum, Susanna Benko

CPRE Policy Briefs

No abstract provided.


Evidence For Early Literacy Intervention: The Impacts Of Reading Recovery, Abigail Gray, Heather Goldsworthy, Henry May, Philip Sirinides Apr 2017

Evidence For Early Literacy Intervention: The Impacts Of Reading Recovery, Abigail Gray, Heather Goldsworthy, Henry May, Philip Sirinides

CPRE Policy Briefs

Research increasingly links low literacy levels in the early grades with a range of poor outcomes; for instance, students who read below grade level at the end of third grade are about four times less likely than their higher-achieving peers to graduate from high school (Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2010, 2011; Balfanz, Bridgeland, Bruce & Fox, 2012). In a four-year study, researchers from the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania and the Center for Research on Education and Social Policy (CRESP) at the University of Delaware examined the effectiveness of Reading Recovery—a widely used ...


Pennsylvania School Tax Burden, Gregory J. Collins Sep 2016

Pennsylvania School Tax Burden, Gregory J. Collins

CPRE Policy Briefs

PA Act 35 was signed into law on June 1, 2016. The act amended the state public school code, including the creation of a school funding formula. In this policy brief, Pennsylvania School Tax Burden, Gregory Collins examines how the new formula directs state basic education funding, how it is allocated to local school districts based on need, its ability to pay, and the local school tax effort. Pennsylvania School Tax Burden examines the claim that differences exist in local school tax burdens across Pennsylvania's 500 districts.


An Inquiry Into Pennsylvania's Early Childhood Quality Rating And Improvement System, Philip M Sirinides, John Fantuzzo, Whitney Leboeuf, Katie Barghaus, Ryan Fink Sep 2016

An Inquiry Into Pennsylvania's Early Childhood Quality Rating And Improvement System, Philip M Sirinides, John Fantuzzo, Whitney Leboeuf, Katie Barghaus, Ryan Fink

CPRE Policy Briefs

High-quality care in the earliest years of life has been shown to relate to positive developmental outcomes for children, including improved early academic skills, social-emotional competencies, and cognitive functioning. Unfortunately, the early care experiences of many children are not always high quality; rather, research suggests that high-quality care is the exception. The growing evidence relating quality care to improved learning outcomes, the variability in quality across care settings, and the failure of existing approaches to improve child care have led to a national call to enhance the quality of early care and education programs. In response to this call, states ...


State Education Agencies And The Implementation Of New Teacher Evaluation Systems, Patrick Mcguinn Oct 2015

State Education Agencies And The Implementation Of New Teacher Evaluation Systems, Patrick Mcguinn

CPRE Policy Briefs

It has been three years since Race to the Top grant-winning states piloted new teacher evaluation systems and many of them have made considerable progress, yet according to media coverage and a Government Accountability Office report published in April 2015, struggles remain and most grantees have asked to extend the timetables for completing this work. Given the enormous importance and complexity of these reforms — and the fact that states vary widely in the timing, approach, and success of their implementation work — this is an excellent opportunity to assess the progress that has been made and identify where challenges persist. It ...


Changing Principals' Leadership Through Feedback And Coaching, Peter Goff, Ellen Goldring, J Edward Guthrie, Leonard Bickman Oct 2015

Changing Principals' Leadership Through Feedback And Coaching, Peter Goff, Ellen Goldring, J Edward Guthrie, Leonard Bickman

CPRE Policy Briefs

Researchers Leonard Bickman, Ellen Goldring, Peter Goff, and J. Edward Guthrie conducted a randomized experiment of principals in a large urban school district to explore if coaching, when combined with feedback from teachers, changes principals’ leadership practices. This brief summarizes the research findings regarding the impact of the feedback and coaching intervention on principals’ leadership behaviors.


Building A Lattice For School Leadership: Lessons From England, Jonathan A. Supovitz Mar 2015

Building A Lattice For School Leadership: Lessons From England, Jonathan A. Supovitz

CPRE Policy Briefs

This policy brief examines the evolution of the educational leadership development system in England to see what ideas American leaders and policymakers might take from looking transnationally. The brief is based on a more in-depth examination of that leadership development system described in a CPRE research report entitled Building a Lattice for School Leadership: The Top-to-Bottom Rethinking of Leadership Development in England and What It Might Mean for American Education. The research report was based upon a year of research on school leadership in England that included extensive background research, site visits to schools and leadership programs, and over 20 ...


Research Into Tennessee's Achievement School District: Autonomy, Incentives, And Guidance For Providers, Joshua L. Glazer, Diane Massell, Matthew Malone Jan 2015

Research Into Tennessee's Achievement School District: Autonomy, Incentives, And Guidance For Providers, Joshua L. Glazer, Diane Massell, Matthew Malone

CPRE Policy Briefs

This is the first in a series of reports based on a multi-year research project on the Tennessee Achievement School District (ASD). The purpose of these reports is to present independent analyses based on evidence, as well as the experience and judgment of the research team. The current discussion examines the ASD’s theory of action, and considers how its system of accountability and guidance could influence the nature of students’ educational experiences. Particular attention is given to the diversity of approaches among the organizations operating schools in the ASD, and the extent to which this could lead to meaningful ...


An Urban Myth? New Evidence On Equity, Adequacy, And The Efficiency Of Educational Resources In Pennsylvania, Matthew Steinberg, Rand Quinn Nov 2014

An Urban Myth? New Evidence On Equity, Adequacy, And The Efficiency Of Educational Resources In Pennsylvania, Matthew Steinberg, Rand Quinn

CPRE Policy Briefs

How and in what ways money matters in education is a long-standing question among policymakers and education researchers. This issue is particularly salient to large, urban school districts, where debates on the organization of school often gravitate toward issues of financial resources and academic performance. Large urban districts, the story goes, spend more money per pupil but generate lower than expected results. In this policy brief, University of Pennsylvania researchers Matthew P. Steinberg and Rand Quinn present evidence that addresses the oft-told story that large urban districts, such as the School District of Philadelphia (SDP), are inefficient.


The Role Of The Common Core In The Gubernatorial Elections Of 2014, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Bobbi Newman, Ariel Smith Nov 2014

The Role Of The Common Core In The Gubernatorial Elections Of 2014, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Bobbi Newman, Ariel Smith

CPRE Policy Briefs

After the Spring 2014 primaries, the Common Core State Standards were viewed as a political hot potato. As former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee said, “the Common Core has become toxic, I think it’s radioactive…It has become an incredibly controversial topic on both the left and the right.” Even so, the Common Core turned out to play a role in some of the governor’s races in November 2014.

In this analysis of candidate positions and the role of the Common Core across the 36 gubernatorial races of 2014, CPRE researchers Bobbi Newman, Jonathan Supovitz and Arial Smith used ...


Slowing Entropy: Instructional Policy Design In New York City, 2011-12, Jonathan A. Supovitz Oct 2014

Slowing Entropy: Instructional Policy Design In New York City, 2011-12, Jonathan A. Supovitz

CPRE Policy Briefs

How do policymakers craft policies, particularly centered on the Common Core State Standards, to be more resilient and less likely to disintegrate during enactment? Researcher Jonathan Supovitz in Slowing Entropy: Instructional Policy Design in New York City, 2011-12 examines the design of a New York City Department of Education policy intended to engage teachers and principals across NYC with the instructional challenges of Common Core State Standards (CCSS). This summary provides an instructive backstory to some of the thought processes of the policy architects and provides insight into the way that careful policymaking can be more resilient to decay as ...


How State Education Agencies Acquire And Use Research In School Improvement Strategies, Margaret E. Goertz, Diane Massell, Carol Barnes Oct 2014

How State Education Agencies Acquire And Use Research In School Improvement Strategies, Margaret E. Goertz, Diane Massell, Carol Barnes

CPRE Policy Briefs

Policymakers have urged state education agencies (SEAs) to engage with organizations outside of their agencies to extend their capacity and to help them collect and use research to support school improvement. However, little is known about how SEAs search for, select, and use research in their school improvement efforts.

In the first study to examine communication structures, social capital, and information networks within SEAs, researchers Goertz, Barnes, and Massell in How State Education Agencies Acquire and Use Research in School Improvement Strategies applied social network perspectives and methods to identify knowledge sources utilized by SEAs. Their findings provide important insights ...


Getting The Best People Into The Toughest Jobs, Allan Odden Aug 2014

Getting The Best People Into The Toughest Jobs, Allan Odden

CPRE Policy Briefs

Teachers and principals have the greatest impact on student learning. Unfortunately, our public education system, until recently, selected and tenured thousands of ineffective teachers and principals particularly in high-poverty urban school and rural schools. But the landscape of how teachers and principals—the education talent—are managed is dramatically changing. A comprehensive and holistic view of strategic talent management in education is developing, supported by new and ambitious federal and state policies and rapidly changing local practices.

Strategic talent management is an approach that manages all human resource programs—recruitment, selection, placement, development, evaluation, tenure, promotion, dismissal, and compensation—around ...


How State Education Agencies Acquire And Use Research In School Improvement Strategies, Margaret E. Goertz, Carol Barnes, Diane Massell Aug 2013

How State Education Agencies Acquire And Use Research In School Improvement Strategies, Margaret E. Goertz, Carol Barnes, Diane Massell

CPRE Policy Briefs

Over the last two decades, state and federal laws and grant programs, such as state accountability polices, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Race to the Top, Title I School Improvement Grants, and State Longitudinal Data System Grants, have given state education agencies (SEAs) considerably more responsibilities for directing and guiding the improvement of low-performing schools. At the same time, they have pressed SEAs and school districts to incorporate research-based school improvement policies and practices in their statewide systems of support for low-performing schools, technical assistance for districts, professional development for teachers, and school improvement programs. Policymakers have urged ...


Learning From Nclb: School Responses To Accountability Pressure And Student Subgroup Performance, Elliot H Weinbaum, Michael J. Weiss, Jessica K. Beaver Sep 2012

Learning From Nclb: School Responses To Accountability Pressure And Student Subgroup Performance, Elliot H Weinbaum, Michael J. Weiss, Jessica K. Beaver

CPRE Policy Briefs

Much has been written in the last decade about the spotlight that the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) shines on schoolperformance. Proponents and opponents alike are quick to discuss the law’s rigid definitions of school performance— exemplified by the classification of schools as making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) or not making AYP based largely on annual tests in reading and mathematics, disaggregating school performance by student subgroups, and requiring that all schools reach 100% proficiency. Yet for all its rigidity, the law has offered schools little guidance on how to make use of the performance data that the ...


Measuring School Capacity, Maximizing School Improvement, Jessica K. Beaver, Elliot H. Weinbaum Jul 2012

Measuring School Capacity, Maximizing School Improvement, Jessica K. Beaver, Elliot H. Weinbaum

CPRE Policy Briefs

Given the nearly ubiquitous use of the term "capacity" in education policy discourse, this policy brief offers a common framework for analyzing capacity that educators, policymakers, and researchers alike can apply and understand with consistency. Drawing data from a larger three-year CPRE study of school responses to accountability in Pennsylvania, the authors' goal is not to provide an easy, new, one-sentence definition, but rather to create a shared language that can be applied to research and improvement efforts in schools. To accomplish this, the authors break capacity down into component parts, explaining how each one builds off the next and ...


The Role Of Learning Progressions In Standards-Based Education Reform, Fritz Mosher Sep 2011

The Role Of Learning Progressions In Standards-Based Education Reform, Fritz Mosher

CPRE Policy Briefs

The Role of Learning Progressions in Standards-Based Education Reform written by Frederic A. Mosher, summarizes findings from two reports examining the concepts of learning progressions and learning trajectories as they are being applied in science and mathematics education. This policy brief reviews conclusions from the two extensive reports and discusses the implications of their findings for policy and for future research and development.


Can Interim Assessments Be Used For Instructional Change, Margaret E. Goertz, Leslie Nabors Olah, Matthew Riggan Dec 2009

Can Interim Assessments Be Used For Instructional Change, Margaret E. Goertz, Leslie Nabors Olah, Matthew Riggan

CPRE Policy Briefs

The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the use of interim assessments and the policy supports that promote their use to change instruction, focusing on elementary school mathematics. The study looked at how 45 elementary school teachers in a purposive sample of 9 schools in 2 districts used interim assessments in mathematics in 2006-07. The study focused on teachers' use of data in a cycle of instructional improvement; that is, how teachers gather or access evidence about student learning; analyze and interpret that evidence; use evidence to plan instruction; and carry out improved instruction.

Authors conclude that interim ...


Redesigning School Finance Systems, Allan Odden Feb 2007

Redesigning School Finance Systems, Allan Odden

CPRE Policy Briefs

CPRE researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have been working on school finance redesign since 1990. The issue that has driven this effort has been the goal of state standards-based education reform and, more recently, of the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act to teach all students to high standards. This goal has shifted the orientation of the education system from inputs to outcomes--student achievement to rigorous performance standards--with an attendant accountability focus at the school site. In the broader school finance community, this focus has induced a shift from "equity" to "adequacy," for both litigation and policy. Though ...


Teaching Matters: How State And Local Policymakers Can Improve The Quality Of Teachers And Teaching, Thomas B. Corcoran Feb 2007

Teaching Matters: How State And Local Policymakers Can Improve The Quality Of Teachers And Teaching, Thomas B. Corcoran

CPRE Policy Briefs

A growing body of evidence confirms what common sense has suggested all along: The quality of teaching in the public schools matters for how well students learn. An important corollary is that poor children, minority children, and children from nonEnglish-speaking homes are even more dependent on the quality of their teachers than are more affluent, English-speaking, White children. Pressures to improve teacher quality stem mainly from state efforts to hold local schools accountable for student achievement and from the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act.

Policymakers want to know how to train, license, recruit, select, deploy, assign, develop ...


Misdiagnosing The Teacher Quality Problem, Richard Ingersoll Feb 2007

Misdiagnosing The Teacher Quality Problem, Richard Ingersoll

CPRE Policy Briefs

Few educational issues have received more attention in recent times than the problem of ensuring that our nation's elementary and secondary classrooms are all staffed with quality teachers. There is consensus that the quality of teachers and teaching matter--and undoubtedly are among the most important factors shaping the learning and growth of students. Moreover, there is consensus that serious problems exist with the quality of teachers and teaching in the United States. Beyond that, however, there appears to be little consensus and much disagreement--especially over what teacher quality entails and what the sources of, and solutions to, the problem ...


Teacher Performance Pay: Synthesis Of Plans, Research, And Guidelines For Practice, Herbert G. Heneman Iii, Anthony Milanowski, Steven Kimball Feb 2007

Teacher Performance Pay: Synthesis Of Plans, Research, And Guidelines For Practice, Herbert G. Heneman Iii, Anthony Milanowski, Steven Kimball

CPRE Policy Briefs

The single salary schedule has ruled the delivery of teacher pay for decades, despite long-standing criticism that it fails to link some portion of teachers'pay to their performance. In recent years, there has been some experimentation with performance pay for teachers. Early attempts focused on the development of merit pay, in which pay raises were linked to subjective evaluations of teacher performance. Subsequent evaluations of merit pay plans questioned their effectiveness, especially given their limited survival, though it was acknowledged that the problem was not necessarily merit pay per se, but the way the plans were designed, implemented, and ...


Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation As A Foundation For Knowledge- And Skill-Based Pay, Herbert G. Heneman Iii, Anthony Milanowski, Steven Kimball, Allan Odden May 2006

Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation As A Foundation For Knowledge- And Skill-Based Pay, Herbert G. Heneman Iii, Anthony Milanowski, Steven Kimball, Allan Odden

CPRE Policy Briefs

State accountability systems and the federal No Child Left Behind Act have put additional demands on schools and teachers to improve teacher quality and improve student achievement. Many researchers (e.g., Cohen, 1996; Corcoran & Goertz, 1995; Floden, 1997; Newman, King, & Rigdon, 1997) have argued that such improvements will require a substantial increase in the instructional capacity of schools and teachers. One strategy for capacity building is to provide teachers with incentives to improve their performance, knowledge, or skills. The incentive strategy requires the design and implementation of alternative teacher compensation systems that depart from the single salary schedule (Odden, 2000; Odden & Kelley, 2002). Though slow to take hold, the incentive strategy is currently being pursued by several states (Peterson, 2006). Most of these new or proposed plans link pay to combinations of assessments of teacher performance, acquisition of new knowledge and skills, and student test score gains. Denver's widely followed Pro Comp plan also contains these components.

The Teacher Compensation Group of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) has been studying the design and effectiveness of such systems for nearly a decade. We initially focused on school-based performance award programs, in which each teacher in a school receives a bonus for meeting or exceeding schoolwide student achievement goals (Heneman, 1998; Heneman & Milanowski, 1999; Kelley, Heneman, & Milanowski, 2002; Kelly, Odden, Milanowski, & Heneman, 2000). We then shifted our attention to knowledge- and skill-based pay (KSBP) plans, an approach that provides teachers with base pay increases for the acquisition and demonstration of specific knowledge and skills thought to be necessary for improving student achievement.

Our initial research described a variety of experiments with KSBP plans (see Odden, Kelley ...


Scaling Up Instructional Improvement Through Teacher Professional Development: Insights From The Local Systemic Change Initiative, Iris R. Weiss, Joan D. Pasley Mar 2006

Scaling Up Instructional Improvement Through Teacher Professional Development: Insights From The Local Systemic Change Initiative, Iris R. Weiss, Joan D. Pasley

CPRE Policy Briefs

There is a widespread view in the research and policy communities that the quality of mathematics and science instruction offered to students in the United States is low. The widely discussed results of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) suggested that the reasons for American students’ poor performance in mathematics and science are complex, but at least partly due to weaknesses in the knowledge and skills of those teaching the subjects. In order to enhance teaching in these content areas, states and school districts need to act on what research has discovered about professional development (PD) and ...


Standards Deviation: How Schools Misunderstand Education Policy, James P. Spillane Jun 2005

Standards Deviation: How Schools Misunderstand Education Policy, James P. Spillane

CPRE Policy Briefs

Instructional policy reforms that focus on standards and assessments have gained popularity in the last two decades. State governments, which had previously left most instructional matters to local governance, set challenging learning standards and developed related assessments and curricular frameworks. Despite their popularity and persistence, standards-based reforms face the challenge of successful local implementation. Occupying an intermediary position between the statehouse and the schoolhouse, the local school district has significant potential to influence standards implementation. It is important to consider the consequences for classroom instruction of what districts do in response to standards. While states may set standards and provide ...


Holding High Hopes: How High Schools Respond To State Accountability Policies, Margaret E. Goertz, Diane Massell Jan 2005

Holding High Hopes: How High Schools Respond To State Accountability Policies, Margaret E. Goertz, Diane Massell

CPRE Policy Briefs

American public education faces increasing pressure to carry out its mission of preparing youths with the skills to compete in today's global economy and to participate constructively in a democratic society. As part of this pressure, policymakers have developed increasingly sophisticated accountability and support systems to steer schools towards improved performance. These "new accountability" approaches emphasize student performance over system inputs, focus on schools rather than school districts as units of improvement, and use public reporting of student outcomes and rewards and sanctions as ways to motivate schools to alter their curriculum and instructional practices (Fuhrman, 1999). These strategies ...


Strategic Leadership For Education Reform: Lessons From The Statewide Systemic Initiatives Program, Daniel Heck, Iris Weiss Jan 2005

Strategic Leadership For Education Reform: Lessons From The Statewide Systemic Initiatives Program, Daniel Heck, Iris Weiss

CPRE Policy Briefs

In 1990, the National Science Foundation (NSF) created the Statewide Systemic Initiative Program. The solicitation issued by the Directorate for Science and Engineering Education sought proposals “for projects intended to broaden the impact, accelerate the pace, and increase the effectiveness of improvements in science, mathematics, and engineering education in both K-12 and post-secondary levels“(NSF, 1990, p. 1).

Projects funded as Statewide Systemic Initiatives (SSIs) were to align various parts of the system to produce comprehensive, coordinated, and sustained change. Curriculum learning goals; content, instructional materials, and practice; assessment; teacher recruitment and preparation; and professional development of teachers, administrators, and ...


The Use Of Research Evidence In Instructional Improvement, Thomas B. Corcoran Nov 2003

The Use Of Research Evidence In Instructional Improvement, Thomas B. Corcoran

CPRE Policy Briefs

Those who seek to reform our public schools often argue that school performance would improve if only policy and practice were based on evidence. If decision-makers and practitioners paid more attention to research findings, the argument goes, they would make better decisions about improvement strategies and resource allocation, and we would see better results. The belief in this axiom is demonstrated by the increasing frequency with which reformers, educators, and policymakers find it necessary to legitimate their actions with claims that they are "research-based." However, moving beyond rhetoric to actually put this principle into operation turns out to be difficult ...