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University of Pennsylvania

Sociology

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Full-Text Articles in Education

21st Century Chinese Art Market Boom, Ayca Deniz Ergin Jan 2018

21st Century Chinese Art Market Boom, Ayca Deniz Ergin

Summer Program for Undergraduate Research (SPUR)

This research paper provides a detailed analysis of how China has become the fastest growing art market around the world. How did the economic development in China led the country to the top in recent years, in contrast to its Western competitors? What is China’s role in the global art market scene? What changes have been made, in a socialist system, to accommodate foreign investors and what future changes should be made to sustain its growth?

Through focusing on the correlation between economic growth and art market expansions, this research develops the relationship through referencing various quantitative and qualitative ...


Portraits Of Three Language Activists In Indigenous Language Reclamation, Nancy H. Hornberger Sep 2017

Portraits Of Three Language Activists In Indigenous Language Reclamation, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

In an approach inspired by portraiture and ‘history in person,’ this paper portrays three women Indigenous language activists engaged in language reclamation, highlighting the mutually constitutive nature of language and the enduring struggles of Indigenous peoples that are crucibles for forging their identities. Neri Mamani breaks down longstanding language and identity compartmentalisations in Peru by assuming a personal language policy of using Quechua and engaging in Indigenous practices in public, urban, and literate spaces. Nobuhle Hlongwa teaches a university course on language planning through isiZulu medium and is a key figure in advocating for, negotiating, and implementing multilingual language policy ...


Wealth Disparities For Early Childhood Anthropometrics And Skills: Evidence From Chilean Longitudinal Data, Jere R. Behrman, Dante Contreras, Isidora Palma, Esteban Puentes Sep 2017

Wealth Disparities For Early Childhood Anthropometrics And Skills: Evidence From Chilean Longitudinal Data, Jere R. Behrman, Dante Contreras, Isidora Palma, Esteban Puentes

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

We study wealth disparities in the formation of anthropometrics, cognitive skills and socio-emotional skills. We use a sample of preschool and early school children in Chile. We extend the previous literature by using longitudinal data, which allow us to study the dynamics of child growth and skills formation. Also, we include information on mother's and father's schooling attainment and mother's cognitive ability. We find that there are no significant anthropometric differences favoring the better-off at birth (and indeed length differences at birth to the disadvantage of the better-off), but during the first 30 months of life wealth ...


Let's Talk About Sex: Why The Topic Of Sexual Violence Prevention Should Be Prioritized In K-12 Sex Education, Abbie Starker Mar 2017

Let's Talk About Sex: Why The Topic Of Sexual Violence Prevention Should Be Prioritized In K-12 Sex Education, Abbie Starker

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

While campus sexual assault has recently garnered a lot of attention in the United States, there has been less recognition of individuals who experience sexual and gender-based violence outside of the university/college system. Many people who experience sexual violence have never attended a post-secondary institution, or they experienced sexual violence before they were college-aged. Because of this reality, it is important that there are resources and education about sexual violence for people at a younger age. Through an analysis of public policy, interviews with experts in the field, and a survey that I administered, this thesis examines both formal ...


#1 The Role Of Disciplines In Interdisciplinary Exchange, Jerry A. Jacobs Jan 2017

#1 The Role Of Disciplines In Interdisciplinary Exchange, Jerry A. Jacobs

A Forum on Interdisciplinarity

No abstract provided.


#2 The Interdependence Of Disciplinarity And Interdisciplinarity, Harvey J. Graff Jan 2017

#2 The Interdependence Of Disciplinarity And Interdisciplinarity, Harvey J. Graff

A Forum on Interdisciplinarity

No abstract provided.


#3 Reflections On Interdisciplinary Social Science History, Mary Jo Maynes Jan 2017

#3 Reflections On Interdisciplinary Social Science History, Mary Jo Maynes

A Forum on Interdisciplinarity

No abstract provided.


#4 Institutions And Lived Experience In The Study Of Interdisciplinarity, William H. Sewell Jr. Jan 2017

#4 Institutions And Lived Experience In The Study Of Interdisciplinarity, William H. Sewell Jr.

A Forum on Interdisciplinarity

No abstract provided.


Joshua A. Fishman: A Scholar Of Unfathomable Influence, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2017

Joshua A. Fishman: A Scholar Of Unfathomable Influence, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

In personal tribute to Joshua A. Fishman, I tell a few stories about this remarkable scholar as I got to know him – a glimpse of the person behind the great ideas that have so powerfully shaped our thinking. My many vivid memories of things Fishman said or wrote in my personal encounters with him – often pithy one-liners – are testimony to the power of his mind and voice, his spirit and soul. From my first year of Ph.D. study when I took his course Sociology of Bilingual Education at the 1980 Linguistic Society of America Summer Institute at the University ...


School Violence In China: A Multi-Level Analysis Of Student Victimization In Rural Middle Schools, Jennifer Adams, Emily C. Hannum Dec 2016

School Violence In China: A Multi-Level Analysis Of Student Victimization In Rural Middle Schools, Jennifer Adams, Emily C. Hannum

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

Motivation: Physical victimization at school is little studied in impoverished developing country contexts. Moreover, the role of school and classroom contexts as risk factors remains poorly understood.

Purpose: The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence of physical victimization in rural Chinese middle schools as well as the individual, teacher/classroom, and school level risk factors associated with experiencing physical victimization.

Design: We use two waves of longitudinal, representative survey data to perform a multi-level logistic regression analysis of physical victimization among middle school students from 100 villages in one of China’s poorest provinces. We focus on ...


Maternal Bargaining Power, Parental Compensation And Non-Cognitive Skills In Rural China, Jessica Leight, Elaine Liu Nov 2015

Maternal Bargaining Power, Parental Compensation And Non-Cognitive Skills In Rural China, Jessica Leight, Elaine Liu

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

The importance of non-cognitive skills in determining long-term human capital and labor market outcomes is widely acknowledged, but relatively little is known about how non-cognitive skills may shape educational investments by parents early in life. This paper evaluates the parental response to variation in non-cognitive skills among their children in rural Gansu province, China, employing a household fixed effects specification. The results suggest that on average, parents invest no more in terms of educational expenditure in children who have better non-cognitive skills relative to their siblings. However, there is significant heterogeneity with respect to maternal education; less educated mothers appear ...


The Impact Of Early Childhood Rainfall Shocks On The Evolution Of Cognitive And Non-Cognitive Skills, Jessica Leight, Paul Glewwe, Albert Park Oct 2015

The Impact Of Early Childhood Rainfall Shocks On The Evolution Of Cognitive And Non-Cognitive Skills, Jessica Leight, Paul Glewwe, Albert Park

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

This paper is the first to estimate the extent to which early childhood climatic shocks affect both cognitive and non-cognitive skills as measured at multiple points in childhood and adolescence. We assess the impact of rainfall observed in utero and during the first two years of life by analyzing a rich longitudinal study of rural youth in a poor province in China. Our empirical strategy entails estimating the impact of rainfall on various measures of cognitive and non-cognitive skills utilizing a reduced form strategy, conditional on county and year-of-birth fixed effects. The results indicate that there is a significant impact ...


Sibling Rivalry: Ability And Intrahousehold Allocation In Gansu Province, China, Jessica Leight Mar 2015

Sibling Rivalry: Ability And Intrahousehold Allocation In Gansu Province, China, Jessica Leight

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

This paper evaluates the strategies employed by households in rural China to allocate educational expenditure to children of different physical endowments, examining whether parents use educational funding to reinforce or compensate for these differences. Climatic shocks are employed as an instrument for endowment, measured as height-for-age, allowing for the identification of the impact of quasi-exogenous variation in endowment on parental allocations conditional on household fixed effects. The results suggest that educational expenditure is directed to the relatively weaker child; in response to the mean differences in height-for-age be- tween siblings, parents redirect around 25% of discretionary educational spending to the ...


#Commoncore: Methods, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Alan J. Daly, Miguel Del Fresno Feb 2015

#Commoncore: Methods, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Alan J. Daly, Miguel Del Fresno

The #commoncore Project—How Social Media is Changing the Politics of Education

This section provides a detailed discussion of the methods used to arrive at the conclusions in #CommonCore: How social media is changing the politics of education.


#Commoncore Project: How Social Media Is Changing The Politics Of Education, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Alan J. Daly, Miguel Del Fresno Feb 2015

#Commoncore Project: How Social Media Is Changing The Politics Of Education, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Alan J. Daly, Miguel Del Fresno

The #commoncore Project—How Social Media is Changing the Politics of Education

The Common Core has become a flashpoint at the nexus of education politics and policy, fueled by ardent social media activists. To explore this phenomenon, this innovative and interactive website examines the Common Core debate through the lens of the influential social media site Twitter. Using a social network perspective that examines the relationships among actors, we focus on the most highly used Twitter hashtag about the Common Core: #commoncore. The central question of our investigation is: How are social media-enabled social networks changing the discourse in American politics that produces and sustains social policy? To join a conversation about ...


‘Narrow-Minded And Oppressive’ Or A ‘Superior Culture’? Implications Of Divergent Representations Of Islam For Pakistani-American Youth, Ameena Ghaffar-Kucher Jan 2015

‘Narrow-Minded And Oppressive’ Or A ‘Superior Culture’? Implications Of Divergent Representations Of Islam For Pakistani-American Youth, Ameena Ghaffar-Kucher

GSE Publications

Drawing on ethnographic data, this article examines the complex terrain that working-class Pakistani-American youth must negotiate in their daily lives. Specifically, the article illustrates how particular views of Islam and Americanization manifest in particular sites and within educational discourses, and the resulting dissonance that youth experience. On the one hand, schools view Islam as oppressive, problematic and a hindrance to the youths’ academic and professional success. On the other hand, families present Islam as a type of cultural capital that can guide youth and help them navigate their lives by being a ‘good Muslim.’ The result of these fossilized views ...


State Of Attainment: Three Ways That States Can Help More Students Access Higher Levels Of Education, Laura W. Perna, Joni E. Finney Nov 2014

State Of Attainment: Three Ways That States Can Help More Students Access Higher Levels Of Education, Laura W. Perna, Joni E. Finney

GSE Publications

Fourteenth place. That's where the United States ranked in the proportion of 25- to 34-year-olds who achieved postsecondary degrees, according to a 2012 report by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Unless the U.S. increases the share of the population that has completed a college degree, the country will lack the educational skills and training required to meet the workforce demands of a global economy. Sixty-three percent of job researchers predict, will require education beyond high school in 2018. For the U.S. to be competitive on a global scale, it must devote more effort to closing ...


Conflicting Ideologies Of Mexican Immigrant English Across Levels Of Schooling, Sarah Gallo, Holly Link, Elaine Allard, Stanton Wortham, Katherin Mortimer Apr 2014

Conflicting Ideologies Of Mexican Immigrant English Across Levels Of Schooling, Sarah Gallo, Holly Link, Elaine Allard, Stanton Wortham, Katherin Mortimer

GSE Publications

This article explores how language ideologies—beliefs about immigrant students’ language use—carry conflicting images of Spanish speakers in one New Latino Diaspora town. We describe how teachers and students encounter, negotiate, and appropriate divergent ideologies about immigrant students’ language use during routine schooling practices, and we show how these ideologies convey different messages about belonging to the community and to the nation. Although the concept of language ideology often assumes stable macrolevel beliefs, our data indicate that ideologies can vary dramatically in one town. Elementary educators and students had a positive, “bilinguals-in-the-making” ideology about Spanish-speaking students, while secondary educators ...


Knowing A Sexual Assault Victim Or Perpetrator: A Stratified Random Sample Of Undergraduates At One University, Susan B. Sorenson, Manisha Joshi, Elizabeth Sivitz Feb 2014

Knowing A Sexual Assault Victim Or Perpetrator: A Stratified Random Sample Of Undergraduates At One University, Susan B. Sorenson, Manisha Joshi, Elizabeth Sivitz

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Rape awareness and prevention programs are common on college campuses and a potentially useful way to reach large numbers of young adults. One largely unexamined potential mediator or moderator of program effectiveness is the personal knowledge of student audiences. In this study, we assess the prevalence of knowing a victim and, notably, a perpetrator of sexual assault. A stratified random sample of 2,400 undergraduates was recruited for an online survey about sexual assault. A total of 53.5% participated and yielded a sample representative of the student body. Sixteen questions were modified from the Sexual Experiences Survey to assess ...


Impact Of The Nregs On Schooling And Intellectual Human Capital, Subha Mani, Jere R. Behrman, Shaikh Galab, Prudhvikar Reddy Jan 2014

Impact Of The Nregs On Schooling And Intellectual Human Capital, Subha Mani, Jere R. Behrman, Shaikh Galab, Prudhvikar Reddy

Grand Challenges Canada Economic Returns to Mitigating Early Life Risks Project Working Paper Series

This paper uses a quasi-experimental framework to analyze the impact of India’s largest public works program, the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), on schooling enrollment, grade progression, reading comprehension test scores, writing test scores, math test scores and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) scores. The availability of pre and two rounds of post-intervention initiation data from the three rounds of the Young Lives Panel Study allow us to measure both the short- and medium-run intent-to-treat effects of the program. We find that the program has no effect on enrollment but has strong positive effects on grade progression, reading ...


Linguistic Capital, Information Access And Economic Opportunity Among Rural Young Adults In Western China*, Emily C. Hannum, Huayu Sebastian Cherng Jan 2014

Linguistic Capital, Information Access And Economic Opportunity Among Rural Young Adults In Western China*, Emily C. Hannum, Huayu Sebastian Cherng

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

Facility with a country’s dominant language, a key form of linguistic capital, has a role to play in processes of social stratification and mobility, and this role is poorly understood. We have sought, in this paper, to explore access to this form of linguistic capital, and the implications of possessing linguistic capital, for a group of young adults who have been historically disadvantaged: rural young adults in western minority areas. Three main results emerge. First, there is a great deal of variability in linguistic capital, defined as standard Mandarin facility, across provinces and ethnic groups covered in the CHES ...


Reforming Rural Education: Understanding Teacher Expectations For Rural Youth, Lisa Yiu, Jennifer H. Adams Dec 2013

Reforming Rural Education: Understanding Teacher Expectations For Rural Youth, Lisa Yiu, Jennifer H. Adams

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

The Chinese state's commitment to improve teaching quality in rural regions is a key component of national efforts to close the rural–urban education gap. In this paper, we investigate an understudied but critical dimension of quality teaching: teacher expectations. We employ longitudinal data gathered in Gansu Province in 2000 and 2007 to first examine whether teacher expectations for rural youth are conditioned by students’ social origin and teacher background characteristics. Next, we determine the predictive accuracy of their expectations. Our results highlight the ways in which teacher expectations condition the sorting of rural children among different schooling tracks ...


Habitus Transformation: Immigrant Mother’S Cultural Translation Of Educational Strategies In Korea, Hyejeong Jo Jun 2013

Habitus Transformation: Immigrant Mother’S Cultural Translation Of Educational Strategies In Korea, Hyejeong Jo

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

This study aims to examine the transformation of habitus through a case study of immigrant mothers who navigate a heated educational competition in South Korea. To illuminate the process of habitus change, this study investigates the ways in which immigrant mothers make sense of a unique educational cultural practice of Korean parents, which is heavy reliance on shadow education.


Parental Factors And Early English Education As A Foreign Language: A Case Study In Mainland China, Yuko Goto Butler May 2013

Parental Factors And Early English Education As A Foreign Language: A Case Study In Mainland China, Yuko Goto Butler

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

As English has increasingly become associated with social and economic power in the context of globalization, there has been a growing concern regarding achievement gaps in English that appear to be correlated to learners’ socio-economic status (SES). The present study aims to examine how parents’ SES and their behaviors and beliefs about English education relate to their children’s English language learning, and how such relationships may differ across different grade levels. The participants were fourth, sixth and eighth grade students who had learned English from the third grade level (572 students in total) together with their parents in a ...


Sociological Perspectives On Ethnicity And Education In China: Views From Chinese And English Literatures, Hua-Yu Sebastian Cherng, Emily C. Hannum, Chunping Lu Apr 2013

Sociological Perspectives On Ethnicity And Education In China: Views From Chinese And English Literatures, Hua-Yu Sebastian Cherng, Emily C. Hannum, Chunping Lu

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

This paper reviews Chinese- and English-language literature on ethnic minorities and education in China. Six major research topics emerge from the Chinese-language research: (1) Marxism and ethnic minority education; (2) patriotism and national unity in education for ethnic minority students; (3) multicultural education; (4) determinants of ethnic differences in education; (5) school facilities and teacher quality; and (6) preferential / affirmative action policies. Four research themes are identified from the English-language literature: (1) policy overviews; (2) education and ethnic identity; (3) incentives and disincentives for buy-in to the education system; and (4) educational stratification. The majority of quantitative research from both ...


It's Not Just About The Money: Motivations For Youth Migration In Rural China, Yilin Chiang, Emily C. Hannum, Grace Kao Feb 2013

It's Not Just About The Money: Motivations For Youth Migration In Rural China, Yilin Chiang, Emily C. Hannum, Grace Kao

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

This study investigates the incentives for labor migration of youth in rural China using panel data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, a longitudinal study of youth in rural Gansu Province of China. We investigate the individual and altruistic economic motivations featured prominently in demographic and economic research on migration. However, we propose that the non-economic goal of personal development, a motivation suggested in numerous qualitative studies of women migrants in China and elsewhere, is also important, especially for young migrants. Analyzes indicate that, while young men and young women hold different motivations for migration, the desire for ...


To Flop Is Human: Inventing Better Scientific Approaches To Anticipating Failure, Robert Boruch, Alan Ruby Jan 2013

To Flop Is Human: Inventing Better Scientific Approaches To Anticipating Failure, Robert Boruch, Alan Ruby

GSE Publications

Postmortems and autopsies, at the individual and hospital unit levels, are disciplined approaches to learning from medical failures. “Safety factors” that engineers use in designing structures and systems are based on past failures or trials and experiments to find points of failure.

The applied social sciences, including education sciences, labor economics, and criminology, have less clarity about failure. While a bridge collapse is usually plain and spectacular, failures of education innovations or attempts at crime control are often quieter, not spectacular, and often occur for no transparent reasons.

The applied social sciences lack disciplined, well-developed, and explicit approaches to anticipating ...


The Development Of Coping Skills For Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics Students: Transitioning From Minority To Majority Environments, Ebony O. Mcgee, Margaret Beale Spencer Jan 2013

The Development Of Coping Skills For Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics Students: Transitioning From Minority To Majority Environments, Ebony O. Mcgee, Margaret Beale Spencer

GSE Publications

Urban Ills: Twenty First Century Complexities of Urban Living in Global Contexts is a collection of original research focused on critical challenges and dilemmas to living in cities. Volume 1 examines both the economic impact of urban life and the social realities of urban living. The editors define the ecology of urban living as the relationship and adjustment of humans to a highly dense, diverse, and complex environment. This approach examines the nexus between the distribution of human groups with reference to material resources and the consequential social, political, economic, and cultural patterns which evolve as a result of the ...


The Sophistication Of Human Resources: The Learning Leader’S Challenge, Annie Mckee, Stanton Wortham Jan 2013

The Sophistication Of Human Resources: The Learning Leader’S Challenge, Annie Mckee, Stanton Wortham

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Protective Measures, Personal Experience, And The Affective Psychology Of Time, Ellen Peters, Howard Kunreuther, Namika Sagara, Paul Slovic, Dan R. Schley Dec 2012

Protective Measures, Personal Experience, And The Affective Psychology Of Time, Ellen Peters, Howard Kunreuther, Namika Sagara, Paul Slovic, Dan R. Schley

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We examined the role of time and affect in intentions to purchase a risk-protective measure (Studies 1 and 2) and explored participant abilities to factor time into the likelihood judgments that presumably underlie such intentions (Study 3). Participants worried more about losing their possessions and were more likely to purchase a protective measure given a longer term lease than a short-term lease, but only if their belongings were described in affect-poor terms. If described instead as being particularly special and affect-rich, participants neglected time and were about equally likely to purchase a risk-protective measure for shorter and longer term leases ...