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Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Education

Defining, Developing, And Using Curriculum Indicators, Andrew C. Porter, John L. Smithson Dec 2001

Defining, Developing, And Using Curriculum Indicators, Andrew C. Porter, John L. Smithson

CPRE Research Reports

We begin with a brief review of the lessons learned in the Reform Up Close study, a Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) project funded by the National Science Foundation, then discuss the central issues involved in defining and measuring curriculum indicators, while noting how our approach has developed over the past 10 years (1992-2002). This is followed by a discussion about using curriculum indicators in school improvement, program evaluation, and informing policy decisions.


Powerful Ideas, Modest Gains: Five Years Of Systemic Reform In Philadelphia Middle Schools, Jolley Bruce Christman Dec 2001

Powerful Ideas, Modest Gains: Five Years Of Systemic Reform In Philadelphia Middle Schools, Jolley Bruce Christman

CPRE Research Reports

In this report, we draw on data from a total of 11 middle schools where we conducted interviews and observations during our five-year evaluation. Five of these schools were part of more intensive, multi-year case study research. Throughout this report, we offer sketches of what happened in these five schools during the Children Achieving reform to give a sense of the progress that they did and did not make toward becoming organizations capable of supporting both teachers as they adopted challenging new instructional practices and students as they stretched to reach higher standards of achievement.


Enhancing Teacher Quality Through Knowledge- And Skills-Based Pay, Allan Odden, Carolyn Kelley, Herbert Heneman, Anthony Milanowski Nov 2001

Enhancing Teacher Quality Through Knowledge- And Skills-Based Pay, Allan Odden, Carolyn Kelley, Herbert Heneman, Anthony Milanowski

CPRE Policy Briefs

The 1989 Education Summit established the National Education Goals that spurred states to set standards and assess educational outcomes (Patton and Thompson, 1999). A decade into standards-based reform, the 1999 Education Summit identified two important policy areas that have emerged to carry out these goals: teacher quality and accountability (National Education Summit, 1999).

Research supports the important relationship between teacher quality and student achievement (Darling-Hammond and Ball, 1998; Ferguson and Ladd, 1996; Sanders and Horn, 1994; Wright, Horn, and Sanders, 1997). Concerns about teacher quality led the National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future to recommend that states and ...


Do Higher State Test Scores In Texas Make For Better High School Outcomes?, Martin Carnoy, Susanna Loeb, Tiffany L. Smith Nov 2001

Do Higher State Test Scores In Texas Make For Better High School Outcomes?, Martin Carnoy, Susanna Loeb, Tiffany L. Smith

CPRE Research Reports

Making schools accountable through state testing was the pre-eminent educational reform of the 1990s. Thirty-nine states now administer some form of performance-based assessment, 24 states attach stakes to their tests, and 40 states use test scores for school accountability purposes (Stecher and Barron, 1999). Proponents argue that using student scores on curriculum-based tests as a measure of school effectiveness encourages teachers to teach the curriculum. The test results set a minimum standard by which schools can be judged; they quantify school quality in a way that parents and politicians can easily understand. By setting student improvement goals for schools, states ...


Educational Performance And Charter School Authorizers: The Accountability Bind, Katrina Bulkley Oct 2001

Educational Performance And Charter School Authorizers: The Accountability Bind, Katrina Bulkley

CPRE Journal Articles

Charter schools involve a trading of autonomy for accountability. This accountability comes through two forces—markets through the choices of parents and students, and accountability to government through the writing of contracts that must be renewed for schools to continue to operate. Charter schools are supposed to be more accountable for educational performance than traditional public schools because authorizers have the ability to revoke charter contracts. Here, I focus on one central component of accountability to government: performance accountability or accountability for educational outcomes to charter school authorizers through the revocation or non-renewal of charter contracts. In this paper, I ...


College Preparation In The Middle Grades: It's More Than Sats, Laura W. Perna Sep 2001

College Preparation In The Middle Grades: It's More Than Sats, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

Despite more than 30 years of effort by the federal government to increase college enrollment rates for African Americans, Hispanics, and low-income students, these groups continue to be underrepresented in higher education. Although family income and financial resources continue to influence college enrollment decisions, educators now suggest that the traditional focus on reducing financial barriers for the underrepresented groups has been too narrow.


Clients, Consumers, Or Collaborators? Parents And Their Roles In School Reform During Children Achieving, 1995-2000, Eva Gold, Amy Rhodes, Shirley Brown, Susan Lytle, Diane Waff Aug 2001

Clients, Consumers, Or Collaborators? Parents And Their Roles In School Reform During Children Achieving, 1995-2000, Eva Gold, Amy Rhodes, Shirley Brown, Susan Lytle, Diane Waff

CPRE Research Reports

The Children Achieving reform plan envisioned parents as critical players in school reform, a vision that freshly emphasized the need to transform relations between local schools and parents and communities. This vision represented a departure from the passive view of parents as clients and consumers to an active view of them as collaborators with education professionals in shaping children’s school experience. This report provides an overview of the many roles Children Achieving envisioned for parents between 1995- 2000, with particular attention to their role as education leaders and collaborators with teachers and principals in school reform.


Contradictions And Control In Systemic Reform: The Ascendancy Of The Central Office In Philadelphia Schools, Ellen Foley Aug 2001

Contradictions And Control In Systemic Reform: The Ascendancy Of The Central Office In Philadelphia Schools, Ellen Foley

CPRE Research Reports

The central administrators of school districts have only rarely been the focus of education research. Still, the prevailing attitude is that districts are either irrelevant to or inhibitors of reform. Studies of school-based reform efforts often conclude that central office policies impede innovation. The proposals for school choice, charter schools, vouchers, and contract schools are a response, at least in part, to the perceived ineffectiveness of school districts. States and the federal government, more and more, provide funding directly to schools, rather than via district central offices. And in 1994, the Annenberg Foundation’s $500 million “Challenge” pledge, the largest ...


Assessment And Accountability Across The 50 States, Margaret E. Goertz, Mark Duffy May 2001

Assessment And Accountability Across The 50 States, Margaret E. Goertz, Mark Duffy

CPRE Policy Briefs

In recent years, all 50 states have embarked on education initiatives related to high standards and challenging content. A central focus of these efforts has been the establishment of a common set of academic standards for all students, the assessments that measure student performance, and accountability systems that are at least partially focused on student outcomes. This CPRE Policy Brief summarizes a longer report about state assessment and accountability systems in all 50 states and examines the extent to which state policies meet the intent of federal policy, particularly Title I.


School Leadership And Reform: Case Studies Of Philadelphia Principals, Mary Helen Spiri May 2001

School Leadership And Reform: Case Studies Of Philadelphia Principals, Mary Helen Spiri

CPRE Research Reports

In 1996 the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania and its partner, Research for Action (RFA) were charged by the Children Achieving Challenge with the evaluation of Children Achieving. Between the 1995- 1996 and 2000-2001 school years, CPRE and RFA researchers interviewed hundreds of teachers, principals, parents, students, District officials, and civic leaders; sat in on meetings where the plan was designed, debated, and revised; observed its implementation in classrooms and schools; conducted two system-wide surveys of teachers; and carried out independent analyses of the District’s test results and other indicators of system ...


Recruiting And Retaining Teachers: Keys To Improving The Philadelphia Public Schools, Susan Watson May 2001

Recruiting And Retaining Teachers: Keys To Improving The Philadelphia Public Schools, Susan Watson

CPRE Research Reports

In 1996 the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania and its partner, Research for Action (RFA) were charged by the Children Achieving Challenge with the evaluation of Children Achieving. Between the 1995-1996 and 2000-2001 school years, CPRE and RFA researchers interviewed hundreds of teachers, principals, parents, students, District officials, and civic leaders; sat in on meetings where the plan was designed, debated, and revised; observed its implementation in classrooms and schools; conducted two system-wide surveys of teachers; and carried out independent analyses of the District’s test results and other indicators of system performance ...


Assessment And Accountability Systems In The 50 States: 1999-2000, Margaret E. Goertz, Mark C. Duffy Mar 2001

Assessment And Accountability Systems In The 50 States: 1999-2000, Margaret E. Goertz, Mark C. Duffy

CPRE Research Reports

In the late 1990s and early 2000, all 50 states embarked on education initiatives related to high standards and challenging content. A central focus of these efforts was on the establishment of standards-based reforms and assessments that measured student performance and accountability systems that were at least partially focused on student outcomes. The policy talk asserted that these high standards apply to all students, and standards-based reform focused on high achievement for all children.

Much of this activity took place within the context of the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA) of 1994. This law created major changes in Title ...


Pre-College Outreach And Early Intervention, Laura W. Perna, W. Scott Swail Jan 2001

Pre-College Outreach And Early Intervention, Laura W. Perna, W. Scott Swail

GSE Publications

Both individuals and society at large benefit when an individual earns a college degree.

The benefits to individuals are short term and long term, economic and non-economic. Short-term benefits include enjoyment of the learning experience, participation in athletic, cultural, and social events, and enhancement of social status. Long-term benefits include higher lifetime earnings, more fulfilling work environment, better health, and longer life.1

Although societal benefits are more difficult to quantify, benefits that spill over beyond the individual cannot be ignored.2 One societal benefit is the economic growth associated with the enhanced productivity of labor resulting from higher levels ...