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Conflicting Ideologies Of Mexican Immigrant English Across Levels Of Schooling, Sarah Gallo, Holly Link, Elaine Allard, Stanton Wortham, Katherin Mortimer Apr 2014

Conflicting Ideologies Of Mexican Immigrant English Across Levels Of Schooling, Sarah Gallo, Holly Link, Elaine Allard, Stanton Wortham, Katherin Mortimer

GSE Publications

This article explores how language ideologies—beliefs about immigrant students’ language use—carry conflicting images of Spanish speakers in one New Latino Diaspora town. We describe how teachers and students encounter, negotiate, and appropriate divergent ideologies about immigrant students’ language use during routine schooling practices, and we show how these ideologies convey different messages about belonging to the community and to the nation. Although the concept of language ideology often assumes stable macrolevel beliefs, our data indicate that ideologies can vary dramatically in one town. Elementary educators and students had a positive, “bilinguals-in-the-making” ideology about Spanish-speaking students, while secondary educators ...


Impact Of The Nregs On Schooling And Intellectual Human Capital, Subha Mani, Jere R. Behrman, Shaikh Galab, Prudhvikar Reddy Jan 2014

Impact Of The Nregs On Schooling And Intellectual Human Capital, Subha Mani, Jere R. Behrman, Shaikh Galab, Prudhvikar Reddy

Grand Challenges Canada Economic Returns to Mitigating Early Life Risks Project Working Paper Series

This paper uses a quasi-experimental framework to analyze the impact of India’s largest public works program, the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), on schooling enrollment, grade progression, reading comprehension test scores, writing test scores, math test scores and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) scores. The availability of pre and two rounds of post-intervention initiation data from the three rounds of the Young Lives Panel Study allow us to measure both the short- and medium-run intent-to-treat effects of the program. We find that the program has no effect on enrollment but has strong positive effects on grade progression, reading ...


Linguistic Capital, Information Access And Economic Opportunity Among Rural Young Adults In Western China*, Emily C. Hannum, Huayu Sebastian Cherng Jan 2014

Linguistic Capital, Information Access And Economic Opportunity Among Rural Young Adults In Western China*, Emily C. Hannum, Huayu Sebastian Cherng

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

Facility with a country’s dominant language, a key form of linguistic capital, has a role to play in processes of social stratification and mobility, and this role is poorly understood. We have sought, in this paper, to explore access to this form of linguistic capital, and the implications of possessing linguistic capital, for a group of young adults who have been historically disadvantaged: rural young adults in western minority areas. Three main results emerge. First, there is a great deal of variability in linguistic capital, defined as standard Mandarin facility, across provinces and ethnic groups covered in the CHES ...


Habitus Transformation: Immigrant Mother’S Cultural Translation Of Educational Strategies In Korea, Hyejeong Jo Jun 2013

Habitus Transformation: Immigrant Mother’S Cultural Translation Of Educational Strategies In Korea, Hyejeong Jo

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

This study aims to examine the transformation of habitus through a case study of immigrant mothers who navigate a heated educational competition in South Korea. To illuminate the process of habitus change, this study investigates the ways in which immigrant mothers make sense of a unique educational cultural practice of Korean parents, which is heavy reliance on shadow education.


Parental Factors And Early English Education As A Foreign Language: A Case Study In Mainland China, Yuko Goto Butler May 2013

Parental Factors And Early English Education As A Foreign Language: A Case Study In Mainland China, Yuko Goto Butler

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

As English has increasingly become associated with social and economic power in the context of globalization, there has been a growing concern regarding achievement gaps in English that appear to be correlated to learners’ socio-economic status (SES). The present study aims to examine how parents’ SES and their behaviors and beliefs about English education relate to their children’s English language learning, and how such relationships may differ across different grade levels. The participants were fourth, sixth and eighth grade students who had learned English from the third grade level (572 students in total) together with their parents in a ...


Sociological Perspectives On Ethnicity And Education In China: Views From Chinese And English Literatures, Hua-Yu Sebastian Cherng, Emily C. Hannum, Chunping Lu Apr 2013

Sociological Perspectives On Ethnicity And Education In China: Views From Chinese And English Literatures, Hua-Yu Sebastian Cherng, Emily C. Hannum, Chunping Lu

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

This paper reviews Chinese- and English-language literature on ethnic minorities and education in China. Six major research topics emerge from the Chinese-language research: (1) Marxism and ethnic minority education; (2) patriotism and national unity in education for ethnic minority students; (3) multicultural education; (4) determinants of ethnic differences in education; (5) school facilities and teacher quality; and (6) preferential / affirmative action policies. Four research themes are identified from the English-language literature: (1) policy overviews; (2) education and ethnic identity; (3) incentives and disincentives for buy-in to the education system; and (4) educational stratification. The majority of quantitative research from both ...


It's Not Just About The Money: Motivations For Youth Migration In Rural China, Yilin Chiang, Emily C. Hannum, Grace Kao Feb 2013

It's Not Just About The Money: Motivations For Youth Migration In Rural China, Yilin Chiang, Emily C. Hannum, Grace Kao

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

This study investigates the incentives for labor migration of youth in rural China using panel data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, a longitudinal study of youth in rural Gansu Province of China. We investigate the individual and altruistic economic motivations featured prominently in demographic and economic research on migration. However, we propose that the non-economic goal of personal development, a motivation suggested in numerous qualitative studies of women migrants in China and elsewhere, is also important, especially for young migrants. Analyzes indicate that, while young men and young women hold different motivations for migration, the desire for ...


To Flop Is Human: Inventing Better Scientific Approaches To Anticipating Failure, Robert Boruch, Alan Ruby Jan 2013

To Flop Is Human: Inventing Better Scientific Approaches To Anticipating Failure, Robert Boruch, Alan Ruby

GSE Publications

Postmortems and autopsies, at the individual and hospital unit levels, are disciplined approaches to learning from medical failures. “Safety factors” that engineers use in designing structures and systems are based on past failures or trials and experiments to find points of failure.

The applied social sciences, including education sciences, labor economics, and criminology, have less clarity about failure. While a bridge collapse is usually plain and spectacular, failures of education innovations or attempts at crime control are often quieter, not spectacular, and often occur for no transparent reasons.

The applied social sciences lack disciplined, well-developed, and explicit approaches to anticipating ...


The Development Of Coping Skills For Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics Students: Transitioning From Minority To Majority Environments, Ebony O. Mcgee, Margaret Beale Spencer Jan 2013

The Development Of Coping Skills For Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics Students: Transitioning From Minority To Majority Environments, Ebony O. Mcgee, Margaret Beale Spencer

GSE Publications

Urban Ills: Twenty First Century Complexities of Urban Living in Global Contexts is a collection of original research focused on critical challenges and dilemmas to living in cities. Volume 1 examines both the economic impact of urban life and the social realities of urban living. The editors define the ecology of urban living as the relationship and adjustment of humans to a highly dense, diverse, and complex environment. This approach examines the nexus between the distribution of human groups with reference to material resources and the consequential social, political, economic, and cultural patterns which evolve as a result of the ...


The Sophistication Of Human Resources: The Learning Leader’S Challenge, Annie Mckee, Stanton Wortham Jan 2013

The Sophistication Of Human Resources: The Learning Leader’S Challenge, Annie Mckee, Stanton Wortham

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Who Goes, Who Stays, And Who Studies? Gender, Migration, And Educational Decisions Among Rural Youth In China, Yilin Chiang, Emily C. Hannum, Grace Kao May 2012

Who Goes, Who Stays, And Who Studies? Gender, Migration, And Educational Decisions Among Rural Youth In China, Yilin Chiang, Emily C. Hannum, Grace Kao

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

Little is known about what affects the decision to migrate in China, despite the estimated 145 million rural migrants that reside in urban areas as of 2009. Drawing on a survey of youth from 100 villages in Gansu Province, we analyze migration and education decisions, with a focus on disparities associated with gender, sibship structure, and academic performance. Results show modest gender differences favoring boys in educational migration, but no gender differences in the overall likelihood of labor migration. Youth with older sisters are less likely to migrate, while youth with younger brothers are more likely to migrate. For girls ...


Understanding The Role Of Research Universities In Improving College Preparation And Access At Local Urban High Schools, Laura W. Perna, Ira Harkavy, Cory Bowman Jan 2012

Understanding The Role Of Research Universities In Improving College Preparation And Access At Local Urban High Schools, Laura W. Perna, Ira Harkavy, Cory Bowman

GSE Publications

Urban colleges and universities not only have a responsibility to engage in activities designed to improve the educational attainment of local urban youth, but also have extensive financial, human, intellectual, and organizational resources that may be directed productively toward this purpose. This article describes the multipronged approach that the University of Pennsylvania is using to improve college opportunities for students attending Philadelphia high schools. We conclude by offering lessons that other institutions may draw from this example.


Sobresalir: Latino Parent Perspectives On New Latino Diaspora Schools, Sarah Gallo, Stanton Wortham Jan 2012

Sobresalir: Latino Parent Perspectives On New Latino Diaspora Schools, Sarah Gallo, Stanton Wortham

GSE Publications

Although many have documented the high value Latino families place on education, prevalent discourses nonetheless characterize Latino immigrant parents as not caring about their children’s education. This paper describes the practice-based components of a participatory action research project in which we created a collaborative film, intended for use in teacher professional development, which counters these discourses. In the film, Mexican immigrant parents in one New Latino Diaspora community discuss their experiences with schools. Parents’ stories give teachers an opportunity to re-think their relationships with and impressions of Mexican immigrant families.


College Knowledge Of 9th And 11th Grade Students: Variation By School And State Context, Angela D. Bell, Heather T. Rowan-Kenyon, Laura W. Perna Nov 2009

College Knowledge Of 9th And 11th Grade Students: Variation By School And State Context, Angela D. Bell, Heather T. Rowan-Kenyon, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

While college enrollment rates have increased over the last 40 years, gaps still exist across groups. College enrollment rates are lower for high school graduates whose parents have not attended college, those with low-incomes, as well as Black and Latino/a students than for other high school graduates (Baum & Ma, 2007; Ellwood & Kane, 2000; NCES, 2007; Thomas & Perna, 2004). Widening gaps in income and health insurance coverage between high school and college graduates (Baum & Ma, 2007) suggest the economic and social imperative of working to increase college-going rates among these underrepresented groups.


Misdiagnosing The Teacher Quality Problem, Richard Ingersoll Feb 2007

Misdiagnosing The Teacher Quality Problem, Richard Ingersoll

CPRE Policy Briefs

Few educational issues have received more attention in recent times than the problem of ensuring that our nation's elementary and secondary classrooms are all staffed with quality teachers. There is consensus that the quality of teachers and teaching matter--and undoubtedly are among the most important factors shaping the learning and growth of students. Moreover, there is consensus that serious problems exist with the quality of teachers and teaching in the United States. Beyond that, however, there appears to be little consensus and much disagreement--especially over what teacher quality entails and what the sources of, and solutions to, the problem ...


Improving Educational Opportunities For Students Who Work, Laura W. Perna, Michelle Asha Cooper, Chunyan Li Jan 2007

Improving Educational Opportunities For Students Who Work, Laura W. Perna, Michelle Asha Cooper, Chunyan Li

GSE Publications

College students who cannot pay the price of attendance from some combination of personal financial resources and grants typically have three options: do not attend college, borrow money using public and private loans, and/or work. Data show that increasing shares of students are utilizing both loans and work to pay for college-related expenses (Baum, 2005). Much attention has focused on growth in borrowing (e.g., Baum, 2005; Perna, 2001), as well as potential consequences of borrowing for various aspects of students’ educational experiences, including persistence and degree completion (DesJardins, Ahlburg, & McCall, 2002; St. John, 2003) and graduate school enrollment (Choy & Carroll, 2000; Ehrenberg ...


A Comparative Study Of Teacher Preparation And Qualifications In Six Nations, Richard Ingersoll Jan 2007

A Comparative Study Of Teacher Preparation And Qualifications In Six Nations, Richard Ingersoll

CPRE Research Reports

Across the educational systems of the world, few issues have received more attention in recent years than the problem of ensuring that elementary and secondary-school classrooms are all staffed with adequately qualified teachers (Mullis, et al., 2000; OECD, 1994, 2005; Wang, et al., 2003). Even in nations where students routinely score high on international exams, the issue of teacher quality is the subject of much concern. This is not surprising. Elementary and secondary schooling is mandatory in almost all nations and children are legally placed in the care of teachers for a significant portion of their lives. It is widely ...


A Gap In The Literature: The Influence Of The Design, Operations, And Marketing Of Student Aid Programs On College-Going Plans And Behaviors, Laura W. Perna Dec 2005

A Gap In The Literature: The Influence Of The Design, Operations, And Marketing Of Student Aid Programs On College-Going Plans And Behaviors, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

This article describes what is known from prior research about the impact of student financial aid program design, operations, and marketing on the formation of family (including parents’ and children’s) college-going aspirations, expectations, and plans, and the resulting college-going behaviors of potential students. The review focuses on the experiences of lower-income, minority, and potential first-generation college students.


Voz Y Biliteracidad En La Revitalización De Lenguas Indígenas: Prácticas Contenciosas En Contextos Quechua, Guaraní, Y Maori, Nancy H. Hornberger Sep 2005

Voz Y Biliteracidad En La Revitalización De Lenguas Indígenas: Prácticas Contenciosas En Contextos Quechua, Guaraní, Y Maori, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

Portuguese:

Voz y Biliteracidad en la Revitalización de Lenguas Indígenas: Prácticas Contenciosas en Contextos Quechua, Guaraní, y Maori

Resumo: Este artigo examina instâncias de práticas educacionais de biletramento em contextos de revitalização de línguas indígenas envolvendo Quéchua nos Andes da América do Sul, Guarani no Paraguai e Maori em Aoteraroa, Nova Zelândia. Nesses contextos de opressão sociolingüística e sócio-histórica, a implementação de políticas de línguas multilíngües mediante educação multilíngüe acarreta escolhas, dilemas e até mesmo contradições em práticas educacionais. Examino exemplos de tais práticas educacionais contenciosas de um ponto de vista ecológico, empregando os contínuos de biletramento e a noção ...


Developing Communities Of Instructional Practice: Lessons From Cincinnati And Philadelphia, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Jolley Bruce Christman Nov 2003

Developing Communities Of Instructional Practice: Lessons From Cincinnati And Philadelphia, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Jolley Bruce Christman

CPRE Policy Briefs

Over the past several years, education reformers have increasingly invested in the development of communities within schools as a central strategy to improve teaching and student learning. These communities come in various guises, including small schools, small learning communities, and teacher teams. Two assumptions about how these communities will enhance the quality of instruction underlie the push for these more intimate learning environments. First, supporters believe that teachers will get to know their students better and therefore be more able to respond to students’ learning needs. Second, advocates contend that small communities will encourage teachers to collaborate more in order ...


The Organization Of Schools As An Overlooked Source Of Underqualified Teaching, Richard Ingersoll Dec 2002

The Organization Of Schools As An Overlooked Source Of Underqualified Teaching, Richard Ingersoll

CPRE Policy Briefs

Behind the headlines about a looming and large teacher shortage lies another story, one that suggests the problem ought to be addressed within schools as much as by external solutions. The organization of schools and how teachers are used account for a great deal of the underqualified teaching in public schools. Most policy actions, however, stress improved recruitment, teacher training, and certification requirements as the best ways to assure qualified teaching in the nation’s schools.

This study focuses on one aspect of unequal distribution of quality teaching – out-of-field placement. In schools serving primarily low-income and/or minority students, out-of-field ...


Impact Of America's Choice On Student Performance In Duval County, Florida, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Brooke Snyder Taylor, Henry May Oct 2002

Impact Of America's Choice On Student Performance In Duval County, Florida, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Brooke Snyder Taylor, Henry May

CPRE Research Reports

This study, conducted by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE), reports on the impact of the America's Choice school design on student standardized test performance in Duval County, Florida. We present the results of the first two years of the impact of America's Choice in Duval County in elementary and middle schools in writing, reading, and mathematics using test data from 1999-2001.

To detect the effects of America's Choice on student learning, we compared the gains in performance of students in America's Choice schools to those of students in other schools in the district ...


Retaining African Americans In Higher Education: Challenging Paradigms For Retaining Students, Faculty, And Administrators (Review), Laura W. Perna Sep 2002

Retaining African Americans In Higher Education: Challenging Paradigms For Retaining Students, Faculty, And Administrators (Review), Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

Retaining African Americans in Higher Education is a timely and novel approach to a critical topic. Edited by Lee Jones, associate dean for academic affairs and instruction in the College of Education and associate professor in Educational Leadership at Florida State University, the volume contains 14 chapters, a preface, a conclusion, and two personal reflections that describe issues related to the retention of African American students, administrators, and faculty at predominantly white colleges and universities. “Written about African Americans, by African Americans” (p. xii), this book is recommended by a white woman for higher education administrators, faculty, researchers, and policymakers ...


College Preparation In The Middle Grades: It's More Than Sats, Laura W. Perna Sep 2001

College Preparation In The Middle Grades: It's More Than Sats, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

Despite more than 30 years of effort by the federal government to increase college enrollment rates for African Americans, Hispanics, and low-income students, these groups continue to be underrepresented in higher education. Although family income and financial resources continue to influence college enrollment decisions, educators now suggest that the traditional focus on reducing financial barriers for the underrepresented groups has been too narrow.


Pre-College Outreach And Early Intervention, Laura W. Perna, W. Scott Swail Jan 2001

Pre-College Outreach And Early Intervention, Laura W. Perna, W. Scott Swail

GSE Publications

Both individuals and society at large benefit when an individual earns a college degree.

The benefits to individuals are short term and long term, economic and non-economic. Short-term benefits include enjoyment of the learning experience, participation in athletic, cultural, and social events, and enhancement of social status. Long-term benefits include higher lifetime earnings, more fulfilling work environment, better health, and longer life.1

Although societal benefits are more difficult to quantify, benefits that spill over beyond the individual cannot be ignored.2 One societal benefit is the economic growth associated with the enhanced productivity of labor resulting from higher levels ...


Differences In The Decision To Attend College Among African Americans, Hispanics, And Whites, Laura W. Perna Mar 2000

Differences In The Decision To Attend College Among African Americans, Hispanics, And Whites, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

Over the past decade, the number of African American and Hispanic undergraduates enrolled in colleges and universities nationwide has increased by 32% and 98%, respectively, whereas the number of White undergraduates has declined by 1% (Nettles & Perna, 1997). Over the same period, the number of bachelor's degrees awarded increased by 43% for African Americans and 90% for Hispanics, com- pared with an 11% increase for Whites. Although more African Americans and Hispanics are attending college and receiving degrees than ever before (Nettles & Perna, 1997), African Americans and Hispanics continue to be underrepresented among both undergraduates (at 10.0% and 8.0%, respectively) and bachelor's degree recipients (7.0% and 4.2%) relative to their representation in the traditional college-age population (14.3% and 13.7%).

Although much is known about the factors that affect college attendance, only recently have researchers begun to explore variations in college enrollment behavior among students of different racial/ethnic groups (e.g., Freeman, 1997; Hurtado, Inkelas, Briggs, & Rhee, 1997; Jackson, 1990; McDonough, Antonio, & Trent, 1997; St. John & Noell, 1989). Freeman (1997) examined the barriers African American high- school students perceive to limit access to higher education for African Americans. McDonough, Antonio, and Trent (1997) explored differences in the variables related to the decision of African Americans to at- tend historically Black rather than predominantly White institutions. Hurtado and her colleagues (1997) examined ...


America's Choice Comprehensive School Reform Design: First-Year Implementation Evaluation Summary, Thomas B. Corcoran, Margaret Hoppe, Theresa Luhm, Jonathan A. Supovitz Feb 2000

America's Choice Comprehensive School Reform Design: First-Year Implementation Evaluation Summary, Thomas B. Corcoran, Margaret Hoppe, Theresa Luhm, Jonathan A. Supovitz

CPRE Research Reports

In the fall of 1998, the National Center on Education and the Economy (NCEE) contracted with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) to conduct the evaluation of the America’s Choice School Design. This is a summary of CPRE’s first report of a three-year evaluation of the design. The evaluation of America’s Choice seeks to answer four basic questions: Are schools successfully implementing the America’s Choice program design? What environmental characteristics are facilitating or impeding implementation? How effective is America Choice’s implementation strategy? And what are the impacts of the program on teachers and ...


The Contribution Of Financial Aid To Undergraduate Persistence, Laura W. Perna Dec 1998

The Contribution Of Financial Aid To Undergraduate Persistence, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


The Contribution Of Financial Aid To The Price Of Four-Year Institution Attended By 1989/90 Freshmen, Laura W. Perna Nov 1996

The Contribution Of Financial Aid To The Price Of Four-Year Institution Attended By 1989/90 Freshmen, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

By examining the effects of financial aid upon students' choice of what type of institution of higher education to attend, this study addressed the effectiveness of current student financial aid programs in achieving the goal of equal educational opportunity. The study evaluated a sample of 1,916 students in the first follow-up (1992) of the Beginning Postsecondary Student Survey of 1989-90 entering freshmen, a subsample of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study. Students' choice of institution to attend was measured by the institutional characteristic of price after controlling for the effects of other student and institutional characteristics. The study's ...


Sex And Race Differences In Faculty Salaries, Tenure, Rank, And Productivity: Why, On Average, Do Women, African Americans, And Hispanics Have Lower Salaries, Tenure, And Rank?, Michael T. Nettles, Laura W. Perna Nov 1995

Sex And Race Differences In Faculty Salaries, Tenure, Rank, And Productivity: Why, On Average, Do Women, African Americans, And Hispanics Have Lower Salaries, Tenure, And Rank?, Michael T. Nettles, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

This study examined the status and conditions of salaries, tenure, rank attainment, and productivity of men and women college faculty and faculty of each of five racial groups. It is based on a subset of data on 8,114 faculty members drawn from the 1992-93 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty. The results, based on descriptive and multivariate analyses, indicate that, even after controlling for experience, education, productivity, and institutional characteristics, women received 11.3 percent lower salaries than men, had lower probabilities than men of being tenured, and were less likely than men to be full professors. While Hispanic and ...