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Full-Text Articles in Education

Science Education For The Future: Five Recommendations A Policy Brief For Pakistan, Nelofer Halai Jan 2017

Science Education For The Future: Five Recommendations A Policy Brief For Pakistan, Nelofer Halai

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

High quality education and particularly in the area of what is generally called STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) is the greatest indicator of quality of life. Sustainable human development, eradication of poverty and removing unequal distribution of resources all depend on high quality education. High quality education in the area of science has been defined as far back as 1962 by Schwab and Brandwein as teaching through inquiry-based methods. Continuing to teach science content through rote memorization produces teachers who know of no better method to teach other than memorization. These teachers themselves lack conceptual understanding of science content ...


Students’ Attitude Towards Science In Lower Secondary Classes : Comparison Across Regions, Nahid Parween Anwar, Sadia M. Bhutta Jan 2014

Students’ Attitude Towards Science In Lower Secondary Classes : Comparison Across Regions, Nahid Parween Anwar, Sadia M. Bhutta

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Science education is an area of interest for long and has gained a lot of attention from science educators. Keeping this in view, the current study explored the attitude of grade VI-VIII students towards science in the provinces of Sindh and Balochistan. This research study was conducted as part of a 5-year project titled ‘USAID-LINKS to learning: Education Support to Pakistan’ (USAID-EDLINKS). A 5-point rating scale, Science Attitude Scale (SAS) was adapted from previous research. SAS has 32 items arranged under five constructs: learning science in school, self-concept in science, science outside of school, future participation in science and importance ...


Light And Enlightenment, Jan-E-Alam Khaki Aug 2013

Light And Enlightenment, Jan-E-Alam Khaki

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Enhancing Content Knowledge Of In-Service Science Teachers Through Model And Modeling, Naheed Perveen, Sadia Muzzafar Bhutta Jun 2012

Enhancing Content Knowledge Of In-Service Science Teachers Through Model And Modeling, Naheed Perveen, Sadia Muzzafar Bhutta

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

The guiding question for this paper is; how does model and modeling enable student-teachers to develop a conceptual understanding of the cell as a structural and functional unit of living things? A teaching unit ‘The Cell’ was designed in view that models are a major teaching and learning tool for developing scientific thinking, whereas modeling means a process of forming representation. The teaching and learning strategies reported here encapsulated four modeling phases. Firstly, student-teachers modeled historical development of cell through a time line and role play and discussed the evolutionary and tentative nature of science. Secondly, the candy factory analogy ...


The Unforgettable Experience Of A Workshop On Pythagoras Theorem, Salima Shahzad Arwani Nov 2011

The Unforgettable Experience Of A Workshop On Pythagoras Theorem, Salima Shahzad Arwani

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge Of Science Teachers Through Action Research: A Case Study From Pakistan, Nelofer Halai, Manzoor Ali Khan Jun 2011

Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge Of Science Teachers Through Action Research: A Case Study From Pakistan, Nelofer Halai, Manzoor Ali Khan

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

The aim of this study is to analyze the action research undertaken by Khan as a teacher researcher in a private school as part of the degree requirement of his M.Ed. program in Teacher Education at the Aga Khan University, Institute for Educational Development. The purpose of this analysis undertaken by the first author and supervisor of the study in collaboration with Khan was to understand the development of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of the teacher researcher through action research in a science classroom in the context of Pakistan. Khan taught the concepts of heat and temperature using an ...


One Step On A New Journey, Salima Shahzad Arwani May 2011

One Step On A New Journey, Salima Shahzad Arwani

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Understanding A Pakistani Science Teacher’S Practice Through A Life History Study, Nelofer Halai Jan 2011

Understanding A Pakistani Science Teacher’S Practice Through A Life History Study, Nelofer Halai

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

The purpose of the single case life history study was to understand a female science teacher’s conceptions of the nature of science as explicit in her practice. While this paper highlights these understandings, an additional purpose is to give a detailed account of the process of creating a life history account through more than 13 in-depth interviews. It includes a discussion of what the author calls composite observations where the observations of the teacher and the researcher are presented as a single unified story. Also discussed are ethical issues specific to life history created due to the intimacy created ...


Teachers’ Knowledge About The Nature Of Mathematics: A Survey Of Secondary School Teachers In Karachi, Pakistan, Munira Amirali, Anjum Halai Dec 2010

Teachers’ Knowledge About The Nature Of Mathematics: A Survey Of Secondary School Teachers In Karachi, Pakistan, Munira Amirali, Anjum Halai

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This study presents the findings from a study which explored patterns in teachers’ knowledge about the nature of mathematics. A survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to 200 secondary school mathematics teachers teaching in public and private schools in Karachi, Pakistan. Exploratory factor analysis was performed which showed patterns in teachers’ view about the nature of mathematics. The analysis illustrates that teachers hold contradicting views about the nature of mathematics i.e. mathematics, both as discovered as well as invented body of knowledge. Moreover, teachers irrespective of their professional qualification, considered mathematical knowledge as ‘truth’, where mathematical rules can never ...


Students’ Conceptions Of The Nature Of Mathematics And Attitudes Towards Mathematics Learning, Munira Amirali Jun 2010

Students’ Conceptions Of The Nature Of Mathematics And Attitudes Towards Mathematics Learning, Munira Amirali

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Students’ conceptions of the nature of mathematics have a great influence towards mathematics learning. In order to understand gender-wise students’ conceptions and attitudes towards mathematics this study has been conducted in Karachi, Pakistan. This paper examines patterns in students’ conception and attitude towards mathematics by analyzing survey data obtained from 82 students studying in grade eight in a private school context. The survey was conducted using a five-point Likert scale ranging from ‘strongly agree’ through ‘neutral’ to ‘strongly disagree’. The survey findings illustrate that students consider mathematics as a useful subject which is used in daily life routines and facilitates ...


Teaching Teachers And Students About The Nature Of Science, Nelofer Halai Jan 2010

Teaching Teachers And Students About The Nature Of Science, Nelofer Halai

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This article advocates the teaching about the nature of science to both pupils in schools and teachers in teacher education institutions in Pakistan. Not knowing about science; teachers tend to continue to teach science as fixed knowledge and not as inquiry and this cycle continues. This cycle needs to be broken. This article first discusses the salient features about the concept of the nature of science and then illustrates these ideas with the help of a simple but a powerful activity which could be used both with teacher educators and pupils in secondary and lower secondary classrooms.


An Appraisal Of The Criticisms Of Educational Research In Recent Years, Sherwin Rodrigues Jan 2008

An Appraisal Of The Criticisms Of Educational Research In Recent Years, Sherwin Rodrigues

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

According to Hodkinson (2001) educational research in the UK has been passing through "a crisis of confidence" in the last decade as a result of several attacks upon its quality. The scope of this paper is to briefly highlight these „attacks‟ on educational research and then focus on one of its primary criticisms for an in-depth analysis. I mainly draw upon the work of Hargreaves (1996), Hammersley (1997) and Hillage, Pearson, Anderson and Tamkin (1998) but allude to other sources as well.


New Ways Of Teaching Science, Naheed Anwar Nov 2007

New Ways Of Teaching Science, Naheed Anwar

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Breaking The Math Barrier, Bilqees Patel Sep 2007

Breaking The Math Barrier, Bilqees Patel

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Making Use Of Bilingual Interview Data: Some Experiences From The Field, Nelofer Halai Sep 2007

Making Use Of Bilingual Interview Data: Some Experiences From The Field, Nelofer Halai

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This paper describes the challenges faced, and rules devised, while dealing with bilingual interview data as part of a life history study of a female science teacher’s conceptions of the nature of science while teaching in a school in Karachi. The interview data generated was both in Urdu and English, which underwent a number of processes (transcription, translation, and transliteration) to evolve into “interim texts,” to finally become a part of the data analysis process. I have called these translated materials “transmuted texts,” as they reflect the original, but have been recreated. This paper is significant because as globalization ...


Learning Mathematics In English Medium Classrooms In Pakistan: Implications For Policy And Practice, Anjum Halai Jun 2007

Learning Mathematics In English Medium Classrooms In Pakistan: Implications For Policy And Practice, Anjum Halai

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This is an in-depth qualitative study of students learning mathematics in classrooms where the medium of instruction was English which was the second or third language of the learners i.e. they were multilingual classrooms. Moreover, to promote reasoning and learning with understanding, the teachers had introduced group work, mathematical discussion, and mathematics tasks employing everyday contexts and language. Focus of the paper is the complex relationship between the language of instruction and the process of learning mathematics. The study demonstrates that learning mathematics in multilingual classrooms brings added complexity because students moved back and forth from the language of ...


Learning To Use Innovative Pedagogy: The Experience Of A Primary Science Teacher In Pakistan, Nelofer Halai Jun 2006

Learning To Use Innovative Pedagogy: The Experience Of A Primary Science Teacher In Pakistan, Nelofer Halai

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This study examined the experiences of primary science teachers when they weThis study examined the experiences of primary science teachers when they were exposed to a new and innovative teaching strategy and the process that they followed in using the strategy in the class- room for the first time. Four primary science teachers, among the 22 participants of an 8-week Certificate in Education (Science) in Karachi, were observed and interviewed after the four-day teaching session where they were instructed how to use "Discrepant Events" to teach science content. Only the case of Farhana Batool, a teacher in a private school ...


Teachers’ Experiences Of Learning Science: A Case Of Autobiographical Reflection, Nelofer Halai Dec 2005

Teachers’ Experiences Of Learning Science: A Case Of Autobiographical Reflection, Nelofer Halai

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This paper analyzes the experience of learning science in school of 34 teachers enrolled in a science methods course in the M.Ed. programme offered by the Aga Khan University, Pakistan. The participants were expected to write their reflections after recalling their experience of learning science in school. The findings reveal that the majority of teachers recalled negative experiences of learning science and that the teaching style of their teachers influenced the way they feel about science even to this day. It follows that if teachers are helped to recall their own experience of learning science in the classroom, it ...


Action Research For Female Science Teacher Development: Case Pakistan, Harcharan Pardhan Jun 2005

Action Research For Female Science Teacher Development: Case Pakistan, Harcharan Pardhan

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Prospective Teachers’ Ability To Pose Word Problems, Nusrat Fatima Rizvi Oct 2004

Prospective Teachers’ Ability To Pose Word Problems, Nusrat Fatima Rizvi

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

The purpose of this study was to assess difference in prospective teachers’ ability to pose word problems for mathematical expressions involving division before and after an instruction intervention. After the initial assessment of participants’ ability to pose word problems for division expressions, the researcher introduced an alternative model i.e. rate or ratio to represent division involving whole numbers. After the intervention it was assessed whether the model helped the prospective teachers develop word problems for division of fractions. The findings revealed that the prospective teachers successfully posed word problems for division of whole numbers based on intuitive model of ...


Teachers’ Conceptions Of The Nature Of Science: A Comparative Study From Pakistan And Uk, Nelofer Halai, Jane Mcnicholl Sep 2004

Teachers’ Conceptions Of The Nature Of Science: A Comparative Study From Pakistan And Uk, Nelofer Halai, Jane Mcnicholl

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Curriculum designers in both Pakistan and the UK accept that science education for today’s young people should not just be about learning science, it should also include learning about the nature of science. However, together with other research evidence, this article suggests that for many science teachers, teaching about the nature of science might be problematic as they do not have the necessary understanding of the nature of science themselves. This article also argues that there are benefits in teachers across cultural divides sharing their understandings about the nature of science.


Reflection On Learning About Forces, Mir Zaman Shah, Mahmood Ghaznavi, Mohammad Ibrahim Khan Sep 2004

Reflection On Learning About Forces, Mir Zaman Shah, Mahmood Ghaznavi, Mohammad Ibrahim Khan

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Force is a basic concept in the physical sciences. It is included in Pakistan’s national curriculum from the primary level through the higher levels. Because of the abstract nature of the concept of force, both students and teachers have alternative frameworks in this area. This was revealed in our classroom discussions on force during the Lower Secondary Science Module of the M.Ed. program at the Aga Khan University Institute for Educational Development (AKU-IED) in Karachi, Pakistan. In-depth discussions and a variety of activities we carried out while teaching about forces challenged our previous concepts and allowed us to ...


How To Make The Teaching Of Transfer Of Heat More Effective, Muhammad Nabi Khan, Amos Ngugi Sep 2004

How To Make The Teaching Of Transfer Of Heat More Effective, Muhammad Nabi Khan, Amos Ngugi

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Engagement Enhance Interest In Physics, Harcharan Pardhan Sep 2004

Engagement Enhance Interest In Physics, Harcharan Pardhan

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Helping Children To Understand Particulate Nature Of Matter, Muhammad Riaz Sep 2004

Helping Children To Understand Particulate Nature Of Matter, Muhammad Riaz

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Whenever I taught about the particulate nature of matter in solids, liquids and gases, I often had difficulty explaining this abstract concept to my students. The students, in turn, had much difficulty conceptualizing the structure and behavior of the particles, which ultimately led to difficulties in understanding the complex configuration of particles in matter at various levels. This article focuses on studies that reveal students’ alternative frameworks for the particulate nature of matter in solids, liquids and gases. Also, I suggest factors that contribute to these alternative frameworks, incorporating my own experiences in developing an understanding of this concept. Finally ...


Munazza’S Story: Shedding Light On A Science Teacher’S Conceptions Of The Nature Of Science Through A Life History Study, Nelofer Halai, Derek Hodson Jan 2004

Munazza’S Story: Shedding Light On A Science Teacher’S Conceptions Of The Nature Of Science Through A Life History Study, Nelofer Halai, Derek Hodson

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Life history research creates a broader understanding of teaching by providing illustration of the relationships among various aspects of teachers’ lives and their teaching practice, both inside and beyond the classroom. This article focuses on the life history of Munazza, a young science teacher at the Karachi Model Secondary School (KMSS), a private, co‐educational, English‐medium school for children from middle‐income families. Its purpose is to gain insight into a female science teacher's understanding of teaching science in a school in Pakistan, ascertain what aspects of this science teacher's conceptions of the nature of science are ...


Science Teacher Education And The Nature Of Science: A Voice From Pakistan, Nelofer Halai Jun 2003

Science Teacher Education And The Nature Of Science: A Voice From Pakistan, Nelofer Halai

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

The purpose of this paper is to advocate that tenchcrs be encouraged nnd helped to develop an overt and deaf epistemological understanding of the methods and structure of science, i.e., the nature of science (NOS). I have tried to define the concepts that constitute NOS essential for school science. I also want to highlight some of the challenges faced in attempts to introduce NOS in inservice teacher education in Pakistan.


Working With Teachers: Practical Suggestion Stimulates Teacher’S Self-Reflection, Harcharan Pardhan Apr 2003

Working With Teachers: Practical Suggestion Stimulates Teacher’S Self-Reflection, Harcharan Pardhan

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Science Teacher Education: A Wonderful Journey Around The World, Nelofer Halai Jan 2002

Science Teacher Education: A Wonderful Journey Around The World, Nelofer Halai

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Taking “Stock” Of Pedagogical Content Knowledge In Science Education, Harcharan Pardhan, Alan Wheeler Dec 2000

Taking “Stock” Of Pedagogical Content Knowledge In Science Education, Harcharan Pardhan, Alan Wheeler

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This article focuses on efforts of facilitate the development of MEd science students' conceptual understanding of content, pedagogy and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). A basic premise of the approach taken was that to teach conceptually, students must learn conceptually. A four-step conceptual process was followed with the participants to help them actively construct knowledge about fundamental science concepts and enhance their confidence and enthusiasm for science teaching. Equivalent forms of an assessment instrument entitled the Science Test of Content Knowledge (STOCK), used as per- and post-performance measures, revealed a significant difference. The article describes the structured activities built into the ...