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Full-Text Articles in Education

Domain Description: Validating The Interpretation Of The Toefl Ibt® Speaking Scores For International Teaching Assistant Screening And Certification Purposes, Elena Cotos, Yoo-Ree Chung Dec 2018

Domain Description: Validating The Interpretation Of The Toefl Ibt® Speaking Scores For International Teaching Assistant Screening And Certification Purposes, Elena Cotos, Yoo-Ree Chung

English Publications

In the past 2 decades, there has been an increasing tendency to use scores from the TOEFL iBT® Speaking test for decisions regarding the certification of international graduate students as teaching assistants at North American universities. To obtain validity evidence in support of the usefulness of the speaking scores for this secondary use of the test, this study adopted the argument‐based approach to validation. Focusing on the domain description inference in the TOEFL interpretive argument, the study investigated whether the language functions elicited by TOEFL iBT Speaking tasks can be identified in authentic discourse produced by international teaching assistants ...


Attending To Phenomenology: Rethinking Cognition And Reflection In North American Writing Studies, Dylan B. Dryer, David R. Russell Jun 2018

Attending To Phenomenology: Rethinking Cognition And Reflection In North American Writing Studies, Dylan B. Dryer, David R. Russell

English Publications

As detailed elsewhere in this collection (esp. Bazerman; Carillo; Talbot), when North American Writing Studies of higher education and workplaces (henceforth, NAWS) turned to European continental philosophies, it turned away from information-processing (IP) cognitive theories. Those theories were early casualties of this “social-turn” (e.g., Bartholomae, 1985; Bizzell, 1982; Brand, 1987); today, NAWS seems somewhat squeamish about the fact that the brain is an organ with a broadly generalizable structure, predictable development, capacity constraints, operating costs, and so on. Yet cognitive research is a dynamic and thriving field that does not much resemble the after-image that persists in NAWS. Some ...


The Affordances Of Process-Tracing Technologies For Supporting L2 Writing Instruction, Jim R. Ranalli, Hui-Hsien Feng, Evgeny Chukharev-Khudilaynen Jan 2018

The Affordances Of Process-Tracing Technologies For Supporting L2 Writing Instruction, Jim R. Ranalli, Hui-Hsien Feng, Evgeny Chukharev-Khudilaynen

English Publications

The research literature on L2 writing processes contains a multitude of insights that could inform writing instruction, but writing teachers are constrained in their capacity to make use of these insights insofar as they lack detailed information about how their students’ actually engage in the processes of writing. At the same time, writing-process researchers have been using powerful technologies to trace writers’ process engagement—namely, keystroke-logging and eye-tracking—that are potentially applicable in educational settings. In this article, we describe a pilot effort to integrate these technologies into L2 writing instruction with college-level ESL students. In addition to illustrating three ...


Teaching Ethos From The Dumpster: Dive And Food Waste Rhetoric, Abby Dubisar, Kathleen P. Hunt Oct 2017

Teaching Ethos From The Dumpster: Dive And Food Waste Rhetoric, Abby Dubisar, Kathleen P. Hunt

English Publications

This unit activity, for which students view a documentary to identify and evaluate persuasive ethos and then create their own rhetorical messages for reducing food waste, serves as a platform for teaching both the critique and practice of rhetoric, as well as familiarizing students with the complexities of the global food system and food waste.


Effects Of Ddl Technology On Genre Learning, Elena Cotos, Stephanie Link, Sarah Rebecca Huffman Jan 2017

Effects Of Ddl Technology On Genre Learning, Elena Cotos, Stephanie Link, Sarah Rebecca Huffman

English Publications

To better understand the promising effects of data-driven learning (DDL) on language learning processes and outcomes, this study explored DDL learning events enabled by the Research Writing Tutor (RWT), a web-based platform that contains: an English language corpus annotated to enhance rhetorical input; a concordancer searchable for rhetorical functions; and an automated writing evaluation engine that generates rhetorical feedback. Guided by current approaches to teaching academic writing (Lea & Street, 1998; Lillis, 2001; Swales, 2004) and by Bereiter and Scardamalia’s (1987) knowledge-telling/knowledge-transformation model, we set out to examine whether and how direct corpus uses afforded by RWT impact novice native and ...


Diving Into Food Justice: Food Waste In The Anthropocene, Kathleen P. Hunt, Abby Dubisar Jan 2016

Diving Into Food Justice: Food Waste In The Anthropocene, Kathleen P. Hunt, Abby Dubisar

English Publications

The Anthropocene calls for greater attention to the various and complicated ways by which humans interact with the environment and compels critical dialogue to identify and implement alternative solutions. With few exceptions, organisms (including human and more-than-human) require food as a biological need for survival. The global agrifood system has broad environmental consequences. For example, “getting food from the farm to our fork eats up 10 percent of the total U.S. energy budget, uses 50 percent of U.S. land, and swallows 80 percent of all freshwater consumed in the United States” (Gunders, 2012). Food ranks among the top ...


Automated Error Detection For Developing Grammar Proficiency Of Esl Learners, Hui-Hsien Feng, Aysel Saricaoglu, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen Jan 2016

Automated Error Detection For Developing Grammar Proficiency Of Esl Learners, Hui-Hsien Feng, Aysel Saricaoglu, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen

English Publications

Thanks to natural language processing technologies, computer programs are actively being used not only for holistic scoring, but also for formative evaluation of writing. CyWrite is one such program that is under development. The program is built upon Second Language Acquisition theories and aims to assist ESL learners in higher education by providing them with effective formative feedback to facilitate autonomous learning and improvement of their writing skills. In this study, we focus on CyWrite’s capacity to detect grammatical errors in student writing. We specifically report on (1) computational and pedagogical approaches to the development of the tool in ...


The Effectiveness Of Computer-Based Spaced Repetition In Foreign Language Vocabulary Instruction: A Double-Blind Study, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen, Tatiana A. Klepikova Jan 2016

The Effectiveness Of Computer-Based Spaced Repetition In Foreign Language Vocabulary Instruction: A Double-Blind Study, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen, Tatiana A. Klepikova

English Publications

The purpose of the present paper is twofold; first, we present an empirical study evaluating the effectiveness of a novel CALL tool for foreign language vocabulary instruction based on spaced repetition of target vocabulary items. The study demonstrates that by spending an average of three minutes each day on automatically generated vocabulary activities, EFL students increased their long-term vocabulary retention rate three fold. Second, we demonstrate that the double-blind experiment design, which has become standard research practice in such extremely high-stakes fields as pharmacology and healthcare, has the potential of being successfully implemented in CALL research.


The Risk Takers: The Support Faculty Participants In Integration Initiatives Say They Really Need, Denise A. Vrchota Jan 2016

The Risk Takers: The Support Faculty Participants In Integration Initiatives Say They Really Need, Denise A. Vrchota

English Publications

This qualitative study reports the concerns of faculty in three pre-professional programs of one food science department as they integrate communication competencies into their classes. The study found that faculty viewed communication activities through the lenses of their disciplinary traditions, applying scientific frames of reference to communication activities. Two areas of concern that emerged are: first, faculty were challenged by logistical issues such as development assessment instruments and assignments; second the risks they took by teaching an area outside of their disciplinary expertise caused them anxieties. Agents of integration and other participants must be cognizant of the disciplinary frames of ...


A View Of Oral Communication Activities In Food Science From The Perspective Of A Communication Researcher, Denise A. Vrchota Apr 2015

A View Of Oral Communication Activities In Food Science From The Perspective Of A Communication Researcher, Denise A. Vrchota

English Publications

Food science researchers have pronounced the Institute of Food Technologists Success Skills to be the most important competency mastered by graduates entering the work force. Much of the content and outcomes of the Success Skills pertains to oral communication skills of public speaking and interpersonal and group communication. This qualitative study reports the results of an examination of oral communication activities in the classes of 9 faculty in the food science program at Iowa State Univ. The findings revealed communication activities in the classes that support the Success Skills oral communication mandates; however, the food science faculty did not explicitly ...


Learners’ Views Of Social Issues In Pronunciation Learning, John Levis Jan 2015

Learners’ Views Of Social Issues In Pronunciation Learning, John Levis

English Publications

Success in L2 pronunciation learning is affected by both individual differ-ences and social influences on learning. While individual differences have been extensively researched, social influences have not. This study examines the beliefs and attitudes of advanced learners of English in regard to their pronunciation abilities and improvement. Twelve graduate students took part in four weeks of individualized pronunciation tutoring followed by inter-views asking about their pronunciation, use of English, and their pronuncition in social contexts. The interviews revealed four images of their pronunciation learning. The first was that their spoken language skills left them feeling pulled in conflicting directions; the ...


Automated Writing Analysis For Writing Pedagogy: From Healthy Tension To Tangible Prospects, Elena Cotos Jan 2015

Automated Writing Analysis For Writing Pedagogy: From Healthy Tension To Tangible Prospects, Elena Cotos

English Publications

This article aims to engage specialists in writing pedagogy, assessment, genre study, and educational technologies in a constructive dialog and joint exploration of automated writing analysis as a potent instantiation of computer-enhanced assessment for learning. It recounts the values of writing pedagogy and, from this perspective, examines legitimate concerns with automated writing analysis. Emphasis is placed on the need to substantiate the construct-driven debate with systematic empirical evidence that would corroborate or refute interpretations, uses, and consequences of automated scoring and feedback tools intended for specific contexts. Such evidence can be obtained by adopting a validity argument framework. To demonstrate ...


Spoken Parentheticals In Instructional Discourse In Stem And Non-Stem Disciplines, Tammy Slater, John Levis, Greta M. Levis Jan 2015

Spoken Parentheticals In Instructional Discourse In Stem And Non-Stem Disciplines, Tammy Slater, John Levis, Greta M. Levis

English Publications

Parentheticals, information that is not directly relevant to the topic being addressed, appear in all academic lectures and help listeners distinguish important from less important information. Their use is a critical skill for all teachers. Despite their importance, research on parentheticals in teaching is scarce. This chapter explores the instructional discourse of native English-speaking teaching assistants and international teaching assistants regarding the use of parentheticals, primarily in terms of the intonational and informational patterns they exhibit. Our analysis involved discourse data collected from sixteen classes, eight from chemistry (four taught by native English-speaking TAs and four taught by ITAs) and ...


Wac/Wid Meets Cxc/Cid: A Dialogue Between Writing Studies And Communication Studies, Denise Ann Vrchota, David R. Russell Oct 2013

Wac/Wid Meets Cxc/Cid: A Dialogue Between Writing Studies And Communication Studies, Denise Ann Vrchota, David R. Russell

English Publications

We work in the same English Department doing the same kind of work—but in two very different fields. Here at Iowa State University (ISU), English includes Speech Communication and Communication Studies. We sat down to have a coffee, find out what we have in common (and do not), and speculate about the future.


Contradictions Regarding Teaching And Writing (Or Writing To Learn) In The Disciplines: What We Have Learned In The Usa, David R. Russell Jan 2013

Contradictions Regarding Teaching And Writing (Or Writing To Learn) In The Disciplines: What We Have Learned In The Usa, David R. Russell

English Publications

This article describes a tradition of Anglophone North American higher education (HE) research concerning the role of writing in learning and development. The research tradition is associated with a forty-year-old education reform movement called Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) or Writing in the Disciplines (WID). The movement encourages teachers in different disciplines to become interested in their students’ writing and to improve their writing and their disciplinary education (formation) through writing. The research on WAC/WID uses methods familiar in educational research (and to a lesser extent applied linguistics) to understand the roles writing plays in disciplinary work and disciplinary ...


Online Strategy Instruction For Vocabulary Depth-Of-Knowledge And Web-Based Dictionary Skills, Jim Ranalli Jan 2013

Online Strategy Instruction For Vocabulary Depth-Of-Knowledge And Web-Based Dictionary Skills, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

This paper explores the feasibility of an automated, online form of L2 strategy instruction (SI) as an alternative to conventional, classroom-based forms that rely primarily on teachers. Feasibility was evaluated by studying the effectiveness, both actual and perceived, of a five-week, online SI course designed to teach web-based dictionary skills integrated with knowledge of lexical patterns (involving grammatical collocation, complementation, and transitivity). Sixty-four learners in a US university ESL composition course were matched for vocabulary size and then randomly assigned to treatment and comparison groups in a learning management system. The SI treatment comprised multimedia presentations and a variety of ...


Pausing In The Whirlwind: A Campus Place-Based Curriculum In A Multimodal Foundation Communication Course, Barbara J. Blakely Apr 2012

Pausing In The Whirlwind: A Campus Place-Based Curriculum In A Multimodal Foundation Communication Course, Barbara J. Blakely

English Publications

A campus place-based first-year curriculum operationalizes campus place, not as a neutral backdrop that students pass through on their way to a vocation, but as a purposeful assemblage of physical, verbal, and natural artifacts that play an important role in students’ adjustment process and in their higher education journey. The curriculum described here is based on David Gruenewald’s observation that “place is profoundly pedagogical” (621); it activates the campus itself pedagogically, providing students opportunities for pausing, exploring, researching, and sharing place-based discoveries in multiple modes in our Communication Across the Curriculum program. Now the standard curriculum in our first-level ...


Not Just Showing Up To Class: New Tas, Critical Composition Pedagogy, And Multiliteracies, Barbara J. Blakely Apr 2012

Not Just Showing Up To Class: New Tas, Critical Composition Pedagogy, And Multiliteracies, Barbara J. Blakely

English Publications

New TAs, who teach most first-year composition (hereafter FYC) in major universities, gamely take on a variety of new experiences during their first semesters in the classroom (Bettencourt; Duffelmeyer “Learning to Learn,” “New Perspectives”; Farris; Marback). These TAs, despite their often-unacknowledged or overlooked teaching role in the university, can and do participate in achieving institutional and programmatic goals by further “renegotiating the definition of first- and second-year composition courses from ‘service courses’ in the academy to sites of intellectual activity and forums for sharing world views” (Neeley). Their experiences combine the challenges of being a university instructor for the first ...


Alternative Models Of Self-Regulation And Implications For L2 Strategy Research, Jim Ranalli Jan 2012

Alternative Models Of Self-Regulation And Implications For L2 Strategy Research, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

In this paper I discuss the proposal of Dörnyei and colleagues (Dörnyei, 2005; Tseng, Dörnyei, & Schmitt, 2006) to replace the construct of learning strategy with that of self-regulation and thus shift the research focus from specific strategic behaviors to a trait that is seen to underlie them. I argue that before doing so, we need a fuller understanding of what self-regulation entails and how it might intersect with traditional concerns of second language strategy research. To contribute to this understanding, I highlight alternative conceptualizations of self-regulation and then use data from my doctoral research to illustrate one in particular, the ...


Written English Into Spoken: A Functional Discourse Analysis Of American, Indian, And Chinese Ta Presentations, John Levis, Greta M. Levis, Tammy Slater Jan 2012

Written English Into Spoken: A Functional Discourse Analysis Of American, Indian, And Chinese Ta Presentations, John Levis, Greta M. Levis, Tammy Slater

English Publications

International teaching assistants (ITAs) often receive specialized training because their spoken English is not easily comprehensible. Lack of comprehensibility may be influenced by grammatical issues (Tyler, 1994), incorrect or inadequate discourse structure (Tyler, 1992; Williams, 1992), or aspects of their pronunciation, such as unclear sentence focus (Hahn, 2004) or intonation (Pickering, 2001; Wennerstrom, 1998). Problems with comprehensibility may be compounded by ITAs having learned English through formal, written models. However, we do not know how ITAs change written text into an oral lecture, nor how their strategies differ from those of native teaching assistants (NTAs) doing the same task. This ...


Communication In The Disciplines: Interpersonal Communication In Dietetics, Denise A. Vrchota Jan 2011

Communication In The Disciplines: Interpersonal Communication In Dietetics, Denise A. Vrchota

English Publications

This study proposes to expand the scope of oral communication across the curriculum research by exploring oral genres in a dietetics curriculum from the perspective of the dietetics faculty. The goals of this qualitative study, couched within the communication in the disciplines framework, are to identify the oral genres integral to the study and practice of dietetics and to determine if dietetics faculty who participated in the study perceive the communication experiences offered during dietetics education transfer to professional practice. Two conclusions resulted: the first result is that interpersonal communication is the oral site at which the dietetics discipline is ...


Review Of Task-Based Language Learning And Teaching With Technology, Jim Ranalli Jan 2011

Review Of Task-Based Language Learning And Teaching With Technology, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

It is interesting to consider that task-based learning and teaching (TBLT) and computer-assisted language learning (CALL) both originated in the 1980s, were long considered marginal to mainstream language education (though this has thankfully changed), and more recently have been the focus of increasing scholarly attention, and yet to date no book has explicitly addressed the potential links between these two fields. What antecedents and principles do they share, and how can they mutually inform each other’s contributions to second language pedagogy and research? Task-based language learning and teaching with technology, edited by Michael Thomas and Hayo Reinders, attempts to ...


Drafting And Revision Using Word Processing By Undergraduate Student Writers: Changing Conceptions And Practices, Anish M. Dave, David R. Russell Jan 2010

Drafting And Revision Using Word Processing By Undergraduate Student Writers: Changing Conceptions And Practices, Anish M. Dave, David R. Russell

English Publications

The concepts of drafting and revision were developed out of process theory and research done in the early 1980s, an era when word processing was not as pervasive or standardized as it is now. This paper reexamines those concepts, drawing on an analysis of two decades of previous collegelevel studies of writing processes in relation to word processing and an exploratory survey of 112 upper level undergraduate students who use computers extensively to write and revise. The results support earlier studies that found students' revision is predominantly focused on local issues. However, the analysis suggests that the common classroom practice ...


Self-Assessment Of Oral Communication Presentations In Food Science And Nutrition, Cheryl A. Reitmeier, Denise A. Vrchota Jan 2009

Self-Assessment Of Oral Communication Presentations In Food Science And Nutrition, Cheryl A. Reitmeier, Denise A. Vrchota

English Publications

Self-assessment allows learners to observe, analyze, and evaluate their own performances. Self-reflection allows the student to assess his or her communication skill level and progress against a standard. Additionally, the implementation of self-assessment through carefully prepared classroom experiences enables learners to manage their own learning and encourages the habit of lifelong learning. The objective of this study was to compare self-evaluation formats for assessment of an oral communication activity. Senior students in 2 sections of a 1-credit seminar course were videotaped while presenting 30-min oral presentations to the class. Students viewed their presentations and assessed theirwork using either a scoring ...


Challenging Students’ Thinking With Bloom’S Taxonomy, Denise A. Vrchota Jan 2004

Challenging Students’ Thinking With Bloom’S Taxonomy, Denise A. Vrchota

English Publications

An important learning opportunity occurs during the question and answer (Q & A) session following student speeches. Not only do students benefit from the information conveyed in these speeches, but students also benefit from the cognitive stimulation the opportunity affords. Often, however, it seems that the Q & A session falls short of these lofty aspirations. Audience members may ask painfully obvious questions; speakers may respond to questions in perfunctory manner, relieved that the “hard” part or the “real” part of their responsibility (i.e., giving the speech) is completed. However, the Q & A session is a time when learning can occur in that speakers can reinforce their expertise and credibility, and audience members have the opportunity to present themselves as thoughtful and competent communicators. The result can be a stimulating discussion built on knowledge presented in the speech with additional opportunities to challenge, discuss, and enhance both speakers’ and audience members ...


New Perspectives: Ta Preparation For Critical Literacy In First-Year Composition, Barbara Blakely Jan 2002

New Perspectives: Ta Preparation For Critical Literacy In First-Year Composition, Barbara Blakely

English Publications

A new teaching assistant in our department recently showed me an outline for a proposed research paper from one of her first-year composition students: "I thought he was going to investigate racial profiling in the aftermath of Sept. 11th," the dismayed instructor said to me. "But this disturbs me. He is going to argue in favor of it. I am struggling with what to do. Do I let him write this paper?"


Construct Definition And Validity Inquiry In Sla Research, Carol Chapelle Jan 1999

Construct Definition And Validity Inquiry In Sla Research, Carol Chapelle

English Publications

In second language acquisition (SLA) research, some form of measurement is frequently used to produce empirical evidence for hypotheses about the nature and development of communicative competence. For example, SLA researchers test learners to investigate such aspects of interlanguage vocabulary1 as the acquisition of semantic (Kellerman 1978) and syntactic (Ard & Gass 1987) features of words, the structure of the L2 lexicon (Meara 1984; Singleton & Little 1991 ), lexicon size (Nation 1993), strategies associated with vocabulary use (Blum-Kulka & Levinson 1983), and automaticity of lexical access (Chitiri, Sun, Willows, and Taylor 1992). Tests are used for investigating vocabulary, as well as for SLA research in general, to elicit learners' performance in a defined context. In other ...