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Full-Text Articles in Education

A System For Adaptive High-Variability Segmental Perceptual Training: Implementation, Effectiveness, Transfer, Manman Qian, Evgeny Chukharev-Khudilaynen, John M. Levis Feb 2018

A System For Adaptive High-Variability Segmental Perceptual Training: Implementation, Effectiveness, Transfer, Manman Qian, Evgeny Chukharev-Khudilaynen, John M. Levis

English Publications

Many types of L2 phonological perception are often difficult to acquire without instruction. These difficulties with perception may also be related to intelligibility in production. Instruction on perception contrasts is more likely to be successful with the use of phonetically variable input made available through computer-assisted pronunciation training. However, few computer-assisted programs have demonstrated flexibility in diagnosing and treating individual learner problems or have made effective use of linguistic resources such as corpora for creating training materials. This study introduces a system for segmental perceptual training that uses a computational approach to perception utilizing corpusbased word frequency lists, high variability ...


University Students And Sustainability. Part 1: Attitudes, Perceptions, And Habits, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Brianna R. Burke Dec 2017

University Students And Sustainability. Part 1: Attitudes, Perceptions, And Habits, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Brianna R. Burke

English Publications

Increased understanding amongst scientists and the general public about anthropogenic impacts in general, and climate change in particular, behooves us as educators to adjust our courses and curricula. “Sustainability” and “green” topics are increasingly being discussed and incorporated, but this should be done with deliberation. We undertook this study to understand attitudes, perceptions, and habits of the student body at Iowa State University, with a focus on environmental knowledge and behaviors. Overall, we found that, regardless of demographic, students appear to be interested in environmental topics, reducing their footprint, and improving the environment overall. But, they did not necessarily want ...


A Move/Step Model For Methods Sections: Demonstrating Rigour And Credibility, Elena Cotos, Sarah Huffman, Stephanie Link Apr 2017

A Move/Step Model For Methods Sections: Demonstrating Rigour And Credibility, Elena Cotos, Sarah Huffman, Stephanie Link

English Publications

In the tradition of Swalesian genre theory, this manuscript explores the rhetorical composition of research article Methods sections through a top-down analysis of a corpus of nine hundred texts representative of thirty academic fields. The analysis resulted in a comprehensive cross-disciplinary model, called Demonstrating Rigour and Credibility (DRaC). The model contains three moves and sixteen steps, which are defined in terms of functional and content realizations. DRaC further served as the analytic framework for corpus annotation. Manually annotated corpus data revealed the moves and steps with high distributional prominence as well as those that are not frequent but occur consistently ...


Automated Assessment Of Non-Native Learner Essays: Investigating The Role Of Linguistic Features, Sowmya Vajjala Jan 2017

Automated Assessment Of Non-Native Learner Essays: Investigating The Role Of Linguistic Features, Sowmya Vajjala

English Publications

Automatic essay scoring (AES) refers to the process of scoring free text responses to given prompts, considering human grader scores as the gold standard. Writing such essays is an essential component of many language and aptitude exams. Hence, AES became an active and established area of research, and there are many proprietary systems used in real life applications today. However, not much is known about which specific linguistic features are useful for prediction and how much of this is consistent across datasets. This article addresses that by exploring the role of various linguistic features in automatic essay scoring using two ...


Patterns Of Tasks, Patterns Of Talk: L2 Literacy Building In University Spanish Classes, Jesse Gleason, Tammy Slater Jun 2016

Patterns Of Tasks, Patterns Of Talk: L2 Literacy Building In University Spanish Classes, Jesse Gleason, Tammy Slater

English Publications

ABSTRACT

Second language (L2) classroom research has sought to shed light on the processes and practices that develop L2 learners’ abilities [Nunan, D. 2004. Task-based language teaching. London: Continuum; Verplaetse, L. 2014. Using big questions to apprentice students into language-rich classroom practices. TESOL Quarterly, 179, 632–641; Zeungler, J., & Mori, J. 2002. Microanalyses of classroom discourse: A critical consideration of method. Applied Linguistics, 23(3), 283–288]. Honing in on the micro-level of classroom tasks and even further into the language of the tasks can help to reveal the patterns in teacher- and student-talk that help scaffold students’ academic literacy. Literacy, from a systemic functional view of language learning, entails having the tools to function in the social contexts that are valued in students’ lives. This ...


Effects Of Strength Of Accent On An L2 Interactive Lecture Listening Comprehension Test, Gary Ockey, Spiros Papageorgiou, Robert French Apr 2016

Effects Of Strength Of Accent On An L2 Interactive Lecture Listening Comprehension Test, Gary Ockey, Spiros Papageorgiou, Robert French

English Publications

This article reports on a study which aimed to determine the effect of strength of accent on listening comprehension of interactive lectures. Test takers (N = 21,726) listened to an interactive lecture given by one of nine speakers and responded to six comprehension items. The test taker responses were analyzed with the Rasch computer program WINSTEPS to investigate the relative difficulty of the items associated with the nine versions of the interactive lectures. Results indicated that comprehension of interactive lectures was diminished with quite light accents, as has been found with monologic lectures.


Automated Writing Evaluation For Formative Assessment Of Second Language Writing: Investigating The Accuracy And Usefulness Of Feedback As Part Of Argument-Based Validation, Jim Ranalli, Stephanie Link, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen Feb 2016

Automated Writing Evaluation For Formative Assessment Of Second Language Writing: Investigating The Accuracy And Usefulness Of Feedback As Part Of Argument-Based Validation, Jim Ranalli, Stephanie Link, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen

English Publications

An increasing number of studies on the use of tools for automated writing evaluation (AWE) in writing classrooms suggest growing interest in their potential for formative assessment. As with all assessments, these applications should be validated in terms of their intended interpretations and uses. A recent argument-based validation framework outlined inferences that require backing to support integration of one AWE tool, Criterion, into a college-level English as a Second Language (ESL) writing course. The present research appraised evidence for the assumptions underlying two inferences in this argument. In the first of two studies, we assessed evidence for the evaluation inference ...


Learning To Use Systemic Functional Grammar To Teach Literary Analysis: Views On The Effectiveness Of A Short Professional Development Workshop, Tammy Slater, Shannon Mccrocklin Jan 2016

Learning To Use Systemic Functional Grammar To Teach Literary Analysis: Views On The Effectiveness Of A Short Professional Development Workshop, Tammy Slater, Shannon Mccrocklin

English Publications

As students’ academic language ability grows, they are expected to move from summarizing or retelling works of literature to studying texts critically. With this comes the demand for more developed literacy skills or, as those working from a systemic functional linguistic perspective would argue, an increase in the students’ resources for making meaning in an ever-widening variety of contexts (Derewianka, 2001). English language arts (ELA) teachers in the United States today are challenged with the task of developing this literacy to meet Common Core State Standards (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers ...


Oral Academic Discourse Socialization Of An Esl Chinese Student: Cohesive Device Use, Sue Wang, Tammy Slater Jan 2016

Oral Academic Discourse Socialization Of An Esl Chinese Student: Cohesive Device Use, Sue Wang, Tammy Slater

English Publications

Framed in language socialization theory, this study examines the longitudinal cohesive device development of an ESL Chinese graduate student over time during his discourse socialization by focusing on his oral presentations through a systemic functional linguistics approach. The study found that the participant improved in his use of textual resources as he continued his discourse socialization in the academic community that he had joined. Yet the problems and challenges the participant faced during his development of cohesive devices also illustrated the complexity and non-linear characteristics of academic discourse socialization. The study contributes to language socialization research by employing a systemic ...


Automated Error Detection For Developing Grammar Proficiency Of Esl Learners, Hui-Hsien Feng, Aysel Saricaoglu, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen Jan 2016

Automated Error Detection For Developing Grammar Proficiency Of Esl Learners, Hui-Hsien Feng, Aysel Saricaoglu, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen

English Publications

Thanks to natural language processing technologies, computer programs are actively being used not only for holistic scoring, but also for formative evaluation of writing. CyWrite is one such program that is under development. The program is built upon Second Language Acquisition theories and aims to assist ESL learners in higher education by providing them with effective formative feedback to facilitate autonomous learning and improvement of their writing skills. In this study, we focus on CyWrite’s capacity to detect grammatical errors in student writing. We specifically report on (1) computational and pedagogical approaches to the development of the tool in ...


Syntactic Complexity Of Efl Chinese Students’ Writing, Sue Wang, Tammy Slater Jan 2016

Syntactic Complexity Of Efl Chinese Students’ Writing, Sue Wang, Tammy Slater

English Publications

Syntactic complexity as an indicator in the study of English learners’ language proficiency has been frequently employed in language development assessment. Using the Syntactic Complexity Analyzer, developed by Lu (2010), this article collected data representing the syntactic complexity indexes from the writing of Chinese non-English major students and from the writing of proficient users of English on a similar task. The results indicate that there is a significant difference in the use of complex nominals, the mean length of sentences, and the mean length of clauses between the writings of EFL Chinese students and more proficient users. This study provides ...


Connecting Criterion Scores And Classroom Grading Contexts: A Systemic Functional Linguistic Model For Teaching And Assessing Causal Language, Hong Ma, Tammy Slater Jan 2016

Connecting Criterion Scores And Classroom Grading Contexts: A Systemic Functional Linguistic Model For Teaching And Assessing Causal Language, Hong Ma, Tammy Slater

English Publications

This study utilized theory proposed by Mohan, Slater, Luo, and Jaipal (2002) regarding what they refer to as the Developmental Path of Cause to examine issues of AWE score use in classroom contexts. Utilization of this model enabled this study to investigate the accuracy of the AWE scores by comparing them to ratings based on teachers’ intuition as well as to scores generated based on existing rubrics. The qualitative data collected from focus group interviews of three experienced teachers’ justifications for their intuitive evaluations of essays suggested that the Developmental Path of Cause helped teachers articulate their intuitions, identifying the ...


Discourse Classification Into Rhetorical Functions For Awe Feedback, Elena Cotos, Nick Pendar Jan 2016

Discourse Classification Into Rhetorical Functions For Awe Feedback, Elena Cotos, Nick Pendar

English Publications

This paper reports on the development of the analysis engine for the Research Writing Tutor (RWT), an AWE program designed to provide genre and discipline-specific feedback on the functional units of research article discourse. Unlike traditional NLP-based applications that categorize complete documents, RWT’s analyzer categorizes every sentence in the text as both a communicative move and a rhetorical step. We describe the construction of a cascade of two support vector machine classifiers trained on a multi-disciplinary corpus of annotated Introduction texts. This work not only demonstrates the usefulness of NLP for automated genre analysis, but also paves the road ...


Studying Disciplinary Corpora To Teach The Craft Of Discussion, Elena Cotos, Stephanie Link, Sarah Rebecca Huffman Jan 2016

Studying Disciplinary Corpora To Teach The Craft Of Discussion, Elena Cotos, Stephanie Link, Sarah Rebecca Huffman

English Publications

Producing publishable quality research articles is a difficult task for novice scholarly writers. Particularly challenging is writing the Discussion/Conclusion section, which requires taking evaluative and interpretive stances on obtained results and substantiating claims regarding the worth of the scholarly contribution of the article to scientific knowledge. Conforming to the expectations of the target disciplinary community adds another dimension to the challenge. Corpus-based genre analysis can foster postgraduate writing instruction by providing insightful descriptions of rhetorical patterns and variation in disciplinary discourse. This paper introduces a pedagogically-oriented cross-disciplinary model of moves and steps devised through top-down corpus analysis. The model ...


The Risk Takers: The Support Faculty Participants In Integration Initiatives Say They Really Need, Denise A. Vrchota Jan 2016

The Risk Takers: The Support Faculty Participants In Integration Initiatives Say They Really Need, Denise A. Vrchota

English Publications

This qualitative study reports the concerns of faculty in three pre-professional programs of one food science department as they integrate communication competencies into their classes. The study found that faculty viewed communication activities through the lenses of their disciplinary traditions, applying scientific frames of reference to communication activities. Two areas of concern that emerged are: first, faculty were challenged by logistical issues such as development assessment instruments and assignments; second the risks they took by teaching an area outside of their disciplinary expertise caused them anxieties. Agents of integration and other participants must be cognizant of the disciplinary frames of ...


Adding Quantitative Corpus-Driven Analysis To Qualitative Discourse Analysis: Determining The Aboutness Of Writing Center Talk, Jo Mackiewicz, Isabelle Thompson Jan 2016

Adding Quantitative Corpus-Driven Analysis To Qualitative Discourse Analysis: Determining The Aboutness Of Writing Center Talk, Jo Mackiewicz, Isabelle Thompson

English Publications

We discuss the benefits of using corpus linguistic analysis, a quantita- tive method for determining the "aboutness" of talk, in conjunction with discourse analysis in order to understand writing center talk at a micro- and macrolevel. We exemplify this mixed-method approach by examining a specialized corpus of 20 writing center conferences totaling more than 75,000 words. Our analysis also uncovered words that differentiated writing center talk from reference corpora and thus helped reveal the aboutness of the writing center talk. For example, student writers said "I don't know" far more frequently than any other 4-gram, and tutors said ...


The Effectiveness Of Computer-Based Spaced Repetition In Foreign Language Vocabulary Instruction: A Double-Blind Study, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen, Tatiana A. Klepikova Jan 2016

The Effectiveness Of Computer-Based Spaced Repetition In Foreign Language Vocabulary Instruction: A Double-Blind Study, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen, Tatiana A. Klepikova

English Publications

The purpose of the present paper is twofold; first, we present an empirical study evaluating the effectiveness of a novel CALL tool for foreign language vocabulary instruction based on spaced repetition of target vocabulary items. The study demonstrates that by spending an average of three minutes each day on automatically generated vocabulary activities, EFL students increased their long-term vocabulary retention rate three fold. Second, we demonstrate that the double-blind experiment design, which has become standard research practice in such extremely high-stakes fields as pharmacology and healthcare, has the potential of being successfully implemented in CALL research.


Examining Connections Between The Physical And The Mental In Education: A Linguistic Analysis Of Pe Teaching And Learning, Tammy Slater, Joy I. Butler Jan 2015

Examining Connections Between The Physical And The Mental In Education: A Linguistic Analysis Of Pe Teaching And Learning, Tammy Slater, Joy I. Butler

English Publications

Discourse analyses of science teaching have revealed patterns of knowledge structures (KS) reflecting Halliday's observation that science teaching involves constructing technical taxonomies and relating them in logical sequences. In science education, this pattern has included problem solving as a way for teachers to assess learning. Science has always been considered an academic subject, but how does it compare to physical education (PE)? Given that language is the primary means through which we learn and assess learning, we present a discourse analysis of a sixth-grade PE class taught using a Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) approach and compare the discourse ...


Using The Developmental Path Of Cause To Bridge The Gap Between Awe Scores And Writing Teachers’ Evaluations, Hong Ma, Tammy Slater Jan 2015

Using The Developmental Path Of Cause To Bridge The Gap Between Awe Scores And Writing Teachers’ Evaluations, Hong Ma, Tammy Slater

English Publications

Supported by artificial intelligence (AI), the most advanced Automatic Writing Evaluation (AWE) systems have gained increasing attention for their ability to provide immediate scoring and formative feedback, yet teachers have been hesitant to implement them into their classes because correlations between the grades they assign and the AWE scores have generally been low. This begs the question of where improvements in evaluation may need to be made, and what approaches are available to carry out this improvement.
This mixed-method study involved 59 cause and effect essays collected from English language learners enrolled in six different sections of a college level ...


Automated Writing Analysis For Writing Pedagogy: From Healthy Tension To Tangible Prospects, Elena Cotos Jan 2015

Automated Writing Analysis For Writing Pedagogy: From Healthy Tension To Tangible Prospects, Elena Cotos

English Publications

This article aims to engage specialists in writing pedagogy, assessment, genre study, and educational technologies in a constructive dialog and joint exploration of automated writing analysis as a potent instantiation of computer-enhanced assessment for learning. It recounts the values of writing pedagogy and, from this perspective, examines legitimate concerns with automated writing analysis. Emphasis is placed on the need to substantiate the construct-driven debate with systematic empirical evidence that would corroborate or refute interpretations, uses, and consequences of automated scoring and feedback tools intended for specific contexts. Such evidence can be obtained by adopting a validity argument framework. To demonstrate ...


Validity Arguments For Diagnostic Assessment Using Automated Writing Evaluation, Carol Chapelle, Elena Cotos, Jooyoung Lee Jan 2015

Validity Arguments For Diagnostic Assessment Using Automated Writing Evaluation, Carol Chapelle, Elena Cotos, Jooyoung Lee

English Publications

Two examples demonstrate an argument-based approach to validation of diagnostic assessment using automated writing evaluation (AWE). Criterion ®, was developed by Educational Testing Service to analyze students’ papers grammatically, providing sentence-level error feedback. An interpretive argument was developed for its use as part of the diagnostic assessment process in undergraduate university English for academic purposes (EAP) classes. The Intelligent Academic Discourse Evaluator (IADE) was developed for use in graduate EAP university classes, where the goal was to help students improve their discipline-specific writing. The validation for each was designed to support claims about the intended purposes of the assessments. We present ...


New And Not So New Methods For Assessing Oral Communication, Gary Ockey, Zhi Li Jan 2015

New And Not So New Methods For Assessing Oral Communication, Gary Ockey, Zhi Li

English Publications

The assessment of oral communication has continued to evolve over the past few decades. The construct being assessed has broadened to include interactional competence, and technology has played a role in the types of tasks that are currently popular. In this paper, we discuss the factors that affect the process of oral communication assessment, current conceptualizations of the construct to be assessed, and five tasks that are used to assess this construct. These tasks include oral proficiency interviews, paired/group oral discussion tasks, simulated tasks, integrated oral communication tasks, and elicited imitation tasks. We evaluate these tasks based on current ...


Overworked And Stressed Teachers Under Market Economy: Case Study In Northwest China, Gulbahar Beckett, Juanjuan Zhao Jan 2015

Overworked And Stressed Teachers Under Market Economy: Case Study In Northwest China, Gulbahar Beckett, Juanjuan Zhao

English Publications

This chapter is based on a case study conducted in Xisheng (pseudonym promised to the participants for anonymity purposes) in Northwest China to explore teachers’ perspectives on teaching under the market economy system. The original plan was to study local indigenous teachers, but that was not possible due to political sensitivity of the region at the time of data collection. As a result, we interviewed mostly Han teachers, including as many local indigenous teachers as possible. We think that the study is still useful as it was the first study of its kind and that it was informative regarding the ...


Judgments Of Non-Standard Segmental Sounds And International Teaching Assistants' Spoken Proficiency Levels, John Levis, Jiyon Im Jan 2015

Judgments Of Non-Standard Segmental Sounds And International Teaching Assistants' Spoken Proficiency Levels, John Levis, Jiyon Im

English Publications

No abstract provided.


Furthering And Applying Move/Step Constructs: Technology-Driven Marshalling Of Swalesian Genre Theory For Eap Pedagogy, Elena Cotos, Sarah Huffman, Stephanie Link Jan 2015

Furthering And Applying Move/Step Constructs: Technology-Driven Marshalling Of Swalesian Genre Theory For Eap Pedagogy, Elena Cotos, Sarah Huffman, Stephanie Link

English Publications

John Swales' seminal work has inspired a wealth of research with important pedagogical implications for genre-based writing instruction. Continuing the prolific move analysis tradition in EAP research, this article presents empirically devised and validated cross-disciplinary IMRD move/step frameworks for the research article genre and demonstrates how Swales' move and step concepts underlying these frameworks formed the foundation of innovative genre-based automated writing evaluation technology. Overall, this paper makes the relationships between genre theory, genre analysis, and genre instruction explicit, demonstrating that move analysis is a powerful and promising theoretical, analytic, and teaching construct. With that, we take Swales' vision ...


Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices For Language Assessment, Gary Ockey, Ikkyu Choi Jan 2015

Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices For Language Assessment, Gary Ockey, Ikkyu Choi

English Publications

Studies that use structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques are increasingly encountered in the language assessment literature. This popularity has created the need for a set of guidelines that can indicate what should be included in a research report and make it possible for research consumers to judge the appropriateness of the interpretations made from a reported study. This article attempts to fill this void by providing a set of reporting guidelines appropriate for language assessment researchers.


Enhancing Writing Padagogy With Learner Corpus Data, Elena Cotos May 2014

Enhancing Writing Padagogy With Learner Corpus Data, Elena Cotos

English Publications

Learner corpora have become prominent in language teaching and learning, enhancing data-driven learning (DDL) pedagogy by promoting ‘learning driven data’ in the classroom. This study explores the potential of a local learner corpus by investigating the effects of two types of DDL activities, one relying on a native-speaker corpus (NSC) and the second combining native-speaker and learner corpora. Both types of activities aimed at improving second language writers’ knowledge of linking adverbials and were based on a preliminary analysis of adverbial use in the local learner corpus produced by 31 study participants. Quantitative and qualitative data, obtained from writing samples ...


From One To Multiple Accents On A Test Of L2 Listening Comprehension, Gary Ockey, Robert French Jan 2014

From One To Multiple Accents On A Test Of L2 Listening Comprehension, Gary Ockey, Robert French

English Publications

Concerns about the need for assessing multidialectal listening skills for global contexts are becoming increasingly prevalent. However, the inclusion of multiple accents on listening assessments may threaten test fairness because it is not practical to include every accent that may be encountered in the language use domain on these tests. Given this dilemma, this study aimed to determine the extent to which accent strength and familiarity affect comprehension and to provide a defensible direction for assessing multidialectal listening comprehension. A strength of accent scale was developed, and one US, four Australian, and four British English speakers of English were selected ...


Technology-Mediated L2 Strategy Instruction And Its Potential To Enhance Evaluation And Research, Jim Ranalli Jan 2014

Technology-Mediated L2 Strategy Instruction And Its Potential To Enhance Evaluation And Research, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

This paper discusses the potential of technology-mediated forms of L2 strategy instruction (SI) to not only facilitate SI but to enhance evaluation of SI interventions and L2 strategy research more generally. It uses results from a recent empirical study to show how computer-based forms of SI may offer remedies for problematic features of evaluation, including access to process data showing how learners actually perform strategy-related tasks, the timing and frequency of collection of learner perception data, and most importantly, data about task perception and meta-cognitive monitoring, which can position L2 strategies within frameworks for self-regulated learning. The underlying premise of ...


Pauses In Spontaneous Written Communication: A Keystroke Logging Study, Evgeny Chukharev-Khudilaynen Jan 2014

Pauses In Spontaneous Written Communication: A Keystroke Logging Study, Evgeny Chukharev-Khudilaynen

English Publications

Spontaneous writing observed in chats, instant messengers, and social media has become established as productive modes of communication and discourse genres. However, they remain understudied from the perspective of writing process research. In this paper, we present an empirical study wherein keystrokes made by chat users in a game were recorded. The distributions of the inter-key intervals were analyzed and fitted with ex-Gaussian distribution equation, and an argument for psycholinguistic interpretation of the distribution parameters is presented. This analysis leads to establishing a threshold of 500 ms for the identification of pauses in spontaneous writing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that pauses ...