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Full-Text Articles in Education

Performance-Based Funding Of Higher Education: Analyses Of Policy Discourse Across Four Case Studies, Mary Ziskin, Karyn E. Rabourn, Donald Hossler Sep 2018

Performance-Based Funding Of Higher Education: Analyses Of Policy Discourse Across Four Case Studies, Mary Ziskin, Karyn E. Rabourn, Donald Hossler

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Performance-based funding (PBF) for public colleges and universities is increasingly prevalent worldwide, as a part of a broader pattern of marketisation in public education. This study focused on developing an empirical view of how, and in what contexts, policy makers use the concepts of neoliberal economics to design and support PerformanceBased Funding (PBF) policies in higher education. We analysed 121 policy documents, white papers, evaluation reports, and news items related to PBF policies in four case jurisdictions: Tennessee, Washington, United Kingdom, and Italy. We employed critical discourse analysis methods as framed by Fairclough and colleagues and implemented this approach within ...


Update On Student Vaccinations, Charles J. Russo Feb 2017

Update On Student Vaccinations, Charles J. Russo

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

State inoculation laws—which are designed to reduce or eliminate the risk of infection from the most common communicable diseases—typically grant students with medical concerns exemptions from having to receive vaccines or vaccine components. Moreover, as reflected in the cases discussed below, most states allow nonmedical exemptions for religious reasons and philosophical beliefs (National Vaccine Information Center 2016).

As reviewed in the next section, disputes over vaccinations generated a fair amount of litigation. In these cases, parents challenged vaccination laws as violating their constitutional rights to be free from government interference or to freedom of religion.


Problem-Solving Tips For School Business Officials, David Alan Dolph Feb 2017

Problem-Solving Tips For School Business Officials, David Alan Dolph

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

School business officials must be able to analyze problems and develop effective solutions. Arriving at solutions involves identifying the relative importance of the problem, what is known additional information is required, who is involved, what’s at risk, and the ultimate goal.

Most problems are easily resolved based on policy, experience, and knowledge of school business. However, some problems are more complex. School business officials don’t always have all the information they need, aren’t familiar with the personnel involved, or are faced with conflicting priorities.

A handbook on data-based decision making (Kowalski 2009) offers a basic format involving ...


Meeting The Needs Of Students With Disabilities, Charles J. Russo, Allan G. Osborne Jr. Jan 2017

Meeting The Needs Of Students With Disabilities, Charles J. Russo, Allan G. Osborne Jr.

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2005) requires states, through local school boards, to provide students with disabilities with a free appropriate public education (FAPE) in the least restrictive environment consistent with the content of their Individualized Education Programs (IEPs). As important as it is to educate students with disabilities, the cost of serving these children is much higher than that of their peers in regular education.

Most recently, the Tenth Circuit upheld Rowley’s “some educational benefit” standard in Endrew F. v. Douglas County School District RE-1 (2015). In Endrew F., the panel affirmed that a school board ...


School Crisis Plans: Are You Prepared?, David Alan Dolph Dec 2016

School Crisis Plans: Are You Prepared?, David Alan Dolph

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

The majority of states have statutes requiring school districts to develop school safety plans focused on preventing and responding to crisis situations. Plans may include protocols for disseminating school safety plans to appropriate personnel; mandatory fire, tornado, or active drills; and community involvement.

Although the degree of comprehensiveness of those plans depends on state legislation, all should include the basic elements offered here, focused on creating secure school environments.


Faculty Views Of “Nontraditional” Students: Aligning Perspectives For Student Success, Desiree D. Zerquera, Mary Ziskin, Vasti Torres Apr 2016

Faculty Views Of “Nontraditional” Students: Aligning Perspectives For Student Success, Desiree D. Zerquera, Mary Ziskin, Vasti Torres

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Faculty serve as a primary point of contact for students in college, playing vital roles in students’ retention and attainment. The perceptions and beliefs held by these institutional actors are important for understanding the context that shapes students’ experiences while they are in college and potentially, long after they leave. The purpose of this work is to examine faculty members’ perceptions of nontraditional student experiences. Findings highlight faculty members’ awareness of students’ multiple roles and obligations; perceptions of student academic success, including barriers to succeeding; and the ways faculty connect with students and the types of connections they forge. The ...


An Overview Of The Every Student Succeeds Act, Charles J. Russo Mar 2016

An Overview Of The Every Student Succeeds Act, Charles J. Russo

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Controversial since becoming law in 2002 as the re-authorization of the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has been portrayed by critics as federal overreach in education, even as supporters viewed the bill as a necessary reform to improve the academic performance of students in K–12 schools. Regardless, NCLB proved so unwieldy that 43 states and the District of Columbia received waivers from many of its accountability provisions in return for adopting policies favored by the U.S. Department of Education (Layton 2015).

The recent seven-year-overdue re-authorization of the law received widespread ...


Developing Lockdown Policies, Charles J. Russo Dec 2015

Developing Lockdown Policies, Charles J. Russo

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Hardly a week passes without reading or hearing about a school being locked down because of concerns for the safety of students, teachers, and staff. The increasing number of events that prompt lockdowns presents a sad commentary about today’s world. Aware of the very real possibility of threats of violence on campus, district leaders must ensure that they have current policies that cover the safety and risk management issues associated with imposed lockdowns.


Reporting And Protecting Students From Child Abuse, Charles J. Russo Nov 2015

Reporting And Protecting Students From Child Abuse, Charles J. Russo

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

A tragic reality of American life is that a significant number of children are abused and neglected, even killed, by the hands of their parents and caregivers. In fact, 2013 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reveal that 678,932 incidents of child abuse and neglect were reported to Child Protective Services (CPS) nationally, with about 27% of those cases involving youngsters under the age of three (CDC 2015).

Moreover, the CDC noted that the CPS data suggest that their reports may underestimate the occurrences of child abuse and neglect. That same report estimates that about 1 ...


Financing Education: An Overview Of Public School Funding, Charles J. Russo, William E. Thro, Frank M. Batz Nov 2015

Financing Education: An Overview Of Public School Funding, Charles J. Russo, William E. Thro, Frank M. Batz

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Financial resources for public education are increasingly scarce, and district leaders at all levels continue to struggle to maintain adequate levels of financial resources for their students and programs using complex funding formulas unique to their own jurisdictions. To help educators and education stakeholders better understand the dimensions of paying for public education, we begin with an overview of the historical development of school finance litigation that has shaped the funding mechanisms in most jurisdictions. The next section highlights developments in four representative jurisdictions from the funding formulas currently available in ASBO International’s Funding Formula Library. The library, available ...


The Importance Of Understanding School Law, Charles J. Russo Oct 2015

The Importance Of Understanding School Law, Charles J. Russo

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

In an increasingly litigious society wherein parents and their children file a broad spectrum of claims against school systems, it is essential that education leaders have at a minimum a basic understanding of school law.

Before 1954, the Supreme Court addressed only a handful of cases involving K–12 schools and higher education. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), perhaps the Supreme Court’s most important education-related decision, ushered in an era of equal educational opportunities and key legislations, such as the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, now the No Child Left Behind Act (2002); Title ...


Sbos As Leaders Of Change, David Alan Dolph Oct 2015

Sbos As Leaders Of Change, David Alan Dolph

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Federal and state education mandates have prompted more changes in PreK–12 education in the past several years than during any other time in American education history. The sheer volume of changes and their complexity have put school business officials to the test as never before.

Among the more challenging issues for school business officials are the budgetary implications of the Affordable Care Act, special-education regulations, new food-service mandates, and safety and environmental regulations.

School business officials and other education leaders must lead the district and the community through the changes brought on by those mandates. How do they do ...


An Update On Student Equal Access, Charles J. Russo May 2015

An Update On Student Equal Access, Charles J. Russo

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

In Board of Education of Westside Community Schools v. Mergens (1990), the Supreme Court upheld the Equal Access Act (EAA), a federal law enacted to permit student-organized groups to meet during noninstructional time.

The EAA traces its origins to Widmar v. Vincent (1981). At issue in Widmar was a policy whereby officials at a state university in Missouri made campus facilities generally available to student groups for their activities. Treating religion as a form of free speech, the Supreme Court ruled that insofar as officials allowed more than 100 student groups to use campus facilities, they created a forum for ...


A Primer On Federal Statutes Affecting Education, Charles J. Russo Apr 2015

A Primer On Federal Statutes Affecting Education, Charles J. Russo

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Before the Supreme Court’s monumental decision banning racial segregation in schooling in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the federal government had little direct involvement in national education policy. Subsequently, the federal government has assumed a major role in setting national education policy.

The federal government’s first post- Brown major legislative enactment, in 1958, was the adoption of the National Defense Education Act (NDEA). Enacted largely in response to the Soviet Union’s launching of Sputnik 1, the NDEA, made federal funds available to education institutions to focus on areas considered critical to national defense, such as mathematics ...


Special-Education Law In Mexico And The United States, Charles J. Russo, Ricardo Lozano Feb 2015

Special-Education Law In Mexico And The United States, Charles J. Russo, Ricardo Lozano

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

The challenges of meeting the requirements of students with special needs under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and other laws are a particularly timely topic, as large numbers of native Spanish-speaking students move into the United States.

Against that backdrop, this article reviews the laws for special education in Mexico and the United States. The focus on the laws in Mexico stems from the fact that many students cross the border daily to attend public schools in the United States, and because Mexico has many laws in place dealing with special education. We offer school district leaders a comparative ...


Ceo Impact On Superintendents, Theodore J. Kowalski Feb 2015

Ceo Impact On Superintendents, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Noting that collaboration between business executives and superintendents was wide but not deep, a Harvard Business School monograph, "Partial Credit: How America's School Superintendents See Business as a Partner," identified positive findings regarding access. Nearly two-thirds of 1,117 responding superintendents said they had access to business leaders to whom they could turn for advice and support. In urban districts, the figure was 84 percent. However, responses to a question on the AASA's decennial survey suggested otherwise.


Institutional Merit-Based Aid And Student Departure: A Longitudinal Analysis, Jacob P. K. Gross, Don Hossler, Mary B. Ziskin, Matthew S. Berry Jan 2015

Institutional Merit-Based Aid And Student Departure: A Longitudinal Analysis, Jacob P. K. Gross, Don Hossler, Mary B. Ziskin, Matthew S. Berry

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

The use of merit criteria in awarding institutional aid has grown considerably and, some argue, is supplanting need as the central factor in awarding aid. Concurrently, the accountability movement in higher education has placed greater emphasis on retention and graduation as indicators of institutional success and quality. In this context, this study explores the relationship between institutional merit aid and student departure from a statewide system of higher education. We found that, once we account for self-selection to the extent possible, there was no significant relationship. By contrast, need-based aid was consistently related to decreased odds of departure.


Principal Dispositions Regarding The Ohio Teacher Evaluation System, Theodore J. Kowalski, David Alan Dolph Jan 2015

Principal Dispositions Regarding The Ohio Teacher Evaluation System, Theodore J. Kowalski, David Alan Dolph

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

The Ohio Teacher Evaluation System (OTES) was first implemented during the 2013-14 school term. This study examined principals’ dispositions at the end of this school term. Findings revealed several major concerns. The most prominent were (a) not having sufficient time to implement the program properly, (b) basing a teacher’s performance heavily on student value-added data, and (c) being required to assist teachers in developing their annual improvement plans. Three independent variables, teaching experience, administrative experience, and level of school assignment, were found to have only a low level of association with principal dispositions. With respect to teacher evaluation generally ...


The Law Of Public Education, Charles J. Russo Jan 2015

The Law Of Public Education, Charles J. Russo

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

This textbook-casebook incorporates recent developments in education law into its conceptual framework by offering updated analysis of major topics in education law. With new material in all of its sixteen chapters, the book includes significant updates on church-state relations, employee rights, and student rights. There are now two chapters on student rights. The author also includes Supreme Court opinions on strip searches of students, teacher bargaining and free speech rights.


International Perspectives On Student Behavior: What We Can Learn, Charles J. Russo, Izak Oosthuizen, Charl C. Wolhuter Jan 2015

International Perspectives On Student Behavior: What We Can Learn, Charles J. Russo, Izak Oosthuizen, Charl C. Wolhuter

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

The second volume of companion books on comparative student discipline identifies the best practices in dealing with student misconduct, on six continents, in a legally sound manner. It is essential for educators to examine national as well as international practices addressing student misconduct in schools because learner misbehavior often has a detrimental effect on the quality of teaching and learning in elementary and secondary schools. The countries covered are Brazil, China, Malaysia, Turkey and South Africa.


Professional Qualifications And Gender, Theodore J. Kowalski Nov 2014

Professional Qualifications And Gender, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Literature comparing male and female superintendents rather consistently has reported differences in professional qualifications. Most notably, females have higher levels of professional experience, especially as teachers, before becoming a superintendent. Logically, authors studying this topic conclude that females usually must have superior credentials to enter the position. Two findings in AASA's latest decennial study of superintendents, one pertaining to teaching experience and the other to age upon entering the position, suggest the conclusion remains valid. In 2010, 28 percent of males and 13 percent of females had fewer than 6 years of teaching experience. In 2000, those figures were ...


Google Glass And Education: The Wave Of The Future?, Charles J. Russo, Reece Newman, Chad Brown Oct 2014

Google Glass And Education: The Wave Of The Future?, Charles J. Russo, Reece Newman, Chad Brown

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

In the evolving, fast-paced world of technology, a fairly recent development that has the potential to affect instruction, privacy, and cost for school boards is Google Glass, introduced to the public in April 2012 and named by Time magazine as one of 2012’s best inventions of the year. Google Glass devices are wearable headset computers with optical headmounted transparent display screens (640 x 360 pixels) that essentially bring Android and iPhone capacities to eyeglasses. They can be activated by voice or touch and can record video and audio or live-stream events observed by wearers (Miller 2013). They include, among ...


Race-Based Preferences And The Supreme Court, Charles J. Russo Sep 2014

Race-Based Preferences And The Supreme Court, Charles J. Russo

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

So-called race-conscious remedies ensure that all citizens are considered fairly and equally for employment and education opportunities. The legal status of race-conscious remedies continues to present challenges for education leaders, policymakers, and lawmakers.


Student Motives For Taking Online Courses In Educational Administration, Theodore J. Kowalski, David Alan Dolph, Ila Phillip Young Sep 2014

Student Motives For Taking Online Courses In Educational Administration, Theodore J. Kowalski, David Alan Dolph, Ila Phillip Young

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

This study was conducted with students enrolled in a master’s degree program in educational administration at a private research university that offered all required courses in both online and in-class formats. The purposes were to determine (a) the extent to which online courses were selected, (b) the level of importance students placed on four common motives for taking online courses, and (c) levels of association between the importance of values and two demographic variables (employment level and years of teaching experience). The extent to which students took online courses varied considerably. Convenience and flexibility were the most important motives ...


Superintendent Mobility, Theodore J. Kowalski Sep 2014

Superintendent Mobility, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

A study nearly 50 years ago categorized superintendents as being either career-bound or place-bound. The former consisted of administrators inclined to advance their career by relocating to a new school district or state. The latter group consisted of administrators who sought internal promotions over relocation.

Two findings from AASA:s latest decennial superintendents' study reveal virtually no change in mobility since 2000. This outcome is somewhat surprising in light of the increases in the number of post-retirement individuals continuing to serve in the superintendency by accepting a job covered by another state's pension system.


Perceptions Of State Education Agencies, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2014

Perceptions Of State Education Agencies, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Relationships between state government and school districts reflect long-standing tensions involving liberty and equity. In states where the former is emphasized, the authority and scope of responsibilities relegated to state agencies are limited, so local boards and superintendents have considerable leeway to make decisions. In states that exercise centralized controls to provide reasonably equal educational opportunities, localities have less flexibility. Consequently, superintendent survey ratings should be considered in light of such dissimilarities across state education departments.

An AASA superintendency study indicated superintendents held widely differing views of their state education agencies. In general, district enrollment, with one exception, was not ...


Negligence, Student Supervision, And School Business Officials, Charles J. Russo Jul 2014

Negligence, Student Supervision, And School Business Officials, Charles J. Russo

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

With a new school year on the horizon, the topic of adequate student supervision is once again on educators’ minds. Whether students are attending classes, playing in school yards, or participating in extracurricular sports or other activities, educators are at risk of liability for injuries that children sustain if officials fail to meet their duty to protect youngsters from unreasonable risks of harm.

Accordingly, awareness of the principles relating to the legal duty to supervise students adequately and the defenses to negligence can go a long way toward shielding school districts from liability. As evidenced by the representative cases cited ...


Value Added Methods: Moving From Univariate To Multivariate Criteria, David Newman, Isadore Newman, Carolyn Ridenour, Jennifer Morales Apr 2014

Value Added Methods: Moving From Univariate To Multivariate Criteria, David Newman, Isadore Newman, Carolyn Ridenour, Jennifer Morales

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

The authors describe five value-added methods (VAM) used in school assessment as the backdrop to their main thesis. Then they review the assumptions underlying measurement and evaluation, the foundation of all assessment systems, including value-added. They discuss the traditional criterion variable used in VAM: a standardized test score. Next, they challenge the univariate assumptions of VAMs, and argue that a multivariate paradigm of VAM is more advantageous for educators and stakeholders. Finally they describe a potential scenario whereby a multivariate VAM might be implemented.


Student Records And Privacy, Charles J. Russo, Allan G. Osborne Jr. Apr 2014

Student Records And Privacy, Charles J. Russo, Allan G. Osborne Jr.

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), which became federal law in 1974, addresses the rights of students and their parents with regard to educational records. The two goals of FERPA are (1) to grant parents and eligible students, typically those over age 18, access to their educational records and (2) to limit the access of outsiders to those records. FERPA, along with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and its regulations, also has a significant effect on the delivery of special education for students with disabilities (20 U.S.C. § 1232[g]; 34 C.F.R. § 99 ...


A Primer On Charter Schools And The Law, Charles J. Russo Mar 2014

A Primer On Charter Schools And The Law, Charles J. Russo

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

The charter school movement began in 1991, when Minnesota enacted the first law authorizing their creation. To date, 41 states plus the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico permit the creation of charter schools, according to the National Charter School Resource Center (n.d.).

Charter schools, public schools of choice, are usually operated as not-for-profit institutions independently or occasionally in conjunction with public organizations, such as colleges and universities. As such, they have generally survived challenges to their constitutionality.

This column provides a primer for education leaders on the legal basics associated with the operations of charter schools. It does ...