Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 618

Full-Text Articles in Education

A Phenomenological Study Examining The Experiences Of Female High School Career And Technical Education Completers Who Participated In A Technology-Based Program Of Study, Stephen Christopher Tate Jul 2020

A Phenomenological Study Examining The Experiences Of Female High School Career And Technical Education Completers Who Participated In A Technology-Based Program Of Study, Stephen Christopher Tate

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate how female high school students who earned Career and Technical Education (CTE) completer status in a technology-based program of study (POS) in Virginia describe their experiences. CTE completer status is defined as having met the Virginia Department of Education’s CTE completer requirements in a technology-based POS. This study was guided by three theories: Self-efficacy theory was applied as it relates to the participants’ status as completers in a technology-based CTE POS; Role-congruity theory suggests that men and women occupy social roles with attendant stereotypes which contributed to how participants described ...


A Causal-Comparative Study Of Christian School Special Needs Student Test Scores Based On Teacher Degree, Daniel Lee Riley Jul 2020

A Causal-Comparative Study Of Christian School Special Needs Student Test Scores Based On Teacher Degree, Daniel Lee Riley

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Special education is a field that is expanding at a rapid pace. A second field of education that has been in existence for only a few decades is the modern Christian K-12 day school. The merging of the two of these phenomena in education creates a research platform that few have studied in unison. There is little research when pairing these two fields, but the need to study them is great. This study will focus on the academic achievement of students with special needs, based upon standardized math and reading test scores, using the Stanford 10 (SAT 10) standardized assessment ...


The Emdr Integrative Group Treatment Protocol For Ongoing Traumatic Stress With Female Survivors Of Child Marriage, Trafficking, And Exploitation In Dhaka, Bangladesh, Sarah Frances Walsh Jun 2020

The Emdr Integrative Group Treatment Protocol For Ongoing Traumatic Stress With Female Survivors Of Child Marriage, Trafficking, And Exploitation In Dhaka, Bangladesh, Sarah Frances Walsh

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This study implements a pilot project investigating the effectiveness of providing the EMDR integrative group treatment protocol adapted for ongoing traumatic stress (EMDR- IGTP-OTS) to females in Dhaka, Bangladesh (and the surrounding areas) who have survived early marriage and sexual exploitation. The aim of the study is to reduce the PTSD symptoms of these women as measured by the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS-Anxiety & HADS-Depression). This study analyzes archival data gathered by Scaling UP EMDR. Few studies exist testing actual interventions to help the population of women or using EMDR-IGTP-OTS with this ...


The Effects Of Enrollment In Remedial Classes On Students’ High School Graduation Rates, Amy Paulson Bennett Jun 2020

The Effects Of Enrollment In Remedial Classes On Students’ High School Graduation Rates, Amy Paulson Bennett

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this study is to determine the effects on high school graduation rates of students who are placed in remedial and non-remedial classes while controlling for the students’ attendance rates. The importance of this study is to identify indicators which can positively or negatively affect high school graduation rates. The results may provide information to improve the historical low high school graduation rates. It is a quantitative study using a causal comparative design. Archival data will be retrieved from four public high schools in the panhandle of Florida. 00 students will be sampled, with 00 female students and ...


Parental Involvement In Children’S Education At A Christian School: A Transcendental Phenomenological Approach, Deborah Ann Minix-Fuller May 2020

Parental Involvement In Children’S Education At A Christian School: A Transcendental Phenomenological Approach, Deborah Ann Minix-Fuller

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Parents share collective experiences of either involving themselves or not in their child’s education. This transcendental phenomenological study’s rationale was to explore the views, experiences, beliefs, and motivations of parents who are involved in their children’s education. Eleven participants who engaged in this research are from a small-sized Christian school in Kentucky. The theory guiding this study is Urie Bronfenbrenner’s theory (1979), the Ecological System (microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem). The data collected from interviews, a focus group, and two surveys. NVivo12 plus Qualitative Data Analysis Software (Q-DAS) implemented to analyze the qualitative data collected ...


Educators’ Practices Involving Deaf Multilingual Learners: A Single Case Study, Mary Christine Thomas Dec 2019

Educators’ Practices Involving Deaf Multilingual Learners: A Single Case Study, Mary Christine Thomas

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this single case study was to identify instructional strategies, that takes into account language and culture, used by professionals and educators involved in the instructional process of DMLs at an elementary school in the southeast. The central research question for this study was: What educational assessments and instructional strategies, that takes language and culture into consideration, are used in the education of DMLs? The theory that guided this study was Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory (Vygotsky, 1978, 2012) as it incorporates students’ culture and social interactions with peers and teachers into the learning process. This was a qualitative ...


Causal-Comparative Study: Differences In Academic Achievement By Levels Of Social-Emotional Skills In Grade Five Students, David Frederick Salvatelli Dec 2019

Causal-Comparative Study: Differences In Academic Achievement By Levels Of Social-Emotional Skills In Grade Five Students, David Frederick Salvatelli

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Students’ social-emotional skills contribute to academic achievement and life success. This causal-comparative study examined differences in mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA) achievement test scores among grade five students by their levels of proficiency (low, moderate, or high) in particular social and emotional skills, namely, academic self-efficacy, persistence, self-control, mastery orientation, and social competence. Participants were 115 grade five students from Title I schools in a metropolitan school district in south Florida. Each social and emotional skill was assessed using the Child Trends Social and Emotional Skills Survey battery. Multivariate Analysis of Variance, Analysis of Variance, and post hoc tests ...


Measures For Comparing An Augmentative And Alternative Communication Application For Use Within A Kindergarten Curriculum, Anna Camille Johnson Mckelphin Dec 2019

Measures For Comparing An Augmentative And Alternative Communication Application For Use Within A Kindergarten Curriculum, Anna Camille Johnson Mckelphin

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this study was to measure the influence of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) with symbol-supported communication applications (apps) on stimulating kindergarten students to increase expressive language in the general education setting in an elementary school located in Washington, DC. The study sample size was 31 students. The research aimed to identify these tools as an effective strategy to assist kindergarten students in using more verbal language, thereby lowering the risk of communication frustration and increasing the expression of learned knowledge. Language data usage was collected by viewing speech acts as operators in a planning system, then integrating ...


Mathematical Dispositions Of Novice Upper-Elementary Teachers: A Phenomenological Study, Leslie Anne Soltis Nov 2019

Mathematical Dispositions Of Novice Upper-Elementary Teachers: A Phenomenological Study, Leslie Anne Soltis

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the mathematical dispositions of novice upper-elementary teachers by exploring their experiences as teachers of mathematics in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Ball’s theory of mathematical knowledge for teaching and Bandura’s self-efficacy theory guided this study. The research project sought to answer the central research question: How do novice upper-elementary teachers perceive and describe their experiences teaching mathematics? Data, in the forms of audio diaries, individual interviews, and online focus groups were collected from a purposeful sample of 10 novice upper-elementary teachers. Data analysis followed a ...


An Educational Intervention To Raise Obesity Awareness, The Importance Of Follow-Up, And The Need To Utilize Recommended Strategies And Interventions Among Advanced Care Practitioners In A Sleep Center Setting, Cindy L. Thomas Aug 2019

An Educational Intervention To Raise Obesity Awareness, The Importance Of Follow-Up, And The Need To Utilize Recommended Strategies And Interventions Among Advanced Care Practitioners In A Sleep Center Setting, Cindy L. Thomas

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Obesity is a national epidemic that affects approximately 40% of adult Americans. A lack of advanced practitioner (AP) knowledge about obesity and follow-up may contribute to the obesity epidemic. Diagnosing obesity and beginning prompt weight loss (WL) management with the aim to prevent the development or progression of chronic illnesses associated with obesity is imperative. Research has shown that WL of 5% to 10% of initial body weight can reverse or reduce the onset of chronic illnesses. The purpose of this evidence-based practice (EBP) scholarly project was to raise the awareness of weight management resources among APs caring for patients ...


Local Case Management Teams: A Case Study Of A Whole Approach To Ninth Grade Intervention For Students At Risk For High School Dropout, Jessica Anne Grant Jul 2019

Local Case Management Teams: A Case Study Of A Whole Approach To Ninth Grade Intervention For Students At Risk For High School Dropout, Jessica Anne Grant

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Based on existing empirical research, schools continue to use single intervention programs for intervening on behalf of at-risk students despite the fact that those programs do not meet with significant success in decreasing dropout rates. The problem is that the phenomenon of multidimensional approaches to intervening on behalf of ninth-grade students has yet to be explored and understood. The purpose of this single case study was to describe the critical case of Local Case Management Teams utilizing a multidimensional approach to intervening on behalf of at-risk ninth grade students in a large suburban school district in Utah. The following research ...


Using A Student Success Course And Transferred Credit Hours To Predict Student's Likelihood To Retain In Online Higher Education, Bailey Patricia Anderson May 2019

Using A Student Success Course And Transferred Credit Hours To Predict Student's Likelihood To Retain In Online Higher Education, Bailey Patricia Anderson

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

As online education permeates a larger percentage of postsecondary student attendance, higher education institutions place a greater focus on online student retention. Online learners are entering college with varied backgrounds, demographics, and prior experience, yet most institutions are not differentiating the first-year programs for their incoming students with previous college-level experience. The following research used a binomial logistic regression analysis to explore existing, archival data to determine whether college transfer credit and a student success course can predict short- or long-term online student retention. This correlational study evaluated a randomized sample of 3,000 students who took a student success ...


The Impact Of The Success For All Classroom Model On School Climate And Teacher Satisfaction, Amy Lynn Chesnut Apr 2019

The Impact Of The Success For All Classroom Model On School Climate And Teacher Satisfaction, Amy Lynn Chesnut

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Providing quality education for students in disadvantaged communities has been at the forefront of educational research for decades. These schools struggle each year with budgets that fail to meet the needs of the school, low teacher and student morale, and low teacher retention. Success for All has been identified as an effective program to increase literacy skills and standardized test scores for disadvantaged children. The purpose of this quasi-experimental static-group comparison study was to investigate the impact of Success for All on teacher satisfaction and school climate in low performing schools. Teacher satisfaction and school climate have an instrumental, positive ...


Assessing Content Mastery: Using Quasi-Experimental Research To Study The Effect That Standards-Based Progress Reporting To Parents May Have On Student Achievement In Science At One Georgia Middle School, Matthew Scott Odell Dec 2018

Assessing Content Mastery: Using Quasi-Experimental Research To Study The Effect That Standards-Based Progress Reporting To Parents May Have On Student Achievement In Science At One Georgia Middle School, Matthew Scott Odell

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

With the establishment of standards-based testing as the key assessment of student knowledge gains and with the increased accountability first brought by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and now with the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), the role of the teacher and the methods of assessment have continued to change. To reach the national goals established by NCLB and the state guidelines established to allow the states to guide education in the ESSA, the testing of students’ previous knowledge and the identification of their strengths has become important to show teachers how to meet their students’ needs. More empirical research ...


A Causal-Comparative Analysis Of The Effect Of Reading Instruction On The Reading Achievement Of Third-Grade Students In Title I Elementary Schools., Hamilton Elijah Smith Oct 2018

A Causal-Comparative Analysis Of The Effect Of Reading Instruction On The Reading Achievement Of Third-Grade Students In Title I Elementary Schools., Hamilton Elijah Smith

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Title I, Part A (Title I) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) allocates federal government funds to schools serving low-income families. Title I schools receive additional financial support to combat the impact of poverty on students’ elementary and secondary education. This quantitative causal-comparative study examined the effect of reading instruction on third-grade students’ reading achievement score. The study included Title I elementary schools (n=4) within an urban school district in the Southeastern region of the United States. Participants included a convenience sampling of third-grade students (N=340). The researcher collected anonymous archived reading achievement scores from the ...


The Relationship Between Test Of Essential Academic Skills And Nursing Final Course Grades For Sophomore Students In A Residential, Undergraduate, Pre-Licensure Bachelor Of Science Nursing Program, Tracey Milton Turner Oct 2018

The Relationship Between Test Of Essential Academic Skills And Nursing Final Course Grades For Sophomore Students In A Residential, Undergraduate, Pre-Licensure Bachelor Of Science Nursing Program, Tracey Milton Turner

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

In light of the national nursing shortage, there is a heightened need to admit students to schools of nursing who are likely to persist through graduation. The purpose of this quantitative predictive correlational study was to determine if Test of Essential Academic Skills (TEAS) subscale testing scores could predict the final course grade in a fundamentals of nursing course for sophomore students in a residential, undergraduate, pre-licensure Bachelor of Science in nursing (BSN) program at a private university. Archival data consisting of information related to sophomore, residential, undergraduate, pre-licensure BSN students at a private university during the 2015-2016, 2016-2017, and ...


Perceptions Of Community College Of The Air Force Graduates Regarding The Degree's Influence On Employability: A Case Study, Kimberly Castillo Sep 2018

Perceptions Of Community College Of The Air Force Graduates Regarding The Degree's Influence On Employability: A Case Study, Kimberly Castillo

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this single embedded case study was to answer the central question: How do CCAF graduates perceive the impact of their degree in enhancing their employability for the civilian workforce? Because veterans have historically suffered from high unemployment (Kleykamp, 2013), veteran employment is a highly politicized problem considering the large number who will soon be discharged (Burnett-Zeigler, Valenstein, Ilgen, Blow, Gorman, & Zivin, 2011; Humensky, Jordan, Stroupe, & Hynes, 2013; Kleykamp, 2013; Loughran, 2014). This study used a theoretical framework of the transition theory to better understand the issues airmen faced when leaving the Air Force as well as hope theory to understand their ...


Experiences Of Special Education Teachers Performing Physical Restraints Involving Students With Disabilities: A Transcendental Phenomenological Study, Stephanie Laymon Sep 2018

Experiences Of Special Education Teachers Performing Physical Restraints Involving Students With Disabilities: A Transcendental Phenomenological Study, Stephanie Laymon

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The performance of physical restraints on students with disabilities has become a significant interest to the legislative and disability communities in recent years. A report from the USDOE Department of Civil Rights (2018) indicated that while students with disabilities make up only 12% of the student population, these students account for 71% of the physical restraints in public schools. To date, little research has been identified involving physical restraints in public schools. This transcendental phenomenological study collected data from 10 special educators in a school district in Southeast Tennessee who were involved in the physical restraint of students with disabilities ...


An Analysis Of Principal Burnout And Job-Person Fit Among Elementary, Middle, And High School Principals In Alabama, David West Sep 2018

An Analysis Of Principal Burnout And Job-Person Fit Among Elementary, Middle, And High School Principals In Alabama, David West

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This causal-comparative, quantitative study examined the relationship between elementary, middle, and high school principals’ level of burnout and job-person fit. The purpose of this study was to identify the congruence of school principal burnout by examining the dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Job-person fit was explored by comparing the principal and his or her work environment. The six key domains of worklife (i.e., workload, control, community, reward, fairness, and values) were examined using the Areas of Worklife Survey, and data on the level of burnout were collected using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educator’s Survey. The data ...


Community College Completion: The Predictive Relationship Between Placement Scores And Graduation, Lisa Martin Sep 2018

Community College Completion: The Predictive Relationship Between Placement Scores And Graduation, Lisa Martin

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This predictive correlative study was designed to investigate the relationship between the entry placement-test scores of community college students as measured by the ACT® COMPASS® placement exams and the students’ successful completion of a degree or certificate program at a technical (community) college in South Carolina. The study was of importance, for it was designed to determine if ACT® COMPASS® placement test scores can predict graduation from a degree or certificate program in the subject college’s programs of study. The study will utilize archival data available in the college’s retention-management system. The selected college is a mid-sized institution ...


¿Esto Funciona?: Studying The Influences Of Peer Tutoring On Student Performance In The Spanish Language-Learning Process, Alisha Castaneda Sep 2018

¿Esto Funciona?: Studying The Influences Of Peer Tutoring On Student Performance In The Spanish Language-Learning Process, Alisha Castaneda

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Foreign language pedagogy is currently pushing for a more communicative approach to teaching learners practical language skills (Jones, Squires, and Hicks, 2008). Students want to develop language skills they can use in their careers and everyday lives; consequently, professors are integrating learning methods that make the language classroom more practical and applicable to students’ needs. One potentially invaluable tool in the language-learning process is requiring students to complete a specific number of target-language peer tutoring hours. This study examines the correlations among three variables: the number of tutoring hours students complete, their numerical final course grades, and their scores on ...


Digital Game-Based Learning And The Mathematics Achievement Of Gifted Students, Lynette Cooper Aug 2018

Digital Game-Based Learning And The Mathematics Achievement Of Gifted Students, Lynette Cooper

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group study was to determine the presence of a statistically significant difference in the mathematics achievement of gifted learners when utilizing digital game-based learning (DGBL) for supplemental mathematics instruction when compared to gifted learners not utilizing DGBL. This study compared the Student Growth Percentile (SGP) of 105 sixth-grade gifted participants from two public middle schools as measured by the Renaissance Learning STAR Math Test. The participants took a pretest, completed 540 minutes of supplemental mathematics instruction over a nine-week period, and took a posttest. Participants were randomly selected for the treatment group who ...


Middle School Apathy: A Phenomenological Study From Students' Perspective, Debra Graves Aug 2018

Middle School Apathy: A Phenomenological Study From Students' Perspective, Debra Graves

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose for this phenomenological study was to investigate students’ perceptions as to why some middle school students lose their intrinsic motivation to learn and develop apathy toward learning while other middle school students thrive. The following question guided the research: Based on students’ lived experiences, what are the sources for motivation and/or apathy during the middle school years? Four sub-questions were also used: (1) What are students’ perspectives about the intersection of standardized testing and report cards to their motivation/apathy to learn? (2) What are students’ perceptions of the intersection of technology and motivation/apathy? (3) What ...


The Relationship Between Self-Regulation And Perceived Autonomy Of Psychological Well-Being Among Fifth Grade Christian Private School Students, Benedetto Mongiovi Aug 2018

The Relationship Between Self-Regulation And Perceived Autonomy Of Psychological Well-Being Among Fifth Grade Christian Private School Students, Benedetto Mongiovi

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Increased anxiety, depression, and maladaptive ways of coping among children are evidence of an increase in poor psychological well-being. The purpose of this predictive correlational study was to examine the theory of self-determination that relates natural and intrinsic tendencies of students to behave in an effective and healthy autonomy-supportive way, by examining the predictive relationship of perceived autonomy-support, self-regulation, and psychological well-being of fifth grade Christian private school students. The criterion variable was defined as psychological well-being in this study. The predictor variables were perceived autonomy-support and self-regulation. Data were collected to facilitate this study from 124 fifth grade students ...


The Predictive Relationship Between Student Engagement Scores And Pass/Fail Rates Of A Credit Recovery Course Among High School Students, Tara Douds Aug 2018

The Predictive Relationship Between Student Engagement Scores And Pass/Fail Rates Of A Credit Recovery Course Among High School Students, Tara Douds

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this predictive correlational study was to examine the relationship between Finn’s conceptual framework of student engagement as it relates to the pass/fail rate of an online credit recovery course. A logistic regression was utilized in this study. The predictor variable was student engagement of high school students. The criterion variable was the pass/fail rate of a credit recovery course. The participants included a nonrandom sample of 49 students from two public high schools. The students completed the Motivation and Engagement Scale – High School (MES-HS) survey comprised of 44 questions, which measured student motivation and ...


How Intra-District School Choice And Competition Among Schools Impacts School Leadership: A Case Study Of Secondary School Principals, Chris Kohan Aug 2018

How Intra-District School Choice And Competition Among Schools Impacts School Leadership: A Case Study Of Secondary School Principals, Chris Kohan

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this qualitative, explanatory case study was to describe how traditional, magnet, and charter school principals in one Delaware school district responded to an environment of total school choice and how they made sense of their roles as a principal in the era of school choice. Hess’s (2010) organizational theory was the theoretical foundation for this study as selective enrollment schools, such as magnet and charter schools, would have direct and indirect effects on traditional schools The research questions for this study were: (a) How do traditional, magnet, and charter school principals make sense of the competition ...


Teachers’ Perceptions Of Effective Student Support Systems By Availability Of Student Support Facilitators, Marsha Joyce-Tatum Aug 2018

Teachers’ Perceptions Of Effective Student Support Systems By Availability Of Student Support Facilitators, Marsha Joyce-Tatum

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Student support systems are designed to improve struggling students’ performance and should be used by general and special education teachers. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers’ perceptions of student support system frameworks in a rural school district in a Mid-Atlantic state with a full-time or part-time student support facilitator. This study will provide educational leaders with information on teachers’ perceptions concerning student support systems, in order to support creation of improved staff development efforts that will influence effective teacher use of student support systems. Teachers’ perceptions of their training, special education eligibility, and framework weaknesses in student ...


The Relationship Between English Language Proficiency And Academic Achievement For English Language Learners, Laura Grisso Aug 2018

The Relationship Between English Language Proficiency And Academic Achievement For English Language Learners, Laura Grisso

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this quantitative correlational research study was to test the threshold hypothesis as it applied to the performance of English language learner students on the Oklahoma Core Curriculum Test (OCCT) in third grade reading and the Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State to State for English language learners assessment, also known as the ACCESS for ELLs. The OCCT assesses student performance on third grade reading content and the ACCESS for ELLs assesses the English language proficiency levels in speaking, listening, reading, and writing. This study specifically proposed to analyze the relationship between the ACCESS for ELLs reading ...


"I Refuse To Die": Exploring The Relationship Between Spirituality And Persistence Among African American Ph.D. Students And Graduates, Kerley Perminio Most Aug 2018

"I Refuse To Die": Exploring The Relationship Between Spirituality And Persistence Among African American Ph.D. Students And Graduates, Kerley Perminio Most

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

African American doctoral students experience the highest levels of attrition (60%) in the nation and the most social and academic challenges in higher education. Concurrently, research supports that African Americans are among the most spiritual people in America. This study applied hierarchical logistic regression to investigate the relationship between spirituality and persistence among African American doctoral students (N = 179). Tinto’s model of attrition, a systematic framework to predict degree completion based on suicide theory, was employed. Reliable instruments, the Institutional Integration Scale and the Spirituality Scale, were utilized. Results revealed that (a) different levels of spirituality were related to ...


A Transcendental Phenomenological Study Of Novice Teachers Administrative Support Experiences In High-Poverty High-Minority Rural South Carolina Schools, Celestine Lavan Aug 2018

A Transcendental Phenomenological Study Of Novice Teachers Administrative Support Experiences In High-Poverty High-Minority Rural South Carolina Schools, Celestine Lavan

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to develop a deeper understanding of the lived experiences of novice teachers who remain teaching in high-poverty, high-minority rural schools in South Carolina in relation to the administrative support they received. The research questions guiding this study are: (1) How do novice teachers describe their administrative support experiences in high-poverty, high-minority schools? (2) How do novice teachers in high-poverty, high-minority rural schools describe administrative emotional and social support experiences? (3) How do novice teachers in high-poverty, high-minority rural schools describe administrative instructional support experiences in high-poverty, high-minority rural schools? This study intended ...