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Full-Text Articles in Education

Pre-K In The Public Schools: Evidence From Within U.S. States, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein May 2018

Pre-K In The Public Schools: Evidence From Within U.S. States, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein

Timothy J. Bartik

In the past 15 years, four-year-olds’ enrollment in state-funded pre-kindergarten in the United States has doubled, and advocates have pushed for further expansion. Although research has shown that pre-K programs can have important benefits, most existing studies have focused on small or state-specific programs that may not generalize to other areas or contexts. The uniqueness of our paper is its scope: our data cover the last two decades, span nearly all states, and allow for intrastate variation. For the average state program, we find no evidence of effects on the average student’s test scores, assignment to special education, or ...


Degrees Of Poverty: The Relationship Between Family Income Background And The Returns To Education, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein Mar 2018

Degrees Of Poverty: The Relationship Between Family Income Background And The Returns To Education, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein

Timothy J. Bartik

Drawing on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we document a startling empirical pattern: the career earnings premium from a four-year college degree (relative to a high school diploma) for persons from low-income backgrounds is considerably less than it is for those from higher-income backgrounds. For individuals whose family income in high school was above 1.85 times the poverty level, we estimate that career earnings for bachelor’s graduates are 136 percent higher than earnings for those whose education stopped at high school. However, for individuals whose family income during high school was below 1.85 times the poverty ...


Early Childhood Education And Local Economic Development, Timothy J. Bartik Oct 2017

Early Childhood Education And Local Economic Development, Timothy J. Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


A Benefit-Cost Analysis Of The Tulsa Universal Pre-K Program, Timothy J. Bartik, Jonathan A. Belford, William T. Gormley, Sara Anderson Aug 2016

A Benefit-Cost Analysis Of The Tulsa Universal Pre-K Program, Timothy J. Bartik, Jonathan A. Belford, William T. Gormley, Sara Anderson

Timothy J. Bartik

In this paper, benefits and costs are estimated for a universal pre-K program, provided by Tulsa Public Schools. Benefits are derived from estimated effects of Tulsa pre-K on retention by grade 9. Retention effects are projected to dollar benefits from future earnings increases and crime reductions. Based on these estimates, Tulsa pre-K has benefits exceeding costs by about 2-to-1. This benefit cost ratio is far less than the benefit-cost ratios (ranging from 8-to-1 to 16-to-1) for more targeted and intensive pre-K programs from the 1970s and 80s, such as Perry Preschool and the Chicago Child-Parent Center (CPC) program. Comparing benefit-cost ...


The Merits Of Universal Scholarships: Benefit-Cost Evidence From The Kalamazoo Promise, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein, Marta Lachowska Mar 2016

The Merits Of Universal Scholarships: Benefit-Cost Evidence From The Kalamazoo Promise, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein, Marta Lachowska

Timothy J. Bartik

As higher education costs rise, many communities have begun to adopt their own financial aid strategy: place-based scholarships for students graduating from the local school district. In this paper, we examine the benefits and costs of the Kalamazoo Promise, one of the more universal and more generous place-based scholarships. Building upon estimates of the program's heterogeneous effects on degree attainment, scholarship cost data, and projections of future earnings by education, we examine the Promise’s benefit-cost ratios for students differentiated by income, race, and gender. Although the average rate of return of the program is 11 percent, rates of ...


Migration And Housing Price Effects Of Place-Based College Scholarships, Timothy J. Bartik, Nathan Sotherland Dec 2015

Migration And Housing Price Effects Of Place-Based College Scholarships, Timothy J. Bartik, Nathan Sotherland

Timothy J. Bartik

Place-based college scholarships, such as the Kalamazoo Promise, provide students who live in a particular place, and/or who attend a particular school district, with generous college scholarships. An important potential benefit from such “Promise programs” is their short-term effects on local economic development. Generous Promise scholarships provide an incentive for families to locate in a particular place, which may change migration patterns, and potentially boost local employment and housing prices. Using data from the American Community Survey, this paper estimates the average effects of eight relatively generous Promise programs on migration rates and housing prices in their local labor ...


The Effects Of The Kalamazoo Promise Scholarship On College Enrollment, Persistence, And Completion, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein, Marta Lachowska Jun 2015

The Effects Of The Kalamazoo Promise Scholarship On College Enrollment, Persistence, And Completion, Timothy J. Bartik, Brad J. Hershbein, Marta Lachowska

Timothy J. Bartik

We estimate the effects on postsecondary education outcomes of the Kalamazoo Promise, a generous, place-based college scholarship. We identify Promise effects using difference-in-differences, comparing eligible to ineligible graduates before and after the Promise’s initiation. According to our estimates, the Promise significantly increases college enrollment, college credits attempted, and credential attainment. Stronger effects occur for women.


The Road Toward K-12 Excellence In Michigan: How An Upgraded Financing System Can Better Support Enhanced Student Achievement, Kevin Hollenbeck, Timothy J. Bartik, Randall W. Eberts, Brad J. Hershbein, Michelle Miller-Adams May 2015

The Road Toward K-12 Excellence In Michigan: How An Upgraded Financing System Can Better Support Enhanced Student Achievement, Kevin Hollenbeck, Timothy J. Bartik, Randall W. Eberts, Brad J. Hershbein, Michelle Miller-Adams

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


What Works In State Economic Development?, Timothy Bartik Jan 2015

What Works In State Economic Development?, Timothy Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


Higher Education, The Health Care Industry, And Metropolitan Regional Economic Development: What Can "Eds & Meds" Do For The Economic Fortunes Of A Metro Area's Residents?, Timothy J. Bartik, George A. Erickcek Jan 2015

Higher Education, The Health Care Industry, And Metropolitan Regional Economic Development: What Can "Eds & Meds" Do For The Economic Fortunes Of A Metro Area's Residents?, Timothy J. Bartik, George A. Erickcek

Timothy J. Bartik

This paper examines the effects of expansions in higher educational institutions and the medical service industry on the economic development of a metropolitan area. This examination pulls together previous research and provides some new empirical evidence. We provide quantitative evidence of the magnitude of economic effects of higher education and medical service industries that occur through the mechanism of providing some export-base demand stimulus to a metropolitan economy. We also provide quantitative evidence on how much higher education institutions can boost a metropolitan economy through increasing the educational attainment of local residence. We estimate that medical service industries pay above ...


Preschool Education As An Economic Development Program, Timothy Bartik Jan 2015

Preschool Education As An Economic Development Program, Timothy Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

This research presented preschool education as a plausible economic development program focusing on the benefits that can be measured in terms of the goals of state and local economic development programs: more jobs and better jobs for local residents. Preschool education’s cost-effectiveness in achieving these goals was compared with traditional state and local economic development programs such as financial incentives and customized services provided to individual businesses.


Introduction And Overview, Timothy Bartik, Susan Houseman Jan 2015

Introduction And Overview, Timothy Bartik, Susan Houseman

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


An Alternative Pathway To A High School Diploma Is Needed, Kevin Hollenbeck, Timothy J. Bartik Jan 2015

An Alternative Pathway To A High School Diploma Is Needed, Kevin Hollenbeck, Timothy J. Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


The Economic Payoffs Of Early Childhood Education, Timothy Bartik Jan 2015

The Economic Payoffs Of Early Childhood Education, Timothy Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


"Eds And Meds" And Metropolitan Economic Development, Timothy Bartik, George Erickcek Jan 2015

"Eds And Meds" And Metropolitan Economic Development, Timothy Bartik, George Erickcek

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


Effects Of The Pre-K Program Of Kalamazoo County Ready 4s On Kindergarten Entry Test Scores: Estimates Based On Data From The Fall Of 2011 And The Fall Of 2012, Timothy J. Bartik Jan 2015

Effects Of The Pre-K Program Of Kalamazoo County Ready 4s On Kindergarten Entry Test Scores: Estimates Based On Data From The Fall Of 2011 And The Fall Of 2012, Timothy J. Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

This paper uses a regression discontinuity model to examine the effects on kindergarten entrance assessments of the Kalamazoo County Ready 4s (KC Ready 4s) program, a half-day pre-K program for four-year-olds in Kalamazoo County, Michigan. The results are based on test scores and other characteristics of up to 220 children participating in KC Ready 4s, with data coming from both 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 participants in the program. The estimates find consistently statistically significant effects of this pre-K program on improving entering kindergartners’ math test scores. Some estimates also suggest marginally statistically significant effects of KC Ready 4s on ...


Earnings Benefits Of Tulsa's Pre-K Program For Different Income Groups, Timothy J. Bartik, William Gormley, Shirley Adelstein Jan 2015

Earnings Benefits Of Tulsa's Pre-K Program For Different Income Groups, Timothy J. Bartik, William Gormley, Shirley Adelstein

Timothy J. Bartik

This paper estimates future adult earnings effects associated with a universal pre-K program in Tulsa, Oklahoma. These informed projections help to compensate for the lack of long-term data on universal pre-K programs, while using metrics that relate test scores to valued social benefits. Combining test-score data from the fall of 2006 and recent findings by Chetty et al. (forthcoming) on the relationship between kindergarten test scores and adult earnings, we generate plausible projections of adult earnings effects and a partial cost-benefit analysis of the Tulsa pre-K program. We find substantial projected earnings benefits for program participants who differ by income ...


The Effects Of Pre-K Access And Quality On Social Inequality, Timothy Bartik Jan 2015

The Effects Of Pre-K Access And Quality On Social Inequality, Timothy Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

The effects of state and local government funded pre-K programs on racial and income inequality will be studied. How the effects vary with whether pre-K is targeted on the poor or is more universal will be estimated. How the effects vary with pre-K program quality and whether or not expansion of high-quality pre-K would significantly reduce economic and social inequality across different races and income groups will also be examined. This study will go beyond previous research by considering all states and by adding relevance and increasing precision of estimation. Secondly, it includes measures, not only of the overall probability ...


Bringing The Future Into The Present: How Policymakers Should Deal With The Delayed Benefits Of Early Childhood Programs, Timothy Bartik Jan 2015

Bringing The Future Into The Present: How Policymakers Should Deal With The Delayed Benefits Of Early Childhood Programs, Timothy Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


Distributional Effects Of Early Childhood Programs And Business Incentives And Their Implications For Policy, Timothy J. Bartik Jan 2015

Distributional Effects Of Early Childhood Programs And Business Incentives And Their Implications For Policy, Timothy J. Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

This is a draft of a chapter of a planned book, Preschool and Jobs: Human Development as Economic Development, and Vice Versa [subsequently published as Investing in Kids, 2011]. This book analyzes early childhood programs effects on regional economic development. This chapter considers the effects of early childhood programs and business incentives on the income distribution. A key issue is whether early childhood programs should be targeted on the poor, or made universally available for free. Relevant considerations in addressing this issue include how benefits of early childhood programs benefit with family income, and the political feasibility of targeted versus ...


A Future Of Good Jobs? America's Challenge In The Global Economy, Timothy J. Bartik, Susan N. Houseman Jan 2015

A Future Of Good Jobs? America's Challenge In The Global Economy, Timothy J. Bartik, Susan N. Houseman

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


Introduction [To Investing In Kids], Timothy Bartik Jan 2015

Introduction [To Investing In Kids], Timothy Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


From Preschool To Prosperity: The Economic Payoff To Early Childhood Education, Timothy J. Bartik Jan 2015

From Preschool To Prosperity: The Economic Payoff To Early Childhood Education, Timothy J. Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

Bartik shows that investment in high-quality early childhood education has several long-term benefits, including higher adult earnings for program participants.


"Eds & Meds" And Metropolitan Economic Development, Timothy J. Bartik, George A. Erickcek Jan 2015

"Eds & Meds" And Metropolitan Economic Development, Timothy J. Bartik, George A. Erickcek

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


Economic Development Benefits Of Preschool Expansion In Kalamazoo County, Timothy J. Bartik Jan 2015

Economic Development Benefits Of Preschool Expansion In Kalamazoo County, Timothy J. Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

This paper examines the effects of preschool expansion in Kalamazoo County on the county's economic development. Effects on the county's economic development are defined as effects on the employment and earnings of county residents. The estimated effects are found to be large relative to the costs. In addition to their relevance to Kalamazoo County, these simulations illustrate how the analysis presented in two previous papers (Bartik 2006, 2008) can be done for an individual county or metropolitan area. Such simulations may be of interest to other counties or metropolitan areas that are considering expansions in early childhood programs.


The Kalamazoo Promise, And Enrollment And Achievement Trends In Kalamazoo Public Schools, Timothy J. Bartik, Randall W. Eberts, Wei-Jang Huang Jan 2015

The Kalamazoo Promise, And Enrollment And Achievement Trends In Kalamazoo Public Schools, Timothy J. Bartik, Randall W. Eberts, Wei-Jang Huang

Timothy J. Bartik

This paper examines three types of KPS trends that may represent Promise effects: 1) trends in overall enrollment, 2) trends in relative enrollment by ethnic group, and 3) trends in KPS achievement on the standardized test used by the state of Michigan for No Child Left Behind accountability, the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) test.


The National Perspective: How Local Business Incentives And Early Childhood Programs Affect The National Economy, Timothy Bartik Jan 2015

The National Perspective: How Local Business Incentives And Early Childhood Programs Affect The National Economy, Timothy Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


The Kalamazoo Promise Scholarship, Timothy Bartik, Marta Lachowska Jan 2015

The Kalamazoo Promise Scholarship, Timothy Bartik, Marta Lachowska

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


The Kalamazoo Promise As A Model For An American Promise, Timothy J. Bartik, Michelle Miller-Adams Jan 2015

The Kalamazoo Promise As A Model For An American Promise, Timothy J. Bartik, Michelle Miller-Adams

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.


Why Universal Preschool Is Really A Labor Market Program, Timothy J. Bartik Jan 2015

Why Universal Preschool Is Really A Labor Market Program, Timothy J. Bartik

Timothy J. Bartik

No abstract provided.