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2001

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Cover - Table Of Contents Dec 2001

Cover - Table Of Contents

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Front Matter Dec 2001

Front Matter

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Invasive Species In Iowa: An Introduction, James J. Dinsmore, Neil P. Bernstein Dec 2001

Invasive Species In Iowa: An Introduction, James J. Dinsmore, Neil P. Bernstein

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Concern over the increasing spread of invasive species and the potential impacts of those species on native communities has been the subject of several books and hundreds of research papers in recent years. President Clinton's Executive Order on invasive species in February1999 raised national attention to this issue. Natural resource agencies have been plagued by an ever-increasing number of invasive species and now consider this issue the second most important problem (after habitat loss) in their fight to maintain some semblance of natural communities on this planet. One group of experts estimated that in the United States alone, invasives ...


War On Weeds: Winning It For Natural Areas, Jerry E. Asher Dec 2001

War On Weeds: Winning It For Natural Areas, Jerry E. Asher

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

I am delighted to be here with you today to discuss the rapidly accelerating damage that invasive exotic plants are inflicting on natural areas in this country. This problem may seem overwhelming, but you need not despair because there are economical, realistic, and effective strategies available to meet this challenge.

There are two purposes to this presentation: to give you information you can use to convince others that invasive exotic plants are seriously harmful, and to suggest that we can win this war on invasive exotic plants if we engage enough of the right people.


An Overview And Management Plan Of Iowa's Non-Native, Invasive, Terrestrial Forbs, Deborah Q. Lewis, Richard O. Pope Dec 2001

An Overview And Management Plan Of Iowa's Non-Native, Invasive, Terrestrial Forbs, Deborah Q. Lewis, Richard O. Pope

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Non-native, invasive forb species have been a problem in Iowa since the earliest decades of Iowa's European settlement. The history of studies of Iowa's invasive plants began with L. H. Pammel, and these studies continue to present. Three tables cite the occurrence of many of these species in the state, with Table 1 listing 93 non-native forbs reported by Pammel, Table 2 citing ten invasive forbs of natural areas, and Table 3 adding 38 observed or potential aggressive species of Iowa's anthropogenic and natural areas.

There has been a divergence of interest and research in the management ...


More Than A Century Of Change In The Ames, Iowa Flora (1859-2000), William R. Norris, Mark P. Widrlechner, Deborah Q. Lewis, Jimmie D. Thompson, Richard O. Pope Dec 2001

More Than A Century Of Change In The Ames, Iowa Flora (1859-2000), William R. Norris, Mark P. Widrlechner, Deborah Q. Lewis, Jimmie D. Thompson, Richard O. Pope

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

We compared two floras compiled in Ames, Iowa: (1) an "historic" flora based on two published floras (1871, 1890) and on 1450 herbarium voucher specimens of plants collected in Ames between 1859 and 1899, and (2) a "current" flora compiled by us during recent fieldwork (1990-2000). Our goals were to determine 1) long-term changes in composition (i.e., the proportion of native species) over time, 2) long-term changes in the abundance of individual plant species over time, and 3) the extent of gains and losses of native and non-native plant species. We found that the proportion of native species declined ...


Iowa's Non-Native Graminoids, Thomas R. Rosburg Dec 2001

Iowa's Non-Native Graminoids, Thomas R. Rosburg

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Iowa's non-native graminoids include 60 species of grasses and one species of bulrush. The exotic grass species comprise a large proportion (about 31%) of the total species richness of grasses in Iowa, which are second only to the Asteraceae in terms of total species. About half of the non-native graminoids (52%) occur sporadically and form sparse, non-invasive populations, while eighteen species (about 30%) are commonly encountered in large populations throughout the state. About 60% are annuals and a large majority (89%) has been introduced from either Europe or Asia. The C3 photosynthetic pathway is prevalent, occurring in approximately two-thirds ...


Exotic And Invasive Woody Plant Species In Iowa, Donald R. Farrar Dec 2001

Exotic And Invasive Woody Plant Species In Iowa, Donald R. Farrar

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Seventy species and hybrids of exotic woody trees, shrubs, and vines have naturalized in Iowa. Nearly half of these species (31) have become invasive pests in parts of the state or have potential do so. Most of the seriously invasive species are spread by bird ingestion of whole fruits. Widespread dispersal by birds hinders eradication efforts and should be considered a trait indicative of potential invasiveness. The economic and ecological values of Iowa forests are seriously compromised by exotic invasive woody species, especially where forests recovering from cropland and pasture are dominated by exotic species. Thus, a simple measure of ...


The Role Of Environmental Analogs In Identifying Potentially Invasive Woody Plants In Iowa, Mark P. Widrlechner Dec 2001

The Role Of Environmental Analogs In Identifying Potentially Invasive Woody Plants In Iowa, Mark P. Widrlechner

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Americans cultivate a large and diverse range of introduced woody plants as important sources of food and forest products, as well as for urban horticulture, amenity and wildlife plantings, and windbreaks. A small number of these species have become serious pests, disrupting well-established native plant communities or functioning as range and agricultural weeds. More of these species are not serious pests today, but have escaped cultivation and serve as potential sources of future outbreaks. Two other sources of potentially invasive woody plants are found among species that are not or are only rarely cultivated, about which we often know little ...


Ecological Problems With Iowa's Invasive And Introduced Fishes, Neil P. Bernstein, John R. Olson Dec 2001

Ecological Problems With Iowa's Invasive And Introduced Fishes, Neil P. Bernstein, John R. Olson

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Since the time of European settlement, at least 59 non-indigenous fish species have been introduced, reached, or moved within Iowa waters. At least 28 nonnative fish species have been introduced into, or reported from Iowa waters since settlement. Of that number, 10 are established at this time through natural reproduction. In addition, many species of native fishes have been translocated within the state, and we provide documentation for 31 of these species. Two translocated species, gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) and yellow bass (Marone mississippiensis), have had adverse impacts on Iowa's aquatic ecosystems. While many introductions are thought to be ...


Non-Native Amphibians And Reptiles In Iowa, James L. Christiansen Dec 2001

Non-Native Amphibians And Reptiles In Iowa, James L. Christiansen

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Only a few species appear as introductions into Iowa in the last 30 years. The bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, was systematically introduced along with fish stocked from hatcheries in the 1930s and this species continues to spread in northern Iowa where it poses a hazard to smaller frogs. Turtles sold as pets, primarily map turtles (Graptemys pseudogeographica and G. geographica) and red-eared turtles (Trachemys scripta) continue to be found in scattered ponds, usually rural, throughout the state. The eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolma) has been reported in or on the edge of most major Iowa cities even though no breeding population ...


Index For The Journal Of The Iowa Academy Of Science Volume 108 And Erratum Dec 2001

Index For The Journal Of The Iowa Academy Of Science Volume 108 And Erratum

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Invasive Birds In Iowa: Status, Problems, And Threats, James J. Dinsmore Dec 2001

Invasive Birds In Iowa: Status, Problems, And Threats, James J. Dinsmore

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

A total of 18 invasive bird species has been introduced into or have expanded their range to include Iowa. These include ten non-North American species, one North American species that has been displaced and now is established in Iowa, and seven native species that have been released to reestablish Iowa populations. Twelve of those are regularly occurring species in Iowa, and they comprise 3.0% (12 of 404) of the species known from Iowa and 5% (10 of 199) of Iowa's nesting avifauna. These percentages are similar to those found in neighboring states. Several more species are likely to ...


Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Science Officers And Directors Dec 2001

Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Science Officers And Directors

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Back Cover Dec 2001

Back Cover

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


History And Development Of The Eurasian Watermilfoil Program In Iowa, Gary S. Phillips Dec 2001

History And Development Of The Eurasian Watermilfoil Program In Iowa, Gary S. Phillips

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Following a concerted effort by citizens of the Iowa Great Lakes area to address the threat posed by Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) to waterbodies in Iowa, the Iowa Eurasian Watermilfoil Law was passed in 1996 by the Iowa legislature. Passage of this law led to the establishment of the Eurasian Watermilfoil Program in July 1996 to address the requirements specified by this legislation. Since establishment of the Eurasian Watermilfoil Program, numerous activities have been carried out to address the threat posed to aquatic ecosystems by Eurasian watermilfoil. These include public awareness and education, boat access monitoring, aquatic vegetation monitoring ...


Eurasian Watermilfoil: Status And Management In Iowa, Gary S. Phillips Dec 2001

Eurasian Watermilfoil: Status And Management In Iowa, Gary S. Phillips

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

In 1993, Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) was discovered in Crystal Lake, Hancock County, Iowa. During the next three years, new infestations were discovered by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) fisheries personnel in four Iowa lakes. In July 1996, a program was established by the IDNR to address the threat posed by Eurasian watermilfoil to Iowa's aquatic ecosystems. As part of the Eurasian Watermilfoil Program, statewide aquatic vegetation monitoring was begun to identify those lakes currently infested with Eurasian watermilfoil. Monitoring activities were conducted by IDNR field technicians during the summers of 1996 through 2000. During this ...


Purple Loosestrife: History, Management, And Biological Control In Iowa, Amy P. Wiebe, John J. Obrycki Dec 2001

Purple Loosestrife: History, Management, And Biological Control In Iowa, Amy P. Wiebe, John J. Obrycki

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is an invasive plant species infesting wetlands in North America. Biodiversity and wetland habitat quality are reduced following purple loosestrife establishment. Several management tactics, including cultural, mechanical, and chemical controls, have had limited success in reducing the spread of purple loosestrife. Beginning in the 1990s, a biological control program has introduced several species of natural enemies from Europe that feed on purple loosestrife. Since 1994, Iowa State University has reared and released two species of beetles that feed on purple loosestrife, Galerucella calmariensis and G. pusilla. Biological control is one component of an integrated purple loosestrife ...


Introduced Fungi: Some Cause Significant Plant Disease Problems, Lois H. Tiffany Dec 2001

Introduced Fungi: Some Cause Significant Plant Disease Problems, Lois H. Tiffany

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Species of the three groups of fungi characterized here on the basis of their energy source acquisition have differing potentials for becoming problem organisms following introduction as alien fungi new to Iowa. The decomposer group of fungi that obtain an energy supply by action of extracellular enzyme activity on dead plant tissues typically have perennial mycelium, are cosmopolitan in distribution, and are unlikely to become problems even if established. The second group, the mycorrhizal/lichen group are highly specific in their relationships. The mycorrhizal fungus group have a potential for being introduced as mycorrhiza already established with the roots of ...


Forest Invasives In Iowa: Current Problems And Future Issues, John Walkowiak, John Haanstad Dec 2001

Forest Invasives In Iowa: Current Problems And Future Issues, John Walkowiak, John Haanstad

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Iowa's forest resources of primarily deciduous trees covers over 0.8 million hectares (2 million acres) of upland and floodplain sites too steep or too wet for traditional row crop agriculture. These limited natural forests along with urban trees and shelterbelts plantings of trees are critical for environmental and economic enhancement in the state. Although not yet established in the state, exotic insects, such as gypsy moth, Asian longhorned beetle, and pine shoot beetle, threaten native tree vitality. Established exotic diseases such as oak wilt and Dutch elm disease continue to plague the survival of Iowa's oak and ...


Establishing Guidelines For Using Readers Theater With Less-Skilled Readers, Steven D. Rinehart Dec 2001

Establishing Guidelines For Using Readers Theater With Less-Skilled Readers, Steven D. Rinehart

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

The author reviews recent research findings concerning the benefits of readers theater for building oral reading accuracy and fluency and then identifies key guidelines for instructional implementation. Recommendations and conclusions place the focus on guidelines for classroom teachers who might want to experiment with readers theater as they work with children who face reading difficulties.


Picture Book Soldiers: Men And Messages, Christina M. Desai Dec 2001

Picture Book Soldiers: Men And Messages, Christina M. Desai

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

This study examines children's picture books about soldiers and war, including fiction, folktales, and historical fiction, analyzing their implicit and explicit messages about war and the military, and evaluating them for gender stereotyping. The soldiers are found to conform almost uniformly to an exaggerated male stereotype. Different value judgments about war and conflict resolution are found in the fiction vs. the historical fiction and in the historical fiction about earlier vs. later historical periods.


Investigating Inferences: Constructing Meaning From Expository Texts, Mary C. Mcmackin, Suenita Lawrence Dec 2001

Investigating Inferences: Constructing Meaning From Expository Texts, Mary C. Mcmackin, Suenita Lawrence

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

Generating inferences during and after reading is a complex task; yet, one that is essential for complete understanding of texts. This report highlights the types of inferences four students in grades 2-5 drew while constructing meaning from expository passages. An analysis of their think alouds and recommendations for comprehension instruction are included.


Reading Horizons Vol. 42, No. 2 Dec 2001

Reading Horizons Vol. 42, No. 2

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

Complete issue of Reading Horizons volume 42, issue 2.


Jaepl, Vol. 7, Winter 2001-2002, Linda T. Calendrillo, Editor, Kristie S. Fleckenstein, Editor Dec 2001

Jaepl, Vol. 7, Winter 2001-2002, Linda T. Calendrillo, Editor, Kristie S. Fleckenstein, Editor

The Journal of the Assembly for Expanded Perspectives on Learning

Morris Berman tells the story of his maternal grandfather, who, when he was five years old in 1883 or 1884, was sent to a Jewish elementary school in Belorussia. On the first day of class, the teacher startled the young boy by taking each child's slate and smearing the first two letters of the Hebrew alphabet—aleph and beys—on it in honey. His grandfather's first lesson consisted of eating the letters off the slate. The symbolism of this act is complex, Berman muses, but central to the ritual is the belief that what is real must be ...


Spanish-English Code Switching In A Bilingual Academic Context, Ruth R. Becker Dec 2001

Spanish-English Code Switching In A Bilingual Academic Context, Ruth R. Becker

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

This study investigates the Spanish-English code switching of 60 elementary Mexican American students in a story retelling activity. The students' story retellings were examined according to Becker's (1997) model of code switching: structural linguistic, internal psycholinguistic, and external social factors. Results suggest there is a positive relationship between code-switched story retelling, oral language usage, and enhanced narrative skills. Implications suggest that teachers explore the use of code switching in a story retelling activity as a practical way to enhance bilingual elementary students' verbal skills and reading development.


“Making-Face, Making-Heart”: The Spiritual Foundations Of An Indigenous Pedagogy, Ralph Casas Nov 2001

“Making-Face, Making-Heart”: The Spiritual Foundations Of An Indigenous Pedagogy, Ralph Casas

Journal of Hispanic / Latino Theology

The author argues for the construction of pedagogical strategies that respect the learner’s context and cognitive framework, aiming for the development of an indigenous ecology of education. He brings the insights of Latin American and U.S. Latino/a theology into consideration, suggesting that the dialogue between Christian and indigenous Mesoamerican religious traditions can be both productive and practical.


A Pilot Study To Test The Effectiveness Of Education Queensland's 'Schooling 2001' Project From The Lote Teachers' Point Of View., Margaret Murphy, Cristina Poyatos-Matas. Nov 2001

A Pilot Study To Test The Effectiveness Of Education Queensland's 'Schooling 2001' Project From The Lote Teachers' Point Of View., Margaret Murphy, Cristina Poyatos-Matas.

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The study described in this article, uncovered the realities and expectations of computer use by Languages Other Than English (LOTE) teachers in language classrooms in state high and primary schools in metropolitan Brisbane. The expectations of LOTE teachers concerning computer use by teachers are listed as part of the Education Queensland initiative called 'Schooling 2001', implemented in 1997. This bold, generously funded three year project had, as one of its major goals, the improvement of computer technology skills and professional development in the teaching workforce. It had, as part of its blueprint, the stipulation that all teachers across the state ...


"I Only Wish I Had Known It Sooner." Education Students' Changing Conceptions Of Learning Strategies., Irene Styles, Susan Beltman, Alex Radloff Nov 2001

"I Only Wish I Had Known It Sooner." Education Students' Changing Conceptions Of Learning Strategies., Irene Styles, Susan Beltman, Alex Radloff

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

One of the cornerstones of student learning is the ability to use appropriate learning strategies. Awareness and orchestration of learning strategies are central to self-regulation of learning. Effective learners have a range of strategies and use them appropriately for different tasks. Effective learners are flexible and can adapt their strategy use to achieve their learning goals. If we expect prospective teachers to help their students become effective learners, they themselves need to be aware of and manage their own learning. But are our prospective teachers themselves effective learners in terms of strategy use? Using a qualitative approach, we examined the ...


The Empty Centre : Power/Knowledge, Relationships And The Myth Of 'Student Centered Teaching' In Teacher Education., David R. Geelan Nov 2001

The Empty Centre : Power/Knowledge, Relationships And The Myth Of 'Student Centered Teaching' In Teacher Education., David R. Geelan

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The notion of ‘student centred learning’ is a popular and influential one in education at all levels. Questions of exactly how this may be defined, and what it would look like in practice are, however, much more difficult to address. During second semester 1998, I was involved in teaching a Masters level unit on teacher action research to a group of middle school teachers. I placed a high value on the knowledge, values and experience of these students, and attempted to allow them considerable freedom to construct their own learning activities and assessment procedures. Some students accepted the offered challenges ...