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Full-Text Articles in Education

Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation Through The Use Of A Token Economy, Gess Leblanc Sep 2004

Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation Through The Use Of A Token Economy, Gess Leblanc

Essays in Education

This work will examine the link between intrinsic motivation and external rewards by describing the experiences of twenty-seven academically under-performing adolescents who were enrolled in an after school program in a New York City public junior high school that implemented a token economy. The goals of the implemented token economy were to establish an objective measure of student competence, to enhance student perceptions of their autonomy, and to establish links between their classroom-based learning and its practical “real world” applications. It is argued that by achieving these goals, the token economy serves as a tool for enhancing levels of self-efficacy ...


Why School Culture Both Attracts And Resists Whole School Reform Models, Bobbie J. Greenlee, Darlene Y. Bruner Jul 2004

Why School Culture Both Attracts And Resists Whole School Reform Models, Bobbie J. Greenlee, Darlene Y. Bruner

Essays in Education

This paper uses the metaphor of "grafting" to describe the relationship of comprehensive school reform designs to the work culture of schools. One school reform model that has widespread implementation is the Success for All (SFA) reading program. The new practice provided in the SFA reading program offered a compatible "graft" onto the existing culture found in low achieving schools. The grafting on of a new program can only occur as long as its requirements do not stray from the existing traditions of the system. Schools adopt reform programs that offer procedural or curricular changes that fit within their existing ...


It’S Time To Upgrade: Tests And Administration Procedures For The New Millennium, Michael Russell Apr 2002

It’S Time To Upgrade: Tests And Administration Procedures For The New Millennium, Michael Russell

Essays in Education

Increasing use of computers in schools has led to a mis-alignment between the way some students develop skill and knowledge and how they are tested. This paper reviews past research that demonstrates that paper-based tests that require students to produce written responses underestimate the achievement of students who are accustomed to writing on computer. The paper then explores how learning that occurs through other instructional uses of computers is not adequately captured by current testing practices. The paper argues that new approaches should be explored to better measure student learning.