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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Social Life Of Orthography Development, Coleman Donaldson Oct 2015

The Social Life Of Orthography Development, Coleman Donaldson

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

From a linguistic perspective the development of orthography for a language is often taken as a scientific endeavor involving the adoption of a set of graphic conventions for mapping the phonemic system of a language. In this paper I unpack how orthography development and use is necessarily wrapped up in socio-political debates. Approaching orthography graphically, I demonstrate how spelling itself frequently carries implicit metacommentary connected to these debates. Next, looking at orthography’s link with speech I argue that ideologies of language in departmentalized linguistics ignore and obscure the way orthography interacts with register phenomena within a language.


Ethnic Multilingual Education In China: A Critical Observation, Ge Wang Oct 2015

Ethnic Multilingual Education In China: A Critical Observation, Ge Wang

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

This paper reviews the ethnic multilingual policies and practices in China in general and Yunnan in particular. It first introduces the demographic features and multilingual policies in Yunnan and then discusses the challenges of ethnic minority education in China from a critical perspective in terms of policy and curriculum. It is argued that it is necessary to re-conceptualize ethnic minority learners in an ever dynamic sociocultural discourse in contemporary China. The author proposes to deepen the research in ethnic multilingual education so as to develop a curriculum to meet the needs of ethnic multicultural learners in the 21st century and ...


Ways Of Talking (And Acting) About Language Reclamation: An Ethnographic Perspective On Learning Lenape In Pennsylvania, Nancy H. Hornberger, Haley De Korne, Miranda Weinberg Apr 2015

Ways Of Talking (And Acting) About Language Reclamation: An Ethnographic Perspective On Learning Lenape In Pennsylvania, Nancy H. Hornberger, Haley De Korne, Miranda Weinberg

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

The experiences of a community of people learning and teaching Lenape in Pennsylvania provide insights into the complexities of current ways of talking and acting about language reclamation. We illustrate how Native and non-Native participants in a university-based Indigenous language class constructed language, identity, and place in nuanced ways that, although influenced by essentializing discourses of language endangerment, are largely pluralist and reflexive. Rather than counting and conserving fixed languages, the actors in this study focus on locally appropriate language education, undertaken with participatory classroom discourses and practices. We argue that locally responsible, participatory educational responses to language endangerment such ...


Foreign Language Education Planning In China Since 1949: A Recurrent Instrumentalist Discourse, Yeting Liu Apr 2015

Foreign Language Education Planning In China Since 1949: A Recurrent Instrumentalist Discourse, Yeting Liu

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Foreign language education planning (FLEP) has been caught in the political turmoil and hustle of ongoing economic reform in the People’s Republic of China for several decades. This paper situates a recurring instrumentalist discourse of FLEP in China in the underlying language ideologies and historical contexts from 1949 to present day. Utilizing Cooper’s (1989) guiding question of “who makes what decisions, why, how, under what conditions, and with what effect?” (p. 88), this paper examines the decision-making process in language planning across several decades. A discussion of the repercussions of this instrumentalist approach to FLEP in different time ...


Outlooks In Italy: Clil As Language Education Policy, Andrea R. Leone Apr 2015

Outlooks In Italy: Clil As Language Education Policy, Andrea R. Leone

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

The recent implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in the fifth and final year of secondary schools in Italy carries with it a number of important implications for teachers, students, and policymakers. This paper seeks to demonstrate that at the local, national, and supranational levels, CLIL raises questions about education quality, access, and equity. Italy’s CLIL mandate is conceptualized here as a national language education policy situated within the larger European plurilingualism discourse as defined by the goal of “mother tongue plus two.” This discussion also seeks to demonstrate that CLIL, as it is conducted in Italian ...


Negotiating Ideological And Implementational Spaces For Indigenous Languages In Peru, Frances K. Dueñas Apr 2015

Negotiating Ideological And Implementational Spaces For Indigenous Languages In Peru, Frances K. Dueñas

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

This paper draws on the concepts of ideological and implementational spaces (Hornberger, 2002) to understand how different actors, at different historical moments characterized by the emergence and development of multilingual policies, and at different layers of the language planning and policy onion (Ricento & Hornberger, 1996), have sought to carve up, fill in and re-imagine spaces for the inclusion of Indigenous languages in Peru. Following a historical-textual analysis, I offer a historical and contemporary analysis of four instances of multilingual policy negotiation, addressing their contributions and shortcomings as well as pointing to areas of future research. Implications are offered for language ...


Synthesizing Social And Cognitive Approaches In Sla, Junko Hondo Oct 2014

Synthesizing Social And Cognitive Approaches In Sla, Junko Hondo

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

In an effort to investigate developmental episodes in additional language learning using both cognitive and social frameworks, this working paper presents results of a pilot study based on a task-based language learning session. A total of forty participants at a Japanese university carried out a pedagogical task in five steps, including both interactive and independent steps. No instruction was provided. Approximately 3,000 responses were collected and examined for comprehension of target forms, and for the rationales provided for form selection. The quantitative analysis indicates significant gains in comprehension and the qualitative data show a shift in the trajectory of ...


Citizen Sociolinguistics:A New Media Methodology For Understanding Language And Social Life, Betsy Rymes, Andrea R. Leone Oct 2014

Citizen Sociolinguistics:A New Media Methodology For Understanding Language And Social Life, Betsy Rymes, Andrea R. Leone

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Citizen sociolinguistics is a response to the need for a new sociolinguistic methodology that accounts for and partakes of the social demands and affordances of massive mobility and connectivity in today’s world. Drawing from contemporary theories about participatory culture (Jenkins, Purushotma, Wiegel, Clinton, & Robison, 2009), orders of indexicality (Silverstein, 2003), and communicative repertoire (Rymes, 2011), as well as the decades-old tradition of citizen science, Citizen sociolinguistics traces the ways citizens, more so than trained sociolinguists, understand the world of language around them. The goal of this article, and the methodology it proposes, is to document, learn from, and advocate ...


“Follow The Procedure”: Online Metapragmatic Commentary On The Five Paragraph Essay, Mark Lewis Oct 2014

“Follow The Procedure”: Online Metapragmatic Commentary On The Five Paragraph Essay, Mark Lewis

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

The genre of the five paragraph essay (5PE) is familiar to many US high school and middle school students because it is often included in the teaching of literary analysis and general argumentation. Learners of the 5PE participate in its social life consisting of its learning, change, and spread. In this paper, I present a description of some of the online social life of the 5PE. Examining online metapragmatic commentary under theoretical frames of speech genres (Bakhtin, 1986), enregisterment (Agha, 2007), and language governmentality (Flores 2014; Pennycook 2002, 2006), and with the new methodology of citizen sociolinguistics (Rymes & Leone, this ...


The History Of Language Planning And Reform In China: A Critical Perspective, Defu Wan Oct 2014

The History Of Language Planning And Reform In China: A Critical Perspective, Defu Wan

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

In traditional studies of language policy in China, scholars mainly try to evaluate language policy’s effectiveness in attaining goals such as national unity, economic development, and illiteracy reduction. Few people question the underlying framework of such language planning. This paper tries to call into question those basic assumptions. By adopting a critical theory perspective, this paper tries to locate the origin of the current language policy in China in its historical context and argues that the foundation for current Chinese language policy can be tracked back to colonialism: the framework of the current language policy is based on a ...


Ideologies Of Personhood: A Citizen Sociolinguistic Case Study Of The Roman Dialect, Andrea R. Leone Oct 2014

Ideologies Of Personhood: A Citizen Sociolinguistic Case Study Of The Roman Dialect, Andrea R. Leone

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

The status and role of Italy’s dialetti (dialects) in contemporary Italian society are contested among both citizens and sociolinguists, and their nuanced uses have begun to circulate (with commentary) around social media. This report adopts a citizen sociolinguistic approach (Rymes & Leone, this volume) to analyze a single controversial case about the Roman dialect via YouTube and Facebook, drawing on social media users’ metacommentary and recontextualizations (Rymes, 2012) of an interview with two young women at the beach. Rather than attempting to identify static and isolated characteristics of the Roman dialect based on this interview, this report analyzes the social ...


Language Governmentality In Philippine Education Policy, Christopher J. Dawe Apr 2014

Language Governmentality In Philippine Education Policy, Christopher J. Dawe

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

English has long been a significant force in Philippine schools. A product of colonialism, scholars often erroneously view this dominance as stemming from governmental mandate. This article argues that the drive for Anglophone classrooms comes from all facets of Philippine society. Indeed, even many minority language speakers view English as integral to producing ideal citizens. Through a language governmentality framework, the perceptions of the ideal Filipino are seen to be constantly evolving. With them, the motivations behind the push for English have shifted. Recently, English has again been repositioned, with public support for the use of home languages in the ...


Disinventing And Reconstituting Native Speaker Ideologies Through The Classroom Experiences Of International Tesol Students, Geeta Aneja Apr 2014

Disinventing And Reconstituting Native Speaker Ideologies Through The Classroom Experiences Of International Tesol Students, Geeta Aneja

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

The current paper considers the invention, disinvention, and reconstitution of native speaker ideologies in terms of the perspectives and experiences of 22 TESOL master’s students facilitating a practical English class housed at a university. Facilitators’ reflections and experiences were collected using semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. The analysis suggests that novice teachers may conflate non-native positionality with linguistic and pedagogical expertise, particularly while processing the challenges they face in the classroom. In doing so, they devalue their own teaching while simultaneously misunderstanding and underestimating the challenges faced by their peers. This paper suggests that while native speaker constructs are ...


The Communicative Burden Of Making Others Understand: Why Critical Language Awareness Is A Must In All Esl (And Non- Esl) Classrooms, SofíA Chaparro Apr 2014

The Communicative Burden Of Making Others Understand: Why Critical Language Awareness Is A Must In All Esl (And Non- Esl) Classrooms, SofíA Chaparro

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

This working paper examines students’ linguistic perceptions and communicative competence in the context of a super-diverse ESL classroom. Through the use of discourse, filmic, and ethnographic analyses, I show the sometimes subtle, sometimes overt sources of multilingual students’ linguistic self-perceptions. I argue for the need to explore students’ ideas and experiences of language through a pedagogy that focuses on knowledge about language and, in particular, knowledge about the ideological dimensions of language: what is known as critical language awareness, or CLA. I make the claim that it is in multilingual students’ everyday interactions in which others, often native speakers of ...


The Interactive Demonstration Of Interactional Competence In The Ita Teach Test, Santoi Wagner Apr 2014

The Interactive Demonstration Of Interactional Competence In The Ita Teach Test, Santoi Wagner

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

This paper reports on a work-in-progress that examines a high-stakes teaching and oral language performance assessment known as the TEACH test, in which international teaching assistant (ITA) candidates are required to demonstrate their competency in a panel-rated teaching simulation. This study draws upon the analytic tools of Conversation Analysis to examine 29 videotaped TEACH tests recorded at a large Research 1 (R1) university in the eastern United States with the objective of providing a more in-depth understanding of the demands placed on test-takers and raters. The initial analysis shows how prospective ITAs manage questions that engender problematic responses, and how ...


Undoing Truth In Language Teaching: Toward A Paradigm Of Linguistic Aesthetics, Nelson Flores Oct 2013

Undoing Truth In Language Teaching: Toward A Paradigm Of Linguistic Aesthetics, Nelson Flores

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Foucault’s work has provided critical applied linguists many tools for deconstructing dominant understandings of language. However, his work has not been significantly engaged with by scholars who have attempted to develop alternative pedagogical approaches outside of these dominant understandings of language. Specifically, these alternative pedagogical approaches continue to be embedded within a discourse of truth that is antithetical to Foucault’s project. This recovering the linguistic truth paradigm of applied linguistics may be inadvertently complicit in the development of new regimes of truth aligned with newly emerging relations of power. A more thorough engagement with Foucault’s work related ...


Challenging The "Non-Native English Speaker" Identity In U.S. Higher Education: A Case Of International Graduate Students, Hyung-Jo Yoon Oct 2013

Challenging The "Non-Native English Speaker" Identity In U.S. Higher Education: A Case Of International Graduate Students, Hyung-Jo Yoon

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

The present study is grounded in the theoretical understanding of U.S. graduate- level classes as a community of practice and the poststructuralist understanding of language use and identity. In this study, I use a questionnaire and semi- structured interviews to explore how graduate students—both native and non- native English-speaking—perceive their own and others’ participation in class discussions. Also, with a focus on their identity negotiated during their class interactions, I examine possible unequal power relations in graduate classrooms. The results showed that the native students had negative attitudes toward non-native students’ participation, most participants felt that unequal ...


An Ecological View Of Language Choice In A Bilingual Program: A Dynamic Model Of Social Structures, Katherine O. Christoffersen Oct 2013

An Ecological View Of Language Choice In A Bilingual Program: A Dynamic Model Of Social Structures, Katherine O. Christoffersen

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

The present paper proposes a Dynamic Model of Social Structures as a model of language choice which highlights and synthesizes two significant themes repeated throughout the history of language choice research: agency and function. This model stems from ecological frameworks advanced in the fields of language planning (Hornberger, 2002) and language learning (Lam, 2007). Central to the model is the notion of language as a social structure (Gafaranga, 2005) among infinite other social structures (e.g., broader society, social network, local context, and individual linguistic behaviors). The Dynamic Model of Social Structures integrates the concept of agency and function in ...


Salsa Remixed: Learning Language, Culture, And Identity In The Classroom, Laura L. Flippin Oct 2013

Salsa Remixed: Learning Language, Culture, And Identity In The Classroom, Laura L. Flippin

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

In our increasingly globalized world, the notions of language, culture, community, and nation are more and more fluid. Considering the influence of globalization, new media, and current societal flux, sociolinguists have begun to examine how identity, language, and culture are negotiated through popular culture (Pennycook, 2010). Using a descriptive, interactional sociolinguistic approach, this paper explores this phenomenon by examining a small community of approximately 20-30 students who are members of a salsa club at a university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. First, this case study explores student motivation for joining this community of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991). Second, it considers the pedagogical ...


Jula Ajami In Burkina Faso: A Grassroots Literacy In The Former Kong Empire, Coleman Donaldson Oct 2013

Jula Ajami In Burkina Faso: A Grassroots Literacy In The Former Kong Empire, Coleman Donaldson

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Ajami (عجمي) is a term frequently used to refer to the use of the Arabic script to write sub-Saharan African languages. West African lingua francas such as Hausa, Wolof, and Fulani have a rather well-documented record of Ajami artifacts and use. In Eastern Manding varieties such as Bamanan and Jula, however, Ajami practices and texts have been viewed as rather limited in comparison. Recent 2012 fieldwork in Burkina Faso however suggests that Ajami practices in Jula have simply escaped the notice of the Western scholarly community. Drawing on ethnographic fieldnotes about production of Esoteric Islamic medicinal treatment recipes in addition ...


South Asian Languages In Higher Education: An Exploration Of Implementation Of Title Vi Of The Higher Education Act, Geeta A. Aneja Apr 2013

South Asian Languages In Higher Education: An Exploration Of Implementation Of Title Vi Of The Higher Education Act, Geeta A. Aneja

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Since the passing of Title VI of the National Defense Education Act in 1958, the notion of national need has permeated discourse surrounding foreign language education in the United States. Language programs are supposedly designed to enable students to develop communicative competence sophisticated enough to conduct international negotiations in critically needed languages. However, in practice, few students attain even rudimentary language ability. This paper explores the historical foundations of Title VI, its manifestation in South Asian language programs in three major U.S. universities, and some of its implications for program construction.


Multicultural Education And Language Ideology In South Korea, Siwon Lee Apr 2013

Multicultural Education And Language Ideology In South Korea, Siwon Lee

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

The ideology of one nation, one race, and one language has been constructed and reinforced in the Korean mind over the course of its history. However, a recently growing number of migrants in South Korea have challenged this ideology, and the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MEHRD) announced the Educational Support Plan for Children from Multicultural Backgrounds (ESP) in 2006 to address the needs of multicultural children in schools. Under this initiative, the national curriculum was revised to raise the understanding of diverse cultures among all students, and textbooks were developed under direction from MEHRD. Taking a critical ...


Allocating Authority And Policing Competency: Indigenous Language Teacher Certification In The United States, Haley De Korne Apr 2013

Allocating Authority And Policing Competency: Indigenous Language Teacher Certification In The United States, Haley De Korne

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

This paper describes the recent increase in and diversity of regulations relating to Indigenous language teaching in the United States, and analyzes these regulations in relation to 1) the institutional format of the certification processes (characterized as mainstream versus separate), 2) the relative control of different social actors (characterized as community actors versus central authority actors), and 3) the language capacity or learning goals that the regulations support (characterized as full immersion versus limited enrichment). In addition to looking at teacher certification as an important practical component of Indigenous language education which can be managed in different ways, I consider ...


Literary Translation As A Nexus Of Language Planning, Joanna L. Siegel Apr 2013

Literary Translation As A Nexus Of Language Planning, Joanna L. Siegel

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

In recent years, the discipline of Translation Studies (TS) has moved toward producing research that takes greater account of the social and cultural contexts in which literary translations are produced (Bassnett, 2010). As a result, the writings of TS theorists are generating insights that are increasingly relevant to the concerns of sociolinguistics. In particular, their written speech—taken as sociolinguistic data itself—evinces discourses of language policy and planning (LPP) both overtly and covertly (Shohamy, 2006). This paper builds a framework to research these discourses, synthesizing theoretical and analytic contributions from both the TS and LPP literatures. It then examines ...


On Not Taking Language Inequity For Granted: Hymesian Traces In Ethnographic Monitoring Of South Africa's Multilingual Language Policy, Nancy H. Hornberger Apr 2013

On Not Taking Language Inequity For Granted: Hymesian Traces In Ethnographic Monitoring Of South Africa's Multilingual Language Policy, Nancy H. Hornberger

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

South African higher education is at a critical juncture in the implementation of South Africa’s multilingual language policy promoting institutional status for nine African languages, English and Afrikaans. Drawing on more than a decade of short-term ethnographic work in South Africa, I recently engaged in participant-observation and dialogue with faculty, administrators, undergraduate and post-graduate students at the University of Limpopo and the University of KwaZulu-Natal to jointly assess current implementation and identify next steps and strategies for achieving truly multilingual teaching, learning and research. Concurring with Hymes that ethnographic monitoring of programs can be of great importance with regard ...


Language And Indigenous Health In Latin America: Case Study Of Mexico, Katie M. Murphy Apr 2013

Language And Indigenous Health In Latin America: Case Study Of Mexico, Katie M. Murphy

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Health disparities among indigenous and non-indigenous peoples serve as a poignant indication of pervasive social injustices that have yet to be adequately addressed. With the potential to produce broad economic and social benefits, the development of quality indigenous health systems warrants further analysis and practical strategies to improve current policies. Using the case of Mexico, home to the second-largest population of indigenous language speakers in the Americas, this paper examines the important—and often misunderstood—role of language in health care. From a historical perspective, Mexico’s policies and indigenous health initiatives indicate a movement toward progress, yet they seemingly ...


Revisiting History In Language Policy: The Case Of Medium Of Instruction In Nepal, Miranda Weinberg Apr 2013

Revisiting History In Language Policy: The Case Of Medium Of Instruction In Nepal, Miranda Weinberg

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

This paper examines the history of language-in-education policy in Nepal. I begin with a brief overview of a standard history of Nepali language planning and policy. This version of history describes an early period with almost no schools, followed by the Nepali-only Panchayat period, and, after the 1990 restoration of democracy, an openness toward multilingual schooling in policy. I augment this history to point toward a view of history that is not split into static periods, does not impose current categories of ethnicity and language on a past when such categories functioned differently, and that recognizes the importance of influences ...


Language Practices And Attitudes In Efl And English-Medium Classes At A University In Eastern Ukraine, Oleg Tarnopolsky, Bridget Goodman Oct 2012

Language Practices And Attitudes In Efl And English-Medium Classes At A University In Eastern Ukraine, Oleg Tarnopolsky, Bridget Goodman

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Improving Language Policy And Planning Through Evaluation: Approaches To Evaluating Minority Language Policies, Haley De Korne Oct 2012

Improving Language Policy And Planning Through Evaluation: Approaches To Evaluating Minority Language Policies, Haley De Korne

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Supporting Home Language Maintenance Among Children With English As An Additional Language In Irish Primary Schools, Anna-Marie Dillon Oct 2012

Supporting Home Language Maintenance Among Children With English As An Additional Language In Irish Primary Schools, Anna-Marie Dillon

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.