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Full-Text Articles in Education

Interpreting And Implementing Interculturality: Eib Educators And In-Service Teacher Training Programs, Frances Kvietok Jun 2018

Interpreting And Implementing Interculturality: Eib Educators And In-Service Teacher Training Programs, Frances Kvietok

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Built on the premise that there is a gap between policy design and policy implementation, this paper seeks to understand how Peruvian teachers make sense of and implement Intercultural Bilingual Education (EIB) policy. EIB policy, introduced in 1991, recognizes the linguistic and cultural rights of marginalized indigenous students in schooling. This paper explores how in-service teacher training workshops influence teachers’ interpretation and implementation of interculturality by looking at experiences of the teacher training workshops run by Fundación HoPe Holanda Perú (HOPE) and Asociación Pukllasunchis in Cusco, Peru. Through this analysis, the paper shows how in-service teacher training workshops can contribute ...


Sla In Uncertain Times: Disciplinary Constraints, Transdisciplinary Hopes, Lourdes Ortega Apr 2018

Sla In Uncertain Times: Disciplinary Constraints, Transdisciplinary Hopes, Lourdes Ortega

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

We live in uncertain times in an uncertain world. While large-scale efforts exist to end poverty, promote peace, share wealth, and protect the planet, we are witnessing serious deterioration of solidarity and respect for human diversity, coupled with alarming tides of authoritarian populism in the West. Many multilinguals—even more so multilinguals in marginalized communities—are vulnerable in the present climate. Researching bi/multilingualism is the business of second language acquisition (SLA) researchers. How well equipped is this field to respond to the present challenges? In this article I unpack four constraints that I believe hamper SLA’s capacity to ...


English-Medium Instruction Policies In South Korean Higher Education, Katherine I. Kang Apr 2018

English-Medium Instruction Policies In South Korean Higher Education, Katherine I. Kang

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

With the rise of globalization and the spread of English, English-medium instruction (EMI) has become a common practice among higher education institutions around the world. In the past two decades, many South Korean universities have also established and implemented institution-wide EMI policies. Using Ricento and Hornberger’s (1996) metaphor of the language planning and policy (LPP) onion as a heuristic, this paper looks at the different LPP layers involved in shaping these institutional EMI policies and describes how the global EMI phenomenon has been taken up in the South Korean national and institutional contexts. Furthermore, this paper elucidates the motivations ...


Debating Arabic: Governmentality And Language Controversy In Algeria, Gareth Smail Apr 2018

Debating Arabic: Governmentality And Language Controversy In Algeria, Gareth Smail

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

In this paper, I examine how discourses of language and citizenship are intertwined in Algeria. While this issue is typically approached with an eye to how different linguistic groups compete for power within the domain of language policy, I use the framework of governmentality (Foucault, 1991) to show a more complicated picture. Specifically, I argue that political ideologies imply different conceptions of what it means to teach Algeria’s official language of education, Standard Arabic (alfuṣḥā). While nationalist ideologies envision an Arabic education tied to Islam and/ or the Middle East, neoliberal ideologies reject that model and argue for an ...


Narratives Of Becoming: Social Personae And School Choice In The Italian Education System, Andrea R. Leone-Pizzighella Apr 2018

Narratives Of Becoming: Social Personae And School Choice In The Italian Education System, Andrea R. Leone-Pizzighella

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Over a ten-month period of linguistic ethnographic research in three secondary schools in central Italy, I conducted interviews with third-year students about how they came to choose the school they currently attend. Students told of chance encounters, moments of madness, institutional pressures, and social expectations, often hinting at tumultuous narratives. Since the three secondary school types in this research—lyceums, technical schools, and vocational schools—are popularly believed to attract specific types of students, interviews and everyday metacommentary (Rymes, 2014) about the schools and the people inside them hold great social importance. In this paper, I consider how the school ...


Narrating A Novice Language Teacher Identity: What’S At Stake When Telling Stories Of Struggle, Kristina B. Lewis Apr 2018

Narrating A Novice Language Teacher Identity: What’S At Stake When Telling Stories Of Struggle, Kristina B. Lewis

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Within language teacher education (LTE), telling stories about their teaching allows novice teachers to make sense of their experiences, explore problems and pedagogical strategies, and develop coherent identities as skilled language teachers. The stakes are high, though, when we ask—or require—novice teachers to talk about moments of challenge, or even failure, in front of their peers and evaluators. In this paper, I examine two stories told by one novice teacher—about the same teaching event, but framing this first as a success and then as a challenge—within an LTE course discussion to demonstrate how she works to ...


Why Should We Care About The Gender Difference In Classroom Participation?, Bina Nayee Nov 2017

Why Should We Care About The Gender Difference In Classroom Participation?, Bina Nayee

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

It has been commonly understood and empirically demonstrated that co-ed undergraduate and graduate classrooms tend to derive greater male class participation from course discussions than from female students. Despite their equal ability to contribute substantial comments toward course topics female students still do so less frequently. In this paper, I present a normative argument for why we should care about this occurrence because of its impact on facets of a woman’s personal and professional development.


The Value Of A Liberal Arts Education, Sarah Morrissey Nov 2017

The Value Of A Liberal Arts Education, Sarah Morrissey

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

In recent years, liberal arts education has faced caustic challenges on the grounds that it is neither a wise investment nor relevant in the modern era. However, these claims disregard the contention that liberal arts education has an intrinsic value that supersedes other tertiary concerns. The benefits of a liberal arts education are certainly comprehensive and apply to all members of society. As such, the inherent merit of the liberal arts must be recognized and supported by the state at all educational levels. The current economic and political environment has made it apparent that anything less will severely undermine the ...


From Student Shyness To Student Voice: Mapping Biliteracy Teaching In Indigenous Contexts, Nancy H. Hornberger, Frances Kvietok Dueñas Apr 2017

From Student Shyness To Student Voice: Mapping Biliteracy Teaching In Indigenous Contexts, Nancy H. Hornberger, Frances Kvietok Dueñas

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Drawing on an ethnographic monitoring engagement with Kichwa intercultural bilingual educators in the Peruvian Amazon, we argue for ethnographic monitoring (Hymes, 1980) as a method and the continua of biliteracy (Hornberger, 1989, 1990, 2003; Hornberger & Skilton-Sylvester, 2000) as a heuristic for mapping biliteracy teaching in Indigenous contexts of bilingualism. Through our mapping, we uncover tensions in the teaching of majoritized languages in Indigenous contexts of postcoloniality, challenge constructs of student shyness, and propose pedagogies to support the flourishing of student voice in bilingual education.


Planning Math Language In The United States, 1650 To 1945, Mark C. Lewis Apr 2017

Planning Math Language In The United States, 1650 To 1945, Mark C. Lewis

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Within mathematics education in the United States, educators and scholars have worked to identify ways of using language that students of mathematics must perform. I describe how mathematics educators from 1650–1945 have argued whether or how language is important for learning and doing mathematics. Framing these arguments as a form of language policy and planning, I apply intertextual research methods (Johnson, 2015) and the framework of enregisterment (Agha, 2007) to present explicit and implicit policy and planning for math language as intertextually linked models of linguistic behavior. I also summarize the gradual development of math language alongside wider shifts ...


Disability And Language Ideologies In Education Policy, Jennifer Phuong Apr 2017

Disability And Language Ideologies In Education Policy, Jennifer Phuong

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Through policy discourse analysis, this paper explores ideologies around language and disability in U.S. federal education legislation, specifically the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA) and the Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015 (ESSA). This exploration draws from the fields of language planning and policy and disability studies in education, which are both problem-oriented fields that rely on the examination of social problems. In considering disproportionality and discourses of ableism and racism, I argue that de facto language education policy implicit in IDEA and ESSA supports the model of a White, normal, abled student who speaks ...


Policy Barriers To Ainu Language Revitalization In Japan: When Globalization Means English, David H. Hanks Apr 2017

Policy Barriers To Ainu Language Revitalization In Japan: When Globalization Means English, David H. Hanks

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

For over a century the Ainu language has been threatened with disappearance as a result of language policies imposed by the Japanese following colonization of Ainu Mosir (now known as Hokkaidō), the Indigenous Ainu homeland. With recent legal and political victories, the Ainu have begun to reclaim their Indigenous culture and language within local communities, on the wider national stage, and internationally. However, while Ainu revitalization efforts continue, discourses of globalization in Japan have contributed to a dramatic increase in the status of English-as-a-foreign-language education, eclipsing other foreign and minority languages at all levels. Examining current policies, both de jure ...


Snapshots Of Yucatec Maya Language Practices: Language Policy And Planning Activities In The Yucatán Peninsula, Aldo Anzures Tapia Apr 2017

Snapshots Of Yucatec Maya Language Practices: Language Policy And Planning Activities In The Yucatán Peninsula, Aldo Anzures Tapia

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Metaphors, although many times more poetic than political, have been instrumental in understanding the complexity of language policy and planning (LPP). In this paper, I refer to and compare photographic processing to current LPP activities in Quintana Roo, the newest Mexican state. Based on corpus analyses of policy texts and ethnographic snapshots, this paper investigates how sectors such as health, social development, human rights, and justice employ Indigenous languages in ways that complement but also contradict LPP activities at the national, regional, and state levels. Overall, this research widens the LPP lens by inviting educational researchers to tell more stories ...


El Papel De La L1 En La Construcción De La Auto-Identificación Cultural: Análisis De Las Trayectorias De Jóvenes Rumanos En Cataluña, Cristina PetreñAs, Cecilio Lapestra, Ángel Huguet Oct 2016

El Papel De La L1 En La Construcción De La Auto-Identificación Cultural: Análisis De Las Trayectorias De Jóvenes Rumanos En Cataluña, Cristina PetreñAs, Cecilio Lapestra, Ángel Huguet

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Analizamos el papel de la L1, sus usos y la valoración social de las lenguas en la construcción identitaria de los jóvenes rumanos desde el interaccionismo simbólico y una perspectiva sociocultural en función de su asistencia o no al Programa de Lengua, Civilización y Cultura Rumana (LCCR). A través de entrevistas en profundidad y un análisis cualitativo, se estudian las trayectorias de 5 jóvenes que residen en Cataluña, un contexto multilingüe y multicultural. Los resultados muestran un progresivo abandono de la L1, utilizada en el contexto familiar y a la que atribuyen una dimensión emocional anclada en el origen. El ...


Bilingual Colombia Program: Curriculum As Product, Only?, Norbella Miranda Oct 2016

Bilingual Colombia Program: Curriculum As Product, Only?, Norbella Miranda

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Bilingual Colombia Program (BCP), the current educational language policy, aims to develop English language proficiency at an independent user level, equivalent to B1 in the Common European Framework. Previous studies of the BCP have revealed a limited conceptualization of bilingualism, unfavorable school conditions for its implementation and school practices not contributing to its main goals. The ideological view of curriculum embodied in policy documents of the BCP has not been analyzed yet. Based on Shirley Grundy’s (1987) heuristics for understanding curriculum theory and practice and supported by research in the field of language policy, the paper unveils the product-oriented ...


Who And What Is The Field Of Applied Linguistics Overlooking?: Why This Matters And How Educational Linguistics Can Help, Kendall A. King Oct 2016

Who And What Is The Field Of Applied Linguistics Overlooking?: Why This Matters And How Educational Linguistics Can Help, Kendall A. King

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Thousands of individuals in the United States, Canada, and elsewhere are currently endeavoring to learn highly endangered, Indigenous languages, most laboring under conditions that are radically different from the majority of world language learners. These learning contexts are defined not only by shortages of materials, limited domains of use, few proficient speakers, and wide dialectal variation, but by histories of colonialism, racism, and oppression. To date, there has been relatively limited interaction between applied linguistics scholarship on language learning on the one hand, and Indigenous language education on the other. Concomitantly, despite massive worldwide demographic shifts of recent decades, applied ...


Play And Bricolage In Adult Second Language Classrooms, Amanda Snell Oct 2016

Play And Bricolage In Adult Second Language Classrooms, Amanda Snell

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Teachers working with adult immigrants and refugees who have beginner-level proficiency in English face a tension: Learners need to acquire basic English skills (often referred to as survival English), but survival materials often ignore the rich experiences and knowledge that students possess but cannot easily communicate in their second (or additional) language. This article argues that text-based language play and bricolage, or the construction of something new from available resources, allow adult learners with beginning English proficiency to display their multiple forms of knowledge while also practicing basic English. In this paper, I present texts created by learners in a ...


Listening To Contextualization Cues: Co-Constructed Power, Identity, And Learning Between A Nnest And Adult Immigrant Learners, Bingjie Zheng Oct 2016

Listening To Contextualization Cues: Co-Constructed Power, Identity, And Learning Between A Nnest And Adult Immigrant Learners, Bingjie Zheng

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

In the United States, the immigrant population explosion has been calling for increasing attention to English instruction for immigrant learners. In comparison with prolific literature on immigrant English language learners (ELLs) in K–12 educational settings, literature on English instruction for adult immigrant learners at non-profit organizations, especially through microanalysis of classroom interaction, is scarce. Using a microethnographic method, this study explores how a nonnative English speaking student teacher picks up classroom contextualization cues (Gumperz, 1977) to understand how adult immigrant learners negotiate their learning needs and how their classroom habitus (Bourdieu, 1977a) embodies the social forces outside of class ...


Mexicans Be Like, Briana Nichols Apr 2016

Mexicans Be Like, Briana Nichols

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

This article explores the use of “Mexicans Be Like” memes in terms of the heteroglossic tension they both employ and produce, and the ways in which meme examples creatively recontextualize ideas about immigration, the border, contested histories, models of personhood, racialization and presumptions of social value. I understand these memes as an opportunity for viewers to position themselves in political, social and cultural landscapes, and in so doing contribute to an environment where consumers are not passive but quintessentially productive, altering the meme content, and redeploying them into new social domains. In an attempt to appreciate the work “Mexicans Be ...


Speaking On Your Own Behalf: Managing Footing And Representation In “Indigenous,” Intercultural Public Discourse, Stephen Peters Apr 2016

Speaking On Your Own Behalf: Managing Footing And Representation In “Indigenous,” Intercultural Public Discourse, Stephen Peters

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

In Canadian cities, public podium talks featuring Indigenous speakers are increasingly turned to as an avenue for raising public awareness and promoting social change. Podium talks provide occasions for Indigenous activists and spokespeople to tell their own stories, to speak on their own behalf. Yet, as a particular mode of discursive interaction, they also organize how such telling unfolds. Through an in-depth discourse analysis of one talk addressing Indigenous eco-activism, focusing in particular on pronoun use and quoted speech, this paper examines the affordances and obligations present in speaking both about Indigenous people and as an Indigenous person to non-Indigenous ...


“A Treasure” And “A Legacy”: Individual And Communal (Re)Valuing Of Isthmus Zapotec In Multilingual Mexico, Haley De Korne Apr 2016

“A Treasure” And “A Legacy”: Individual And Communal (Re)Valuing Of Isthmus Zapotec In Multilingual Mexico, Haley De Korne

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Speaking Isthmus Zapotec has represented different forms of material and symbolic capital at different times and places throughout the pre-Hispanic, colonial and post-colonial history of Mexico. This chapter explores the shifting and contrasting discourses of value around the language in the current era of neoliberal multiculturalism drawing on an ethnographic study of the use of Isthmus Zapotec in educational contexts in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The effects of educational politics across historical eras and into the present have largely devalued Isthmus Zapotec use and contributed to the material inequalities experienced by Isthmus Zapotec speakers. The social capital associated with Isthmus ...


Fresas, Nacos Y Lo Que Le Sigue: Towards A Sketch Of Two Mexican Emblematic Models Of Personhood, Sofía Chaparro Apr 2016

Fresas, Nacos Y Lo Que Le Sigue: Towards A Sketch Of Two Mexican Emblematic Models Of Personhood, Sofía Chaparro

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

In this paper I sketch out two widely recognized cultural stereotypes in Mexico: fresas and nacos. Using a linguistic anthropological framework, I describe the semiotic registers of these stereotypical figures, illustrating them through various types of media, including internet images, videos, and popular songs. I then provide a tentative historical account of when these figures emerged and how they became enregistered in the Mexican imaginary. I make the case that these stereotypical figures are tied to a deeply rooted classism and racism in Mexico that are traces of its colonial legacy.


Evaluations In Mexico: Institutionalizing The Silence Of Indigenous Populations, Aldo A. Tapia Oct 2015

Evaluations In Mexico: Institutionalizing The Silence Of Indigenous Populations, Aldo A. Tapia

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

This paper frames the role of national assessments in Mexico from the sociology of absences perspective, where the marginalized are actively produced as non-existent. The ENLACE (now PLANEA), as the most publicized Mexican assessment, is analyzed in order to understand how education mechanisms systematically omit the voices and languages of minoritized populations. Using governmental policies and documents, this paper argues that Indigenous children in basic education are intentionally caught in a cycle of assessment inequalities by the institutionalization of one-language, one-culture assessment tools. Overall, the paper advocates for the design of just assessment tools that have clear pedagogical intentions and ...


The Social Life Of Orthography Development, Coleman Donaldson Oct 2015

The Social Life Of Orthography Development, Coleman Donaldson

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

From a linguistic perspective the development of orthography for a language is often taken as a scientific endeavor involving the adoption of a set of graphic conventions for mapping the phonemic system of a language. In this paper I unpack how orthography development and use is necessarily wrapped up in socio-political debates. Approaching orthography graphically, I demonstrate how spelling itself frequently carries implicit metacommentary connected to these debates. Next, looking at orthography’s link with speech I argue that ideologies of language in departmentalized linguistics ignore and obscure the way orthography interacts with register phenomena within a language.


Ethnic Multilingual Education In China: A Critical Observation, Ge Wang Oct 2015

Ethnic Multilingual Education In China: A Critical Observation, Ge Wang

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

This paper reviews the ethnic multilingual policies and practices in China in general and Yunnan in particular. It first introduces the demographic features and multilingual policies in Yunnan and then discusses the challenges of ethnic minority education in China from a critical perspective in terms of policy and curriculum. It is argued that it is necessary to re-conceptualize ethnic minority learners in an ever dynamic sociocultural discourse in contemporary China. The author proposes to deepen the research in ethnic multilingual education so as to develop a curriculum to meet the needs of ethnic multicultural learners in the 21st century and ...


Ways Of Talking (And Acting) About Language Reclamation: An Ethnographic Perspective On Learning Lenape In Pennsylvania, Nancy H. Hornberger, Haley De Korne, Miranda Weinberg Apr 2015

Ways Of Talking (And Acting) About Language Reclamation: An Ethnographic Perspective On Learning Lenape In Pennsylvania, Nancy H. Hornberger, Haley De Korne, Miranda Weinberg

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

The experiences of a community of people learning and teaching Lenape in Pennsylvania provide insights into the complexities of current ways of talking and acting about language reclamation. We illustrate how Native and non-Native participants in a university-based Indigenous language class constructed language, identity, and place in nuanced ways that, although influenced by essentializing discourses of language endangerment, are largely pluralist and reflexive. Rather than counting and conserving fixed languages, the actors in this study focus on locally appropriate language education, undertaken with participatory classroom discourses and practices. We argue that locally responsible, participatory educational responses to language endangerment such ...


Foreign Language Education Planning In China Since 1949: A Recurrent Instrumentalist Discourse, Yeting Liu Apr 2015

Foreign Language Education Planning In China Since 1949: A Recurrent Instrumentalist Discourse, Yeting Liu

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Foreign language education planning (FLEP) has been caught in the political turmoil and hustle of ongoing economic reform in the People’s Republic of China for several decades. This paper situates a recurring instrumentalist discourse of FLEP in China in the underlying language ideologies and historical contexts from 1949 to present day. Utilizing Cooper’s (1989) guiding question of “who makes what decisions, why, how, under what conditions, and with what effect?” (p. 88), this paper examines the decision-making process in language planning across several decades. A discussion of the repercussions of this instrumentalist approach to FLEP in different time ...


Outlooks In Italy: Clil As Language Education Policy, Andrea R. Leone Apr 2015

Outlooks In Italy: Clil As Language Education Policy, Andrea R. Leone

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

The recent implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in the fifth and final year of secondary schools in Italy carries with it a number of important implications for teachers, students, and policymakers. This paper seeks to demonstrate that at the local, national, and supranational levels, CLIL raises questions about education quality, access, and equity. Italy’s CLIL mandate is conceptualized here as a national language education policy situated within the larger European plurilingualism discourse as defined by the goal of “mother tongue plus two.” This discussion also seeks to demonstrate that CLIL, as it is conducted in Italian ...


Negotiating Ideological And Implementational Spaces For Indigenous Languages In Peru, Frances K. Dueñas Apr 2015

Negotiating Ideological And Implementational Spaces For Indigenous Languages In Peru, Frances K. Dueñas

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

This paper draws on the concepts of ideological and implementational spaces (Hornberger, 2002) to understand how different actors, at different historical moments characterized by the emergence and development of multilingual policies, and at different layers of the language planning and policy onion (Ricento & Hornberger, 1996), have sought to carve up, fill in and re-imagine spaces for the inclusion of Indigenous languages in Peru. Following a historical-textual analysis, I offer a historical and contemporary analysis of four instances of multilingual policy negotiation, addressing their contributions and shortcomings as well as pointing to areas of future research. Implications are offered for language ...


Synthesizing Social And Cognitive Approaches In Sla, Junko Hondo Oct 2014

Synthesizing Social And Cognitive Approaches In Sla, Junko Hondo

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

In an effort to investigate developmental episodes in additional language learning using both cognitive and social frameworks, this working paper presents results of a pilot study based on a task-based language learning session. A total of forty participants at a Japanese university carried out a pedagogical task in five steps, including both interactive and independent steps. No instruction was provided. Approximately 3,000 responses were collected and examined for comprehension of target forms, and for the rationales provided for form selection. The quantitative analysis indicates significant gains in comprehension and the qualitative data show a shift in the trajectory of ...