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Full-Text Articles in Education

Review Of Intensive Reading Interventions For The Elementary Grades By Wanzek, Al Otaiba, And Mcmaster, Sarahlee R. Desir May 2020

Review Of Intensive Reading Interventions For The Elementary Grades By Wanzek, Al Otaiba, And Mcmaster, Sarahlee R. Desir

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

Abstract

In the book Intensive Reading Interventions for the Elementary Grades, Jeanne Wanzek, Stephanie Otaiba, and Kristen McMaster (2020) provide teachers and literacy strategies intended to help students in tier three interventions, particularly students with intense reading difficulties. The authors wrote each of the eight chapters to be a resource full of research information and instructional strategies on how to help students succeed in various reading difficulty areas. The authors include multiple vignettes dealing with issues that teachers and children with reading difficulties are facing and provide additional resource materials at the end of each chapter to further assist teachers ...


Review Of The Vulnerable Heart Of Literacy: Centering Trauma As Powerful Pedagogy., Zipporah Galimore May 2020

Review Of The Vulnerable Heart Of Literacy: Centering Trauma As Powerful Pedagogy., Zipporah Galimore

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

In The Vulnerable Heart of Literacy: Centering Trauma as Powerful Pedagogy (2019), Elizabeth Dutro provides educators with heart-felt, inquiry-based strategies for using trauma as pedagogy in literacy classrooms. This book describes how to situate both educators and children to provide testimony and be critical witnesses in an effort to allow life knowledge, empathy, and wisdom be brought to classroom learning experiences. Dutro uses classroom vignettes and student work samples to illustrate how the concept of trauma as pedagogy can be applied across genres. Experiences and examples of literacy instruction in children's work from several elementary classrooms, from second grade ...


Book Review: Thinking Tools For Young Readers And Writers, Jennifer Steil May 2020

Book Review: Thinking Tools For Young Readers And Writers, Jennifer Steil

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

Abstract:

This article offers a book review of Thinking Tools for Young Readers & Writers (2018), by Carol Booth Olson, Angie Balius, Emily McCourtney, and Mary Widtmann. The book presents the cognitive strategies tool kit, which includes strategies such as: planning, goal setting, tapping prior knowledge, asking questions, making predictions, making connections, summarizing, inferencing, forming interpretations, adopting an alignment, monitoring, and clarifying. The teachers share lessons for how they teach these strategies to students in their various grade levels. For each lesson, the authors include research, connections to Common Core State Standards, and examples of classroom lessons putting these strategies to ...


Review Of Pre-K Stories: Playing With Authorship And Integrating Curriculum In Early Childhood, Harmony Petty May 2020

Review Of Pre-K Stories: Playing With Authorship And Integrating Curriculum In Early Childhood, Harmony Petty

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

This book review discusses salient themes within Bentley and Souto-Manning’s (2019) Pre-K stories: Playing with authorship and integrating curriculum in early childhood. Bentley and Souto-Manning present a case study of one pre-K classroom in which a teacher-researcher endeavored to honor young children’s strengths and authentic stories as they co-constructed an emergent curriculum together. This text considers researchers and practitioners as it includes theoretical discussions in addition to teacher reflections and classroom vignettes. The first three chapters explore the researchers’ theoretical foundation of emergent curriculum and a sociocultural view of play-based authorship. The following four chapters trace the development ...


Exploring The Discourses And Identities Of One Aspiring Literacy Specialist, Elizabeth Y. Stevens, Kathleen Hinchman May 2020

Exploring The Discourses And Identities Of One Aspiring Literacy Specialist, Elizabeth Y. Stevens, Kathleen Hinchman

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

Becoming an effective literacy specialist means developing tools to support students’ and teachers’ reading and writing aspirations. They are thought to be self critical and respectful of their students’ and colleagues' strengths, however, this is not easy. This case study examined the discourses and identities of a highly reflective white female teacher who was completing studies to become a literacy specialist. Critical discourse analysis was used as a theory and a method to examine the focal participant’s language-in-use to learn about how she made sense of her world, including her work with students and colleagues. This analysis suggested that ...


Assessment Literacy: Implications For The Literacy Professional, Bobbie Kabuto, Sinead Harmey May 2020

Assessment Literacy: Implications For The Literacy Professional, Bobbie Kabuto, Sinead Harmey

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

This article explores how the general term of assessment literacy can be specified to the area of reading through the lens of the informal reading inventory, Qualitative Reading Inventory-5. This article will investigate the common misconceptions that teachers, who were enrolled in a graduate program to become state-certified specialized literacy professionals, had when conducting and interpreting the QRI-5. The data that will be presented is from a project that examined the theories that undergird informal reading inventories, and how teachers understood these theories. We will then include recommendations for improving assessment literacy for developing specialized literacy professionals.


The Beliefs And Practices Of Second Grade Teachers Who Implement Independent Reading And Its Effect On Students’ Reading Achievement And Reading Volume, Lauren R. Brannan, R Burke Johnson, Rebecca M. Giles, Andrea M. Kent May 2020

The Beliefs And Practices Of Second Grade Teachers Who Implement Independent Reading And Its Effect On Students’ Reading Achievement And Reading Volume, Lauren R. Brannan, R Burke Johnson, Rebecca M. Giles, Andrea M. Kent

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

The purpose of the present study was to explore the beliefs and practices of teachers who implement independent reading in their classrooms. Results showed that teachers who implemented independent reading believed in the importance of both the quantity and quality of student reading. The teachers’ practices of independent reading showed students selecting books that were “just-right” for them to read, social experiences around reading, guided practice through reading conferences with the teacher, and setting a purpose for reading through response activities. A nonexperimental comparative design was used to examine the effects of independent reading on reading volume and reading achievement ...


Developing Strategic Learners: Supporting Self-Efficacy Through Goal Setting And Reflection, Zoi A. Traga Philippakos May 2020

Developing Strategic Learners: Supporting Self-Efficacy Through Goal Setting And Reflection, Zoi A. Traga Philippakos

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

When students face academic challenges, when they receive poor grades on a subject, and when they see unchanged performance -even though they put effort on a task- they often develop the belief that they are not capable of overcoming challenges. Continuous underperformance affects students’ self-efficacy and belief that success is an achievable goal. The purpose of this paper is to explain the process of goal setting with continuous reflection to support students’ writing growth and persistence. The paper further comments on teachers’ goal setting for instructional and professional goals in order to support their instructional delivery and their growth as ...


Supporting And Sustaining Specialized Literacy Professionals In Teacher Leadership Positions, Thea Yurkewecz Jan 2020

Supporting And Sustaining Specialized Literacy Professionals In Teacher Leadership Positions, Thea Yurkewecz

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

Specialized literacy professionals (specialists/coaches/coordinators) are enacting leadership roles that influence how school communities interact and collaborate to change instructional practices. These positions involve multiple responsibilities highlighted in the standards for the Preparation of Literacy Professionals (International Literacy Association, 2017). This manuscript extends from the investigation of three specialized literacy professionals from one school community identified by their administrators as teacher leaders. After three years in these positions, each identify the structures, resources, and types of support that were critical to the sustainment of their leadership positions within their school district. This study informs the literacy community on the ...


Family Literacy Engagement: Parents’ Perceptions Of Their Home Learning Practices, Nichole L. Smith Jan 2020

Family Literacy Engagement: Parents’ Perceptions Of Their Home Learning Practices, Nichole L. Smith

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

The researcher in this study examined parents’ perceptions of the engagement activities in their homes. Parents of elementary school students in one southeastern United States school district were asked to participate in this study. Findings related to literacy, academic, and family engagement. Parents’ preparedness to assist their children with reading and their related needs were also examined. Relationships between race and gender showed significance when considering children’s access to academic and literacy materials as well as family engagement in educational practices including literacy. Literacy program providers, including those that educate parents, may consider this information when providing literacy support ...


Facilitating Pedagogies Of Possibility In Teacher Education: Experiences Of Faculty Members In A Self-Study Learning Group, Jason K. Ritter, Rachel Ayieko, Christie Vanorsdale, Sandra Quiñones, Xia Chao, Christopher J. Meidl, Laura Mahalingappa, Carla K. Meyer, Julia A. Williams Dec 2019

Facilitating Pedagogies Of Possibility In Teacher Education: Experiences Of Faculty Members In A Self-Study Learning Group, Jason K. Ritter, Rachel Ayieko, Christie Vanorsdale, Sandra Quiñones, Xia Chao, Christopher J. Meidl, Laura Mahalingappa, Carla K. Meyer, Julia A. Williams

Journal of Inquiry and Action in Education

This collaborative self-study explores how seven members of a Faculty Self-Study Learning Group (FS-SLG) attempt to foster cultures of inquiry with teacher candidates. In so doing, we simultaneously describe a professional learning community of teacher educators engaging in reflective practice via the teaching, learning, and enacting of self-study methodology. Findings from this collaborative self-study highlight how we attempt to translate our own efforts to be more purposeful and reflective into our teacher education practice through modeling, as well as the tensions we felt in promoting a view of teaching as a process of critical inquiry. The discussion focuses on lessons ...


Using Touch Technology To Foster Storytelling In The Preschool Classroom, Eloah Decat, V Damjanovic, S Branson, J Blank, I. R. Berson Dec 2019

Using Touch Technology To Foster Storytelling In The Preschool Classroom, Eloah Decat, V Damjanovic, S Branson, J Blank, I. R. Berson

Journal of Inquiry and Action in Education

This practitioner research explores ways children engage in literacy learning through storytelling with the use of touch technology in a VPK (Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten) classroom. With access to diverse touch technology devices but no experience using these technologies, a VPK teacher explored strategies to use the resources to enhance literacy learning in the classroom with the support of a professional learning community (PLC). The PLC consisted of a master’s student, university faculty, school director, and a technology liaison. The implementation of this study took place over three weeks, and every week children created a different story. Collected data include photographs ...


Effects Of Providing Individualized Clinical Coaching With Bug-In-Ear Technology To Novice Educators Of Students With Emotional And Behavioral Disorders In Inclusive Secondary Science Classrooms, Dennis P. Garland Ph. D., Lisa A. Dieker Ph.D. Dec 2019

Effects Of Providing Individualized Clinical Coaching With Bug-In-Ear Technology To Novice Educators Of Students With Emotional And Behavioral Disorders In Inclusive Secondary Science Classrooms, Dennis P. Garland Ph. D., Lisa A. Dieker Ph.D.

Journal of Inquiry and Action in Education

Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) have been reported to benefit greatly from participating in general education science classrooms, yet also present behaviors making them least likely to be included. In this study, three novice middle school science teachers received individualized clinical coaching (ICC) with bug-in-ear (BIE) technology to increase their use of three-term contingency (TTC) trials among students who had EBD in inclusive science classrooms. Researchers used a multiple probe across participants single case design (Gast, 2010) to examine the percentage of the teachers’ completed TTC trials for managing student behaviors, the rate of correct student responses among ...


Learning While Building: Enhancing Opportunities For Teacher Candidate Development Within Professional Development Schools Through Programmatic Analysis, Valerie Widdall 7532451, Andrea Lachance, John M. Livermore Dec 2019

Learning While Building: Enhancing Opportunities For Teacher Candidate Development Within Professional Development Schools Through Programmatic Analysis, Valerie Widdall 7532451, Andrea Lachance, John M. Livermore

Journal of Inquiry and Action in Education

Abstract

This study investigated the impact of differing models of practicum placements on teacher candidates’ (TC’s) abilities to practice teaching skills and receive feedback on their teaching. Within the Professional Development School (PDS) model TCs were placed as cohorts in a single PDS site with at least one college faculty member assigned as a liaison, and within the Traditional model TCs were placed across a variety of schools without college faculty connected to the various school sites. Teacher candidates completed a survey with Likert scale and open-ended items to measure TCs’ perceptions of how much time they spent teaching ...


The Demise Of Creativity In Tomorrow's Teachers, Elizabeth Alexis Bloom 4345947, Kjersti Vanslyke-Briggs Dec 2019

The Demise Of Creativity In Tomorrow's Teachers, Elizabeth Alexis Bloom 4345947, Kjersti Vanslyke-Briggs

Journal of Inquiry and Action in Education

In the last several years a good deal of public discourse was devoted to describing the effects that more than two decades of education reforms, the last iteration of which was known as the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), has had on teaching and learning. It is widely argued that coupling teacher evaluations with students' test scores, enforced standardization, and over-reliance on testing for measuring achievement results in a deadened curriculum hyper-focused on math and ELA achievement, divorced from lived experience, the arts, sciences, and history (Ravitch, 2013). The specific focus of this study was to examine the consequences of ...


Inquiry-Based Learning: Student Teachers’ Challenges And Perceptions, Alain Petro Gholam Dr. Dec 2019

Inquiry-Based Learning: Student Teachers’ Challenges And Perceptions, Alain Petro Gholam Dr.

Journal of Inquiry and Action in Education

Inquiry-based learning (IBL) is a student-centered approach driven by students’ questions and their innate curiosity. IBL was introduced and effectively implemented in the general secondary teaching methods course at the American University in Dubai. The study made use of a mixed methods approach. It was guided by two research questions: 1). What factors hinder the implementation of IBL in the student teachers’ classrooms? 2). Why do student teachers favor the use of IBL in their classroom? Eight student teachers enrolled in the general secondary teaching methodology course at the American University in Dubai (Fall 2017) participated in the study. First ...


Primary Teachers' Use Of Communicative Strategies For Linguistically Diverse Learners: A Cross-Cultural Case Study, Geraldine Mongillo, Dorothy Feola, Rochelle Goldberg Kaplan, Vered Vaknin, Randa Abbas Jun 2019

Primary Teachers' Use Of Communicative Strategies For Linguistically Diverse Learners: A Cross-Cultural Case Study, Geraldine Mongillo, Dorothy Feola, Rochelle Goldberg Kaplan, Vered Vaknin, Randa Abbas

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of communicative strategies employed by two primary grade teachers whose students’ home language differed from the language of instruction. The communicative strategies examined included verbal, gestural, and other visual modes of interaction within classroom discourse to promote student learning. One school we studied was in Northern Israel and one was in New Jersey in the US. In Israel, the teacher taught using formal Modern Standard Arabic while the children were familiar only with Spoken Arabic. In New Jersey, the teacher taught using English while the students were largely from Spanish-speaking ...


Collaborating Online: Tools For Improving Teacher Preparation In Literacy, Jennifer Van Allen, Lenora Forsythe Jun 2019

Collaborating Online: Tools For Improving Teacher Preparation In Literacy, Jennifer Van Allen, Lenora Forsythe

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

Teacher preparation programs face the continual challenge to provide experiences that foster collaboration between teacher candidates and go beyond the boundaries of particular programs and classrooms. Collaborative learning structures improve learner achievement, attitudes, engagement, satisfaction, and retention rates when interactions between learners are facilitated and fostered. These structures have the potential to foster genuine collaboration in which groups create products and processes that change individuals’ understandings and actions as well as those of the collective group. In this format, learning occurs not only from the instructor but from other classmates as well. Many agencies and professional associations are calling for ...


Sentence Construction: Supporting Elementary Students’ Editing Skills, Zoi A. Traga Philippakos Jun 2019

Sentence Construction: Supporting Elementary Students’ Editing Skills, Zoi A. Traga Philippakos

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

Syntactic control is a necessary skill for quality writing and a needed knowledge for all writers who communicate in a specific language system. However, syntactic control is challenging for developing writers and for second-language learners. Instructionally, usually at the editing stage, attention is given to the syntax and grammatical clarity of a paper prior to it getting published or shared. The purpose of this paper is to explain specific practices that can support sentence construction. Specifically, evidence-based practices that refer to sentence combining and sentence expansion are explained and specific examples are shared. Implications for classroom practice are further discussed.


Motion, Matter, Force, And Writing???: Creating Space For Writing In A Secondary Physics Classroom, Lubna Javeed Jun 2019

Motion, Matter, Force, And Writing???: Creating Space For Writing In A Secondary Physics Classroom, Lubna Javeed

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

This qualitative case study was an in-depth exploration into how writing may facilitate disciplinary literacy in an eleventh grade physics classroom. In response to the dearth of writing instruction in high school disciplinary classrooms, this study was an in-depth exploration into how writing may facilitate the cultivation of disciplinary writing in physics. The study focused on the perspectives of three participants during a semester of implementing writing by using sentence starters in physics. Findings showed participants were resistant to the change in curriculum and learning. Modelling effective disciplinary writing to support students may help improve attitudes and identities as writers.


Using Primary Sources In Content Areas To Increase Disciplinary Literacy Instruction, Salika A. Lawrence, Elise Langan, Julie Maurer Jun 2019

Using Primary Sources In Content Areas To Increase Disciplinary Literacy Instruction, Salika A. Lawrence, Elise Langan, Julie Maurer

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

This paper describes how a three-day summer workshop on using primary sources helped teachers increase the emphasis placed on disciplinary literacy when teaching social studies and history. Two specific issues in teacher education and practice are addressed. First, increasing teachers’ content knowledge of history topics can help them plan lessons that connect local and global events. Second, content area reading requires literacy practices, which are unique to disciplines. Therefore, teachers need to apply historical inquiry and disciplinary literacy methods in the curriculum.


Using The Cornell Note-Taking System Can Help Eighth Grade Students Alleviate The Impact Of Interruptions While Reading At Home, Bradley Evans, Christopher Thomas Shively Feb 2019

Using The Cornell Note-Taking System Can Help Eighth Grade Students Alleviate The Impact Of Interruptions While Reading At Home, Bradley Evans, Christopher Thomas Shively

Journal of Inquiry and Action in Education

A large group of eighth-grade social studies students (N=-101) received instruction and practice using the Cornell note-taking system and were assigned to one of three note-taking groups or one non-note-taking group. Students were asked to read an article about persuasion and use their assigned note-taking system to take notes at home. A 10-question multiple choice reading comprehension test and questionnaire were given. A one-way ANOVA found a significance in the group’s means and a Tukey HSD found significant differences between each note-taking group and the non-note-taking group. The students’ self-reported feelings of preparedness, their time spent reading and ...


Social-Emotional Learning (Sel) In A Field Course: Preservice Teachers Practice Sel-Supportive Instructional Strategies, Judy L. Sugishita Feb 2019

Social-Emotional Learning (Sel) In A Field Course: Preservice Teachers Practice Sel-Supportive Instructional Strategies, Judy L. Sugishita

Journal of Inquiry and Action in Education

This action research study examined social-emotional learning (SEL) strategies taught during a year-long elementary teaching credential field course to examine (a) what SEL strategies look like in practice, and (b) what training effects might be seen among twelve preservice student teacher (PST) participants. Part of a two-course clinical practice study, this paper focused solely on the research done in the field course during the 2013-2014 academic year. Drawing from program-based and integrated SEL literature, the strategies studied supported (a) active engagement in learning, (b) equitable access to instruction, including diversity and differentiated strategies, and (c) learner-centered classroom discipline. Frequency ...


Conflicting Perspectives: A Comparison Of Edtpa Intended Outcomes To Actual Experiences Of Teacher Candidates And Educators In New York City Schools, Deborah Greenblatt Feb 2019

Conflicting Perspectives: A Comparison Of Edtpa Intended Outcomes To Actual Experiences Of Teacher Candidates And Educators In New York City Schools, Deborah Greenblatt

Journal of Inquiry and Action in Education

The edTPA is a performance-based assessment of teacher candidates created by the Stanford Center for Assessment, Learning and Equity (SCALE) and nationally scored by Pearson Education. It is also promoted by American Association of Colleges of Teacher Educators (AACTE) as a “standards-based assessment.” As of the spring of 2018, the edTPA is used as a requirement for program accreditation or teacher candidate certification or program completion in 18 states.

This article analyzes the stated goals, objectives, and benefits made by SCALE and AACTE and compares them to data collected from interviews and open-ended questions with teacher candidates and teacher educators ...


Data Diving Into “Noticing Poetry”: An Analysis Of Student Engagement With The “I Notice” Method, Scot Slaby, Jordan Benedict Feb 2019

Data Diving Into “Noticing Poetry”: An Analysis Of Student Engagement With The “I Notice” Method, Scot Slaby, Jordan Benedict

Journal of Inquiry and Action in Education

This paper explores students’ engagement in reading poems, examining data on their self perceptions of their confidence and competence in reading poems before, during, and after using the “I Notice” methodology as adapted from The Academy of American Poets’ unit plan, “Noticing Poetry” (Slaby, 2017). The data was collected over the course of a month from January 9 through January 30, 2018 and involved five classes of one hundred general English tenth grade students across three teachers’ classrooms at Shanghai American School’s Puxi High School Campus. Data indicates that the “I Notice” method and the “Noticing Poetry” unit and ...


Review Of Think Big With Think Alouds: A Three-Step Planning Process That Develops Strategic Readers, Susan J. Chambre Jun 2018

Review Of Think Big With Think Alouds: A Three-Step Planning Process That Develops Strategic Readers, Susan J. Chambre

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

In Think Big with Think Alouds: A Three-step Planning Process That Develops Strategic Readers (2017), Molly K. Ness provides classroom teachers with a detailed three-step process for developing think aloud procedures during classroom literacy instruction. The book assists teachers in identifying stopping points in narrative and expository text. Ness also includes multiple scripted think alouds with comprehensive explanations for both narrative and expository text. Additionally, practical tips for promoting student adoption of higher order thinking skills are provided in the form of sentence starters and strategy symbols. The procedures outline in Think Big with Think Alouds will empower classroom teachers ...


How Teachers Can Guide Library Book Selection To Maximize The Value Of Independent Reading Time, Sherri Weber Jun 2018

How Teachers Can Guide Library Book Selection To Maximize The Value Of Independent Reading Time, Sherri Weber

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

This article shares a classroom application to support literacy development through a teacher-librarian guided book selection program. Twenty students participated in the program which demonstrated the importance of the relationship between the school librarian and classroom teacher. These professionals worked together to guide students to choose library books at their recreational level for independent reading time. The guidance program appeared to impact students' confidence in their reading and in their ability to choose appropriate books. Suggestions for teachers and librarians are discussed.


Transferable Digital Literacy Knowledge, Kiersten Greene Jun 2018

Transferable Digital Literacy Knowledge, Kiersten Greene

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

Expectations of teachers’ digital literacy knowledge have grown dramatically in the recent past. By many measures, it is an exciting time to be teacher! It is also quite daunting, as changes in technology move more rapidly than many of us can keep up. Through the exploration of local technology integration practices, this article offers a commentary on teaching, learning, and retaining digital literacy knowledge that can be applied across digital platforms, devices, programs, and ecosystems.


Tackling Literacy: A Collaborative Approach To Developing Materials, For Assessing Science Literacy Skills In Content Classrooms Through A Stem Perspective., Cynthia M. Mcmillen, Amy Graves-Demario, Deb Kieliszek Jun 2018

Tackling Literacy: A Collaborative Approach To Developing Materials, For Assessing Science Literacy Skills In Content Classrooms Through A Stem Perspective., Cynthia M. Mcmillen, Amy Graves-Demario, Deb Kieliszek

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

Abstract: Secondary science teachers outline strategies for developing, presenting, and assessing literacy skills in the content based classroom. A content-area literacy assessment was administered to over 400 students from grades 8-12. Using the data, literacy materials were developed that supported a variety of content areas. This article outlines the two year progress of this collaborative teacher group which includes the integration of reading materials from a novel, Andy Weir’s The Martian, and development of assessment questions related to this text that fostered middle and high school students’ ability to process prose, quantitative and documentative text and develop literacy in ...


Supporting Primary Students’ Story Writing By Including Retellings, Talk, And Drama With Strategy Instruction, Zoi A. Traga Philippakos, Sarah Munsell, Logan B. Robinson Jun 2018

Supporting Primary Students’ Story Writing By Including Retellings, Talk, And Drama With Strategy Instruction, Zoi A. Traga Philippakos, Sarah Munsell, Logan B. Robinson

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

Story writing and story grammar have been studied extensively in an effort to improve students’ reading comprehension. Instruction on story structure and on elements of stories can improve the writing quality of students’ papers. This paper explains a process of supporting primary-grade students’ story writing. The approach is based on strategy instruction and incorporates talk and dramatic play as ways to support the development of characters, descriptions of characters and events, and dialogue between characters. Guidelines are provided and step-by-step directions for teachers to use this work with their students.