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Full-Text Articles in Education

Quantitative Literacy In The Core Curriculum Of Hood College: Chapter Ii, Outcomes And Assessment, Betty Mayfield, Ann Stewart Jan 2019

Quantitative Literacy In The Core Curriculum Of Hood College: Chapter Ii, Outcomes And Assessment, Betty Mayfield, Ann Stewart

Numeracy

In a previous article, we described our college’s new core curriculum, which included a Quantitative Literacy (QL) component for the first time. We explained how we defined QL in the college catalog, and how we used that definition to choose courses to satisfy the new requirement. We then discussed our early efforts at assessing the effectiveness of the QL program and described our plans for the future. Here we report on our progress towards those goals, including working with faculty from other departments and with our institutional research office to develop a more sophisticated assessment plan, as well as ...


Exploring Transit’S Contribution To Livability In Rural Communities: Case Studies Of The North Dakota Cities Of Valley City And Dickinson, Ranjit Godavarthy, Jeremy Mattson Jul 2018

Exploring Transit’S Contribution To Livability In Rural Communities: Case Studies Of The North Dakota Cities Of Valley City And Dickinson, Ranjit Godavarthy, Jeremy Mattson

Journal of Public Transportation

This paper investigates the nexus of transit and rural livability as demonstrated by case studies in the North Dakota communities of Valley City and Dickinson. While there are many factors that influence the livability of a rural community, transit is believed to be an important contributor. For each of the two North Dakota communities considered, public/resident surveys, local transit rider surveys, and stakeholder interviews were conducted to understand differing opinions on livability and how transit contributes to livability.

In both Valley City and Dickinson, surveys of residents showed that they believe affordable housing, low crime, quality healthcare, overall cost ...


Reaching Below Level Ell’S Reading Comprehension, Olivia T. Braunworth, Yvonne Franco Ph.D. Jan 2018

Reaching Below Level Ell’S Reading Comprehension, Olivia T. Braunworth, Yvonne Franco Ph.D.

Journal of Practitioner Research

The number of English Language Learners (ELLs) in mainstream classrooms is increasing every year. Developing reading comprehension skills in lower level ELL students can be a challenging but important task for educators. It is crucial for classroom teachers to identify students’ proficiency levels, and then differentiate instruction to meet the reading needs for each of these students. As an elementary classroom teacher, this teacher inquiry study investigates four strategies including: visuals/realia, graphic organizers, language objectives, and building background as a means to support reading comprehension skills among three participants in a third grade classroom. The study investigates the research ...


Using The Quantitative Literacy And Reasoning Assessment (Qlra) For Early Detection Of Students In Need Of Academic Support In Introductory Courses In A Quantitative Discipline: A Case Study, Nathan D. Grawe, Kristin O'Connell Jan 2018

Using The Quantitative Literacy And Reasoning Assessment (Qlra) For Early Detection Of Students In Need Of Academic Support In Introductory Courses In A Quantitative Discipline: A Case Study, Nathan D. Grawe, Kristin O'Connell

Numeracy

As the number of young people attending college has increased, the diversity of college students’ educational backgrounds has also risen. Some students enter introductory courses with math anxiety or gaps in their quantitative training that impede their ability to master or even grasp relevant disciplinary content. Too often professors learn of these anxieties and gaps only during the post mortem of the first midterm. By that time, a good portion of a student’s grade is determined and successful recovery may be impossible. During the 2016-17 academic year, the Department of Economics at Carleton College ran a pilot project using ...


Preliminary Evaluation Of The Psychometric Quality Of HeightenTm Quantitative Literacy, Katrina C. Roohr, Hyesun Lee, Jun Xu, Ou Lydia Liu, Zhen Wang Jul 2017

Preliminary Evaluation Of The Psychometric Quality Of HeightenTm Quantitative Literacy, Katrina C. Roohr, Hyesun Lee, Jun Xu, Ou Lydia Liu, Zhen Wang

Numeracy

Quantitative literacy has been identified as an important student learning outcome (SLO) by both the higher education and workforce communities. This paper aims to provide preliminary evidence of the psychometric quality of the pilot forms for HEIghten quantitative literacy, a next-generation SLO assessment for students in higher education. We evaluated the psychometric quality of the test items (e.g., item analyses), individual- and group-level reliability, the relationship with student performance and related variables (e.g., grade point average) as well as student perceptions, and differences across college-related and demographic subgroups. Our study used data from a pilot test administered to ...


Using Think-Aloud Protocols To Uncover Misconceptions And Improve Developmental Math Instruction: An Exploratory Study, Charles Secolsky, Thomas P. Judd, Eric Magaram, Stephen H. Levy, Bruce Kossar, George Reese Jan 2016

Using Think-Aloud Protocols To Uncover Misconceptions And Improve Developmental Math Instruction: An Exploratory Study, Charles Secolsky, Thomas P. Judd, Eric Magaram, Stephen H. Levy, Bruce Kossar, George Reese

Numeracy

Deficiencies in education continue to escalate around the world. The focus on outcomes assessment has narrowed instructional research and curriculum evaluation to standardized testing in certain subject areas. A prototype for a quantitative literacy assessment instrument was developed with the goal of diagnosing student misconceptions of basic mathematics content and changing instructional practices to undo the misconceptions by applying cognitive psychological theory. Two hundred thirty-eight basic math high school students and 209 remedial community college students in New Jersey and New York were administered the instrument, which had been based on coded data from think-aloud protocols. The instrument asked students ...


Numeracy Infusion Course For Higher Education (Niche), 1: Teaching Faculty How To Improve Students' Quantitative Reasoning Skills Through Cognitive Illusions, Frank Wang, Esther I. Wilder Jul 2015

Numeracy Infusion Course For Higher Education (Niche), 1: Teaching Faculty How To Improve Students' Quantitative Reasoning Skills Through Cognitive Illusions, Frank Wang, Esther I. Wilder

Numeracy

We describe one of the eight units of a professional development program, the Numeracy Infusion Course for Higher Education (NICHE), which introduces research on cognition, including dual-processing theories, to university faculty. Under the dual-processing framework, System 1 (intuition) quickly proposes intuitive answers to judgment problems as they arise, while System 2 (deliberation) monitors the quality of these proposals, which it may endorse, correct, or override. We present several classic questions that demonstrate the pitfalls of overreliance on intuition without analytical thinking, then describe faculty participants’ responses to these questions and their ideas on how to apply cognitive illusion research to ...


Quantitative Reasoning In Environmental Science: Rasch Measurement To Support Qr Assessment, Robert L. Mayes, Kent Rittschof, Jennifer H. Forrester, Jennifer D. Schuttlefield Christus, Lisa Watson, Franziska Peterson Jul 2015

Quantitative Reasoning In Environmental Science: Rasch Measurement To Support Qr Assessment, Robert L. Mayes, Kent Rittschof, Jennifer H. Forrester, Jennifer D. Schuttlefield Christus, Lisa Watson, Franziska Peterson

Numeracy

The ability of middle and high school students to reason quantitatively within the context of environmental science was investigated. A quantitative reasoning (QR) learning progression, with associated QR assessments in the content areas of biodiversity, water, and carbon, was developed based on three QR progress variables: quantification act, quantitative interpretation, and quantitative modeling. Diagnostic instruments were developed specifically for the progress variable quantitative interpretation (QI), each consisting of 96 Likert-scale items. Each content version of the instrument focused on three scale levels (macro scale, micro scale, and landscape scale) and four elements of QI identified in prior research (trend, translation ...


The Levels Of Conceptual Understanding In Statistics (Locus) Project: Results Of The Pilot Study, Douglas Whitaker, Steven Foti, Tim Jacobbe Jul 2015

The Levels Of Conceptual Understanding In Statistics (Locus) Project: Results Of The Pilot Study, Douglas Whitaker, Steven Foti, Tim Jacobbe

Numeracy

The Levels of Conceptual Understanding in Statistics (LOCUS) project (NSF DRL-111868) has created assessments that measure conceptual (rather than procedural) understanding of statistics as outlined in GAISE Framework (Franklin et al., 2007, Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education, American Statistical Association). Here we provide a brief overview of the LOCUS project and present results from multiple-choice items on the pilot administration of the assessments with data collected from over 3400 students in grades 6-12 across six states. These results help illustrate students’ understanding of statistical topics prior to the implementation of the Common Core State Standards. Using the ...


The Quantitative Reasoning For College Science (Quarcs) Assessment, 1: Development And Validation, Katherine B. Follette, Donald W. Mccarthy, Erin Dokter, Sanlyn Buxner, Edward Prather Jul 2015

The Quantitative Reasoning For College Science (Quarcs) Assessment, 1: Development And Validation, Katherine B. Follette, Donald W. Mccarthy, Erin Dokter, Sanlyn Buxner, Edward Prather

Numeracy

Science is an inherently quantitative endeavor, and general education science courses are taken by a majority of college students. As such, they are a powerful venue for advancing students’ skills and attitudes toward mathematics. This article reports on the development and validation of the Quantitative Reasoning for College Science (QuaRCS) Assessment, a numeracy assessment instrument designed for college-level general education science students. It has been administered to more than four thousand students over eight semesters of refinement. We show that the QuaRCS is able to distinguish varying levels of quantitative literacy and present performance statistics for both individual items and ...


Assessment For Improvement: Two Models For Assessing A Large Quantitative Reasoning Requirement, Mary C. Wright, Joseph E. Howard Jan 2015

Assessment For Improvement: Two Models For Assessing A Large Quantitative Reasoning Requirement, Mary C. Wright, Joseph E. Howard

Numeracy

We present two models for assessment of a large and diverse quantitative reasoning (QR) requirement at the University of Michigan. These approaches address two key challenges in assessment: (1) dissemination of findings for curricular improvement and (2) resource constraints associated with measurement of large programs. Approaches we present for data collection include convergent validation of self-report surveys, as well as use of mixed methods and learning analytics. Strategies we present for dissemination of findings include meetings with instructors to share data and best practices, sharing of results through social media, and use of easily accessible dashboards. These assessment approaches may ...


Effects Of Reducing The Cognitive Load Of Mathematics Test Items On Student Performance, Susan C. Gillmor, John Poggio, Susan Embretson Jan 2015

Effects Of Reducing The Cognitive Load Of Mathematics Test Items On Student Performance, Susan C. Gillmor, John Poggio, Susan Embretson

Numeracy

This study explores a new item-writing framework for improving the validity of math assessment items. The authors transfer insights from Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), traditionally used in instructional design, to educational measurement. Fifteen, multiple-choice math assessment items were modified using research-based strategies for reducing extraneous cognitive load. An experimental design with 222 middle-school students tested the effects of the reduced cognitive load items on student performance and anxiety. Significant findings confirm the main research hypothesis that reducing the cognitive load of math assessment items improves student performance. Three load-reducing item modifications are identified as particularly effective for reducing item difficulty ...


Assessing Numeracy In The Upper Elementary And Middle School Years, Carol Ann Gittens Jan 2015

Assessing Numeracy In The Upper Elementary And Middle School Years, Carol Ann Gittens

Numeracy

Numeracy is the ability or tendency to reason critically about quantitative information. The preponderance of published research on numeracy examines this construct among either pre-K or early elementary samples, students with developmental challenges, or is focused on post-secondary and adult cohorts. The numeracy skills of upper-elementary and middle school students is less documented and understood, most notably because of the lack of valid instruments that are developmentally appropriate for the age range. A numeracy scale for use among upper-elementary and middle school students is introduced in this paper. Scale validation was performed using a gender-balanced, racially / ethnically diverse sample of ...


Educational Assessment Is An Enduring Theme Of Numeracy, H. L. Vacher Jan 2015

Educational Assessment Is An Enduring Theme Of Numeracy, H. L. Vacher

Numeracy

The Assessment Theme Collection in this issue brings the count of papers on QL assessment to 22 out of the 136 papers (16.2%) in the journal’s first 15 issues. After the first ten issues (our first five years), the counts were 13 and 85 respectively (15.1%). A table in this editorial updates the list of our papers on the subject.


Making College Count: An Examination Of Quantitative Reasoning Activities In Higher Education, Louis M. Rocconi, Amber D. Lambert, Alexander C. Mccormick, Shimon A. Sarraf Jul 2013

Making College Count: An Examination Of Quantitative Reasoning Activities In Higher Education, Louis M. Rocconi, Amber D. Lambert, Alexander C. Mccormick, Shimon A. Sarraf

Numeracy

Findings from national studies along with more frequent calls from those who employ college graduates suggest an urgent need for colleges and universities to increase opportunities for students to develop quantitative reasoning (QR) skills. To address this issue, the current study examines the relationship between the frequency of QR activities during college and student and institutional characteristics, as well as whether students at institutions with an emphasis on QR (at least one QR course requirement for all students) report more QR activity. Results show that gender, race-ethnicity, major, full-time status, first-generation status, age, institutional enrollment size, and institutional control are ...


The Problem Of Too Many Statistical Tests: Subgroup Analyses In A Study Comparing The Effectiveness Of Online And Live Lectures, David M. Lane Jan 2013

The Problem Of Too Many Statistical Tests: Subgroup Analyses In A Study Comparing The Effectiveness Of Online And Live Lectures, David M. Lane

Numeracy

The more statistical analyses performed in the analysis of research data, the more likely it is that one or more of the conclusions will be in error. Multiple statistical analyses can occur when the sample contains several subgroups and the researchers perform separate analyses for each subgroup. For example, separate analyses may be done for different ethnic groups, different levels of education, and/or for both genders. Media reports of research frequently omit information on the number of subgroup analyses performed thus leaving the reader with insufficient information to assess the validity of the conclusions. This article discusses the problems ...


Quantitative Reasoning Learning Progressions For Environmental Science: Developing A Framework, Robert L. Mayes, Franziska Peterson, Rachel Bonilla Jan 2013

Quantitative Reasoning Learning Progressions For Environmental Science: Developing A Framework, Robert L. Mayes, Franziska Peterson, Rachel Bonilla

Numeracy

Quantitative reasoning is a complex concept with many definitions and a diverse account in the literature. The purpose of this article is to establish a working definition of quantitative reasoning within the context of science, construct a quantitative reasoning framework, and summarize research on key components in that framework. Context underlies all quantitative reasoning; for this review, environmental science serves as the context.In the framework, we identify four components of quantitative reasoning: the quantification act, quantitative literacy, quantitative interpretation of a model, and quantitative modeling. Within each of these components, the framework provides elements that comprise the four components ...