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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Effect Of Distance Learning Delivery Methods On Student Performance And Perception, Abdulaziz Ali Alzahrani May 2019

The Effect Of Distance Learning Delivery Methods On Student Performance And Perception, Abdulaziz Ali Alzahrani

International Journal for Research in Education

The aim of this study was to investigate student perception and performance resulting from different distance learning delivery methods. A quantitative research method was applied to determine students’ views on synchronous and asynchronous delivery methods. This study was applied at the University of Hail, Deanship of Preparatory Year. The participants were 49 freshman female students. The results showed that there was a significant difference between student performance in both delivery methods—the synchronous delivery method and the synchronous with asynchronous delivery method. In addition, there was also a significant difference in student perception in the two groups. Based on this ...


Traffic Offences Among Adolescents , And Its Relationship With Leisure Variables, And Attitudes Toward High Risk Sports, Homoud Mohammed Alanazi May 2019

Traffic Offences Among Adolescents , And Its Relationship With Leisure Variables, And Attitudes Toward High Risk Sports, Homoud Mohammed Alanazi

International Journal for Research in Education

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the common traffic offences among adolescents. In addition, to examine the relationship between traffic offences and (leisure boredom, sensation seeking, and attitudes towards participation in high-risk Sport). Participants (N = 289) were recruited via stratified random sampling from grade (1st, 2nd, 3rd) of secondary schools (males) in Turaif city. According to the results, The common traffic offences observed among adolescents were, driving a car without wearing a seat belt, driving a car over speed limit, use a mobile phone while driving, engaging in Altaheet, engaged in car racing with others. Using handbrake ...


Effectiveness Of Employing Technological Innovations In Teaching The Technology Curriculum For The Sixth Grade To Develop Practical Skills And Achievement In A Sample Of Sixth Grade Students In North Gaza, ايهاب محمد الشيخ خليل Dr May 2019

Effectiveness Of Employing Technological Innovations In Teaching The Technology Curriculum For The Sixth Grade To Develop Practical Skills And Achievement In A Sample Of Sixth Grade Students In North Gaza, ايهاب محمد الشيخ خليل Dr

International Journal for Research in Education

The aim of the research is to find out the effectiveness of employing technological innovations in teaching the technology curriculum for the sixth grade in the governorate of North Gaza and test its effectiveness in the development of achievement and practical performance in the technology of students in the sixth grade of basic education in Palestine. The availability of the sixth grade technology curriculum, the availability of the existing curriculum, the use of technological innovations in the teaching of the sixth grade ICT module, and the research tools: The experimental tools were applied to both the pre-trial and post-test groups ...


The Impact Of Snapchat Use With Structured Peer Teaching Strategy On Developing Practical Computer Skills Among Students’ And Their Attitudes Towards It, Noura Saud Alhazzani Dr, Nouf M. Alsuwilmi Ta May 2019

The Impact Of Snapchat Use With Structured Peer Teaching Strategy On Developing Practical Computer Skills Among Students’ And Their Attitudes Towards It, Noura Saud Alhazzani Dr, Nouf M. Alsuwilmi Ta

International Journal for Research in Education

Abstract:

This study aimed to identify the impact of using a structured peer teaching strategy based on SnapChat on the development of practical skills for secondary school second-year female students in a computer course unit. The study focusses on the attitudes of female students towards the use of SnapChat as a systematic peer teaching strategy. The sample of the study consisted of (50) female secondary school students in Riyadh in the second semester of the year 1438/1439 H corresponding to 2017/2018 AD. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used the semi-experimental method and used the ...


The Impact Of Metacognitive Strategies Based Learning Modules On Ninth Grade Student's Science Achievement In Sultanate Of Omanمريم, Maryam Khamis Al-Mahrouqi -, علي مهدي كاظم أ.د May 2019

The Impact Of Metacognitive Strategies Based Learning Modules On Ninth Grade Student's Science Achievement In Sultanate Of Omanمريم, Maryam Khamis Al-Mahrouqi -, علي مهدي كاظم أ.د

International Journal for Research in Education

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the impact of the metacognition strategies (MS) based on learning modules on ninth grade students' science achievement in Oman for the academic year 2016/2017. A quasi-experimental design was used with two experimental groups and one control group. The first experimental group (n= 30) was taught via learning modules in paper form, while the second experimental (n=34) was taught in computerized form. The control group (n=33) was taught using a traditional method. An achievement test comprising (40) items was used. Validity and reliability of it were established. The results ...


The Impact Of Parents Counseling Program In Improving The Development Skills In In Early Childhood Stage, Abedalaziz Mostafa Sartawi May 2019

The Impact Of Parents Counseling Program In Improving The Development Skills In In Early Childhood Stage, Abedalaziz Mostafa Sartawi

International Journal for Research in Education

No abstract provided.


The Concept Of Implicit Intelligence And Creativity In The First And Third Year Students In The Program Doctor Of Medicine In Arabian Gulf University, Fatima Ahmed Al-Jasim, Tarik Al-Shabani May 2019

The Concept Of Implicit Intelligence And Creativity In The First And Third Year Students In The Program Doctor Of Medicine In Arabian Gulf University, Fatima Ahmed Al-Jasim, Tarik Al-Shabani

International Journal for Research in Education

The aim of this research is to identify the concept of implicit theories and implicit creativity among of the first and third year in the program of Doctor Program students in Medicine at the Arabian Gulf University. The sample of the study consisted of 207 students (85 males and 115 females). The descriptive method was used to answer the study questions. The results showed that the arithmetic mean of both implicit intelligence and creativity for first and third year students in MD program are high, and there were no statistically significant differences between them, and there is no statistically significant ...


تقييم مدى تلبية الحاجات الاجتماعية والانفعالية للطلبة الموهوبين من وجهة نظرهم في مدارس الموهوبين في الأردن, Abdellatif K. Alramamneh May 2019

تقييم مدى تلبية الحاجات الاجتماعية والانفعالية للطلبة الموهوبين من وجهة نظرهم في مدارس الموهوبين في الأردن, Abdellatif K. Alramamneh

International Journal for Research in Education

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to finding out the social and emotional needs of gifted students, and assessing the extent of the needs to meet the students in the Schools of His Majesty King Abdullah II for Excellence, as well as to identify the impact of variables of gender and grade to meet the social and emotional needs.

The study sample consisted of (304) students. The researcher chose a simple random sample of the original study population divided into two stages: secondary grades (first secondary & second secondary), and elementary grades (seventh and eighth grade). The researcher prepared scale to find out ...


The Reality Of Educational Media Throughout The Emirate Of Abu Dhabi Secondary Schools In The United Arab Emirates From The Perspectives Of Students, Omar M. Khasawneh, Rafeea Musallem Al Ameri Oct 2018

The Reality Of Educational Media Throughout The Emirate Of Abu Dhabi Secondary Schools In The United Arab Emirates From The Perspectives Of Students, Omar M. Khasawneh, Rafeea Musallem Al Ameri

International Journal for Research in Education

The purpose of this study was to identify the reality of educational media throughout the Emirate of Abu Dhabi secondary schools in the United Arab Emirates from the perspectives of students. To attain the study purpose, the researchers prepared a questionnaire consisted of 63 statements in its final format as an instrument for data collection. Upon the completion of stating the questionnaire items, the researchers tested its reliability as well as validity. The study instrument had been divided into five major domains. Such domains were school media, instructional technology, school broadcasting, forums/lectures, and local community/family-school communication. Then, (384 ...


The Degree Of Applying The Criteria Of Excellence Management In The Light Of The Efqm Excellence Model By The Leadership Of King Khalid University From The Point Of View Of Faculty Members, Sultan Saeed Abduh Almekhlafi Oct 2018

The Degree Of Applying The Criteria Of Excellence Management In The Light Of The Efqm Excellence Model By The Leadership Of King Khalid University From The Point Of View Of Faculty Members, Sultan Saeed Abduh Almekhlafi

International Journal for Research in Education

The current research aims at identifying the degree of applying the standards of excellence management in the light of the EFQM Excellence Model by the leadership of King Khalid University from faculty members' point of view and at identifying whether there are statistically significant differences in the mean scores of application according to the variables of scientific rank, specialization, and number of experience years.

To collect data, the researcher used a questionnaire composed of (60) indicators distributed among (9) criteria for excellence: leadership, policies and strategies, human resources, relationships and material resources, administrative processes, results of beneficiary satisfaction, results of ...


The Impact Of An Early Intervention Training Program Based On Verbal Behavior To Develop Communication Skills Among Children With Autism In Saudi Arabia, Mohammed Alzyoudi, Rawan Bakkar Oct 2018

The Impact Of An Early Intervention Training Program Based On Verbal Behavior To Develop Communication Skills Among Children With Autism In Saudi Arabia, Mohammed Alzyoudi, Rawan Bakkar

International Journal for Research in Education

This study aimed to identify the impact of an early intervention training program based on verbal behavior in the development of communication skills for children with Autism in Saudi Arabia. The study sample consists of 12 children with Autism, who had been identified as having average and less than average degrees of autism according to Gilliam Autism Rating Scale. They were aged 4-6 years. The study uses the following tools, after checking their validity and stability by the researcher: Teacher's Rating of Autistic Child Joint Attention Scale; a translated version of Behavior Language Assessment Form (BLAF). The results of ...


Phonological And Articulation Disorders Among Children With Communication Disorders In Jordan, Enas M. Oliemat Oct 2018

Phonological And Articulation Disorders Among Children With Communication Disorders In Jordan, Enas M. Oliemat

International Journal for Research in Education

This study aimed at identifying the phonological and articulation disorders among typically developing children and children with communication disorder in Jordan in terms of the nature of the disorder in spoken Arabic phonetic according to their age-groups. The study sample consisted of 200 children (100 typically developing children and 100 children with communication disorder) who were chosen randomly from six governorates in Jordan. Data were collected using Phonological Test, Spontaneous Speech Sample, and Picture's Expressive Sample. Using descriptive data analysis, results have showed that there are qualitative and quantitative differences in the nature of the phonological and articulation disorders ...


The Impact Of The Worked Example Modality And Sequencing On Achievement When Self-Learning Complex Multimedia Math Problems, Daniah Alabbasi, Haya Alwehaiby, Abeda Alenezy Oct 2018

The Impact Of The Worked Example Modality And Sequencing On Achievement When Self-Learning Complex Multimedia Math Problems, Daniah Alabbasi, Haya Alwehaiby, Abeda Alenezy

International Journal for Research in Education

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of using multimedia to teach complex math problems. It is designed based on the worked example principle with varied modality and sequencing and tested its efficacy on high school students’ achievement. In order to implement the research idea, high school students were randomly assigned to four groups that were self-taught by four different educational programs. The results of the study showed that there are statistically significant differences (α0.05) between the four groups' mathematical mean scores in the post-test. This means that the modality of displaying the worked example (sound ...


The Degree Of The Teacher’S Role Practice In The Jordanian Education System In The Era Of Knowledge Openness As Seen By Educational Supervisors, Omar Abdul Rahim Rababa'a Oct 2018

The Degree Of The Teacher’S Role Practice In The Jordanian Education System In The Era Of Knowledge Openness As Seen By Educational Supervisors, Omar Abdul Rahim Rababa'a

International Journal for Research in Education

This study identified the practice degree of the teacher’s role in the Jordanian Education system in the Era of knowledge openness through answering the following question: What is the practice degree of teacher’s exercising his/her roles in the Jordanian education system in the era of knowledge openness as seen by the educational supervisors? This study adopted the descriptive analytical approach. The population consisted of (800) educational supervisors whereas the sample of the study consisted of (120) supervisors randomly selected. The results of the study showed that the degree of teacher’s role exercising the academic role in ...


Self–Assessment In Efl Grammar Classroom: A Study Of Efl Learners At The Centre For Languages And Translation, Ibb University, Marwan Saeed Saif Moqbel May 2018

Self–Assessment In Efl Grammar Classroom: A Study Of Efl Learners At The Centre For Languages And Translation, Ibb University, Marwan Saeed Saif Moqbel

International Journal for Research in Education

The present study investigated the implementation of self-assessment in EFL grammar classroom to identify the attitudes of EFL learners at the Centre for Languages and Translation, Ibb University towards self-assessment, their perceptions of the advantages of self-assessment, and the problems or difficulties that EFL learners may face while carrying out self-assessment activities. To collect data, the researcher used three instruments: a questionnaire, a structured interview, and a focus group discussion. The questionnaire was administered to (85) EFL learners. Using the stratified sampling technique, the researcher selected randomly (14) learners for the interviews and (21) learners to participate in the focus ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Thinking Skills And School Leaders’ Performance, Salah S. Meemar May 2018

Exploring The Relationship Between Thinking Skills And School Leaders’ Performance, Salah S. Meemar

International Journal for Research in Education

Abstract:

In today’s world of education, the importance of teaching has increased, and it is considered that teachers and school leaders should think effectively to help students perform well. In this context, this research study focused on discussing the relationship between thinking skills and school leaders’ performance. For this purpose, different kinds of literature were investigated to gather the appropriate data. Further, the questionnaire survey method was used to collect data from a sample size of 50 respondents. The research participants include principals, teachers, and assents principals from different schools. The questionnaire was structured to include predictors, such as ...


Educational Values Practiced By Almujamah University Students In Saudi Arabia, Musaad D. Alharbi May 2018

Educational Values Practiced By Almujamah University Students In Saudi Arabia, Musaad D. Alharbi

International Journal for Research in Education

Abstract:
This study aimed at identifying the values practiced by Almujamah University students in Saudi Arabia. In order to achieve this objective, the researcher designed a study tool which is a questionnaire consisting of (50) items distributed to the four areas. Then the validity and reliability of the questionnaire were validated. It was distributed to subjects of the study (645) male and female students at the University of Almjmah. The study found that the degree of the educational values practiced by Almjmah University students was high and there is no statistically significant differences due to variables of jeandar and students ...


Assessment Practices Of Eighth Grade Mathematics, Amaal Alzoubi, Amal Malkawi, Ruba Miqdadi May 2018

Assessment Practices Of Eighth Grade Mathematics, Amaal Alzoubi, Amal Malkawi, Ruba Miqdadi

International Journal for Research in Education


The study aimed at analyzing assessment practice Yarmouk University es that was included in the results of the Jordanian sample of the eighth grade mathematics and science teachers who participated in "TIMSS 2011". The Jordanian sample consisted of (7694) students, (240) mathematics teachers, and of (237) science teachers. To achieve the goals of the study, the responses of both teachers and students to certain items of the questionnaire that were related to assessment practices and included in "TIMSS 2011" were analyzed. The results of the study showed that there were differences in teachers and students' estimates to the frequency ...


How Well-Aware Are Families Of Children With Special Needs, Sara Alosaimi May 2018

How Well-Aware Are Families Of Children With Special Needs, Sara Alosaimi

International Journal for Research in Education

The study aims to increase the knowledge towards the genetic counseling services .at parents with special educational needs children. The study sample targeted (104) families. Each family has one or more children of special educational needs. The families were classified according to the cases they represent such as: special needs, mobility disabilities and mental disability. The researcher has applied a questionnaire of the genetic counseling services (the questionnaire was prepared by the researcher herself) and has felicitated evidence signs and constancy for the study. The results of the study have shown that the level of parents' knowledge about the genetic ...


Self-Determination And Its Relationship With Intrinsic Motivation Among Tenth-Grade Students In Karak, Jordan, Wejdan Abd Al-Aziz Karki May 2018

Self-Determination And Its Relationship With Intrinsic Motivation Among Tenth-Grade Students In Karak, Jordan, Wejdan Abd Al-Aziz Karki

International Journal for Research in Education

Abstract:

This study attempts to identify self-determination and intrinsic motivation amongst tenth-grade students in Karak. The study sample consisted of 724 students selected according to the stratified random sampling. In order to achieve the study objectives, the author used Self-Determination Scale (SDS) and the Intrinsic Motivation Scale (IMS) after verifying their validity and reliability. The results showed that the level of self-determination among tenth-grade students in Karak was medium with a mean of 3.33 and standard deviation of 0.71. The level of intrinsic academic motivation among tenth-grade students in Karak was medium with a mean of 3.66 ...


Anger Management Strategies’ Used By Gifted Students., Khalid Abdullah Alhammouri, Sara Abdulaziz Alenzi Apr 2018

Anger Management Strategies’ Used By Gifted Students., Khalid Abdullah Alhammouri, Sara Abdulaziz Alenzi

International Journal for Research in Education

The primary goal of this study was to point out the ‘Anger Management Strategies’ used by gifted students. The sample of the study consisted of 407 secondary school students selected randomly from Jordan and Kuwait by using stratified sampling technique. The number of Jordanian students who participated in this study was 210, 106 male and 104 female enrolled in King Abdullah II Schools for Distinction in both Amman and Irbid Governorates. The number of Kuwaiti students who took part in this study was 197, 105 male and 92 female selected from Mubarak Al-Kabeer educational zone. To achieve the purpose of ...


Effectiveness Of An Electronic Curriculum For Communication Skills In Accordance With The Standards Of Quality Of E - Learning In The Academic Achievement And Attitude Towards The Course Of Students Of The Faculty Of Sharia University Qassim, Soliman Hammoda Mohammad Daoud Apr 2018

Effectiveness Of An Electronic Curriculum For Communication Skills In Accordance With The Standards Of Quality Of E - Learning In The Academic Achievement And Attitude Towards The Course Of Students Of The Faculty Of Sharia University Qassim, Soliman Hammoda Mohammad Daoud

International Journal for Research in Education

The current study aimed to build communication skills course electronically Using the E-learning management system Blackboard in accordance to e-learning quality standards by the foundation (Quality Matters), and to identify the impact on academic achievement and the trend toward electronic course.

The researcher has translated the standards of quality matters for online courses to undergraduate and building electronic course according to the indicators included and approved by Qassim University, the researcher built an academic achievement test and a measurement test for the trend toward the course, and secured and verified their validity. The researcher selected 77 students from the Faculty ...


Using The Creative Thinking Skills By The Teachers, راشد بن سيف بن ماجد العزري Jan 2018

Using The Creative Thinking Skills By The Teachers, راشد بن سيف بن ماجد العزري

International Journal for Research in Education

Abstract

The study aimed to determine to what extent the teachers of Grades 1-10 use creative thinking skills from the educational supervisors view. The sample of the study consisted of 88 educational supervisors. It used a questionnaire comprising 47 skills of the creative thinking skills divided into four main dimensions, which are; fluency, flexibility, originality and sensitivity to problem. The results indicated that the use of creative thinking skills by teachers was moderate from the educational supervisors view. The study results also showed that there was no significant differences in using creative thinking skills by teachers due to the major ...


Training Needs For Special Education Teachers In Sultanate Of Oman And Its Relationship With Some Variables., Fatma H. Almaamaria, Heyam Mosa Al-Taj Aug 2017

Training Needs For Special Education Teachers In Sultanate Of Oman And Its Relationship With Some Variables., Fatma H. Almaamaria, Heyam Mosa Al-Taj

International Journal for Research in Education

The purpose of this study is to investigate the training needs of special education teachers in Al-brymei governorate in the sultanate of Oman and its relationship with some variables. The sample of the study consisted of (115) male and female teachers, to achieve the aim of this study the researcher adopted the analytical descriptive approach through developing a scale consisted of (60) items distributed into six domains. The findings of the study showed that the degree of training needs of special education teachers in employing technology and educational technologies domain was high and ranked first within the six domains. Followed ...


Feeding Problems In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders And Its Relationship With Some Variables, Safa R. Qaraqish Aug 2017

Feeding Problems In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders And Its Relationship With Some Variables, Safa R. Qaraqish

International Journal for Research in Education

The purpose of the current study was to investigate feeding problems in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and its relationship with some variables. Seventy five fathers and mothers of autism children from Riyadh special education institutes participant in the study. Al Tamimi and Said Ali Feeding Problems Scale (2014) were used to collect data for this study. The results indicated that excessive selective eating was a problem that often occurs among children with autism, followed by the problem of refuse food. The results showed also significant relationship between eating problems with autistic children and the variables of gender in favor ...


The Effectiveness Of An Interactive Whiteboard-Based Training Program In Developing Effective Presentation Skills For Taibah University Faculty Members From Students Perspective And Their Attitudes Towards Them, Taghreed Abdelfattah Alrehaili, Madaniah Hamed Abuauf Aug 2017

The Effectiveness Of An Interactive Whiteboard-Based Training Program In Developing Effective Presentation Skills For Taibah University Faculty Members From Students Perspective And Their Attitudes Towards Them, Taghreed Abdelfattah Alrehaili, Madaniah Hamed Abuauf

International Journal for Research in Education

This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of an interactive whiteboard-based training program in developing effective presentation the skills for Taibah University (TU) faculty members from TU student’s perspective and their attitudes towards them. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. The study sample consisted of (30) Faculty members and (155) students in the preparatory year program at Taibah University Main Campus. The researchers constructed the following tools and materials: a training program, an effective presentation skills scale and an interactive whiteboard attitude scale. Research results showed that there was statistically significant differences between the pre- and post-average scores obtained ...


The Effectiveness Of Implementation Flipped Classroom Strategy On Academic Achievement To Learn Programming In A Computer Subject, Fuad F. Aldossari, Ahmad Almassaad Aug 2017

The Effectiveness Of Implementation Flipped Classroom Strategy On Academic Achievement To Learn Programming In A Computer Subject, Fuad F. Aldossari, Ahmad Almassaad

International Journal for Research in Education

The study aimed to identify the effectiveness of applying Flipped Classroom Strategy on academic achievement to learn the programming skill in the computer subject at Bloom's Taxonomy (Analysis, Installation, and Evaluation). The research used quasi-experimental approach. the researchers designed 'Achievement test '. The sample consisted of (48) student, from the First Secondary Grade students in Alshifa secondary school in Riyadh. The research sample was divided into (experimental and Control). The results are: There is differences of statistical significance for the experimental group at levels (Analysis, Installation, and Overall test), and did not show the differentials of statistical significance at (Evaluation ...


Investigating The Opinions Of Academic Staffmembers At Kuwait University About Their Preparedness For Implementingweb 2.0 Educational Platforms Into Their Teaching Courses, Fayiz Aldhafeeri Aug 2017

Investigating The Opinions Of Academic Staffmembers At Kuwait University About Their Preparedness For Implementingweb 2.0 Educational Platforms Into Their Teaching Courses, Fayiz Aldhafeeri

International Journal for Research in Education

The current study sought to determine Kuwait University academic staff’s implementation of Web 2.0 educational platforms into their teaching courses as well as identify how prepared they are in using them and the challenges surrounding them. The study also aimed to investigate the reasons for the disinclination of utilizing Web 2.0 educational platforms in their teaching. The findings may help decision-makers to overcome these challenges, particularly at Kuwait University, which has allocated a large amount of money and tireless human efforts to bringingcutting-edge technology into its classrooms. The study adopted a mixed method approach for achieving the ...


The Extent To Which The Arabic Language Teachers In The State Of Kuwait Acquire Competence In Electronic Learning, Hamed Abdullah Alhumidi Aug 2017

The Extent To Which The Arabic Language Teachers In The State Of Kuwait Acquire Competence In Electronic Learning, Hamed Abdullah Alhumidi

International Journal for Research in Education

The present study introduces the extent to which teachers of Arabic language in the state of Kuwait acquire competence in electronic learning, from their own point of view. It also aims to identify, with statistical reference, any differences in views of teachers of both genders, regarding gender, academic degree, and years of teaching experience. In order to achieve the goals of the study, a questionnaire (which included 24 questions divided on three scales) was used. For the purposes of analyzing the data statistically, the one- way Anova test was used. The sample consisted of (200) teachers, (65) males and (135 ...


The Effectiveness Of Training Group Program In Improving Social Life Skills Level And Its Affect In Modifying The External Locus Control To Internal Among Students Of Prince Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Naser Aldeen Ibrahim Abu Hammad Aug 2017

The Effectiveness Of Training Group Program In Improving Social Life Skills Level And Its Affect In Modifying The External Locus Control To Internal Among Students Of Prince Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Naser Aldeen Ibrahim Abu Hammad

International Journal for Research in Education

This study aimed to identify the level of social and life skills and modifying the external locus control to internal locus control among students of prince Sattam bin Abdul-Aziz University. Furthermore, the researcher prepares a training program for improving student’s social and life skills. The study sample consists of (40) students of second and third at education college, who they were randomly distributed equally into experimental and control groups; each group consists (20) students. The following instruments were used by researcher in data collection: social skills scale; and the training program for improving social and life skills and modifying ...