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Full-Text Articles in Education

An Explanation Of The Supervisory Model Used By Elementary Principal Supervisors In The State Of Missouri, David J. Hvidston, Bret Range, J Anderson, Brady Quirk Mar 2919

An Explanation Of The Supervisory Model Used By Elementary Principal Supervisors In The State Of Missouri, David J. Hvidston, Bret Range, J Anderson, Brady Quirk

School Leadership Review

The goal for this paper was to discuss the efforts a school district has taken to utilize elementary principal supervisors to build and develop principals’ leadership capacities. The question considered was: (1) How are principals supervised and evaluated in one district? Attempting to answer this question is an important step in operationalizing guiding principles that can be shared with principal supervisors. The discussion included the importance of standards, the modeling of instructional supervision by principal supervisors, the reliance of guiding questions and potential data sources. Additional critical factors included coaching with two-way communication based on a trusting, reflective relationship. As …


Single And Not Ready To Mingle: The Potential Gentrification Of Student Housing, Anna L. Peters, Lou L. Sabina, Maureen M. Mcclure, Kiara L. Sabina, Claudine Mclaren-Turner, Marcus Silver Dec 2023

Single And Not Ready To Mingle: The Potential Gentrification Of Student Housing, Anna L. Peters, Lou L. Sabina, Maureen M. Mcclure, Kiara L. Sabina, Claudine Mclaren-Turner, Marcus Silver

Journal of Global Education and Research

As higher education tuition continues to rise in the United States and globally, other costs impacting students, such as fees, parking, and housing, are rising at a similar pace. Concurrently, more higher education institutions are focusing on creating boutique experiences for students, including the option for single-unit housing. This paper analyzed the costs associated with single-unit housing at the ten largest college campuses in the United States compared to the costs associated with multi-unit housing and off-campus living. The changes in preferences for students associated with their college experiences, when partnered with higher costs of living and off-campus housing, create …


Students’ Perceived Benefits Of Chess: Differences Across Age And Gender, George Chitiyo, Marlana Lastres, Kinsey Simone, Lisa Zagumny Dec 2023

Students’ Perceived Benefits Of Chess: Differences Across Age And Gender, George Chitiyo, Marlana Lastres, Kinsey Simone, Lisa Zagumny

Journal of Global Education and Research

The purpose of this study was to determine differences in students’ perceived benefits of chess by gender and age after being exposed to chess during instruction for an entire academic year as part of a Chess in Schools initiative in a southeastern state of the United States. Data were collected during the 2017–201 8 academic year. The sample consisted of 1,286 students across elementary, middle, and high school levels. Data were collected using a retrospective pretest survey. Seven constructs of the students’ perceptions were generated (increased enjoyment of mathematics, improvement in academic self-efficacy, improvement in collaborative skills, improvement in organizational …


Global Educational Ramifications Of Covid-19 On Minorities And Students Living In Poverty Or Extreme Poverty: A Literature Review, Jessie S. Thacker-King Dec 2023

Global Educational Ramifications Of Covid-19 On Minorities And Students Living In Poverty Or Extreme Poverty: A Literature Review, Jessie S. Thacker-King

Journal of Global Education and Research

Public education requires all stakeholders to collaborate as a community and focus on the essential factors that create a path for student progress, growth, and maturity. The result nurtures students from kindergarten to graduation and beyond and affords them opportunities to become efficacious members of their communities. Schools are a business operating on the premise of the service industry, working collectively with and for the communities they serve. Their operational parameters are to work with all stakeholders to successfully facilitate excellence in education for all students regardless of gender, race, or socioeconomic status. Recent COVID-19 school closures have opened dialogues …


How Did School Administrators Manage The Crises During The Covid-19 Outbreak?, Sadegul Akbaba Altun, Mustafa Bulut Dec 2023

How Did School Administrators Manage The Crises During The Covid-19 Outbreak?, Sadegul Akbaba Altun, Mustafa Bulut

Journal of Global Education and Research

The focus of this research was to investigate how school administrators in Turkey managed the crises caused by the COVID-19 outbreak, which was a deadly threat for humanity worldwide. The research questions guiding this study are: 1) Did schools have a crisis plan? 2) If yes, how was the plan implemented in a crisis situation?; 3) What kind of changes were made in the plans?; 4) What should administrators do in such crisis situations?; and 5) What was done in the COVID-19 outbreak? The research was conducted as a qualitative case study which involved 105 school administrators. Due to the …


Learning To Learn In Mathematics: Two Fulbright Distinguished Awards In Teaching Fellows’ Narratives, Sabrina Goldberg, Jana Dean, Paivi Portaankorva-Koivisto Dec 2023

Learning To Learn In Mathematics: Two Fulbright Distinguished Awards In Teaching Fellows’ Narratives, Sabrina Goldberg, Jana Dean, Paivi Portaankorva-Koivisto

Journal of Global Education and Research

Two middle school educators earned a Fulbright Distinguished Award in Teaching fellowship. A Fulbright Finland Foundation inter-country travel grant provided the grantees with a unique opportunity to connect and collaborate at the University of Helsinki. Within this research, they described their inquiry experiences. The research included examining authentic student-centered learning continuums and phenomenon-based learning in Finland and teachers’ adaptability in relation to meeting the needs of linguistically and culturally diverse math classrooms in the Netherlands. This paper summarizes how cross-cultural dialogues, classroom observations, and informal interviews with educators, students, and thought leaders informed each grantee’s discovery of how student-centered learning …


Exploring Bhutanese Primary School Teachers’ Technological Knowledge, Sonam Dhendup, Kezang Sherab Jul 2023

Exploring Bhutanese Primary School Teachers’ Technological Knowledge, Sonam Dhendup, Kezang Sherab

Journal of Global Education and Research

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the normal functions of schools globally. Online learning is a new concept in Bhutan. Nonetheless, classes have begun using various online learning platforms to continue their operations during the pandemic. This study examined primary school teachers’ perceived information technology knowledge and proficiency. The participants of this study consisted of 124 primary teachers from two western districts of Bhutan. Data were collected using an online survey. The study’s findings suggested that although the majority of participants (98.2%) had access to personal digital devices, slow internet connection and high internet data subscription charges (60.7%) were cited as …


Teacher Candidate Self-Efficacy And Ability To Teach Literacy: A Comparison Of Residency And Traditional Teacher Preparation Models, Doreen L. Mazzye, Michelle A. Duffy, Richard L. Lamb Jul 2023

Teacher Candidate Self-Efficacy And Ability To Teach Literacy: A Comparison Of Residency And Traditional Teacher Preparation Models, Doreen L. Mazzye, Michelle A. Duffy, Richard L. Lamb

Journal of Global Education and Research

This comparative study explored self-efficacy and ability for scientifically-based literacy instruction between a traditional and residency model of teacher preparation. Pre-/post-survey data was collected using the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy for Literacy Scale. Mentor teachers completed a modified version of the survey on candidates’ abilities. Data were analyzed using paired sample t-tests, independent sample t-tests, and a trend analysis. Results revealed that candidates in the Residency Model held higher levels of self-efficacy for literacy instruction than in the Traditional Model. Mentor teachers rated candidates in the Residency Model as more able to teach literacy than those in the …


Staffing Remote Schools: Perennial Failure, Sally Knipe, Christine Bottrell Jul 2023

Staffing Remote Schools: Perennial Failure, Sally Knipe, Christine Bottrell

Journal of Global Education and Research

Educational and socioeconomic disadvantage in remote communities, and the inadequacies of government action to bring about significant change needs to be addressed. This article presents a descriptive study examining the complexities of staffing remote and very remote schools in Australia with appropriately-qualified teachers. The findings of analysis of data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) on behalf of the Australian Government through the National Schools Statistics Collection (NSSC) indicate that the majority of students in remote schools in Australia live, and are educated in, Indigenous communities in three jurisdictions. This raises concerns of unacknowledged and unacceptable discrimination. Complexity within …


Teaching Mathematics To All Learners By Tapping Into Indigenous Legends: A Pathway Towards Inclusive Education, Nahid Golafshani Jul 2023

Teaching Mathematics To All Learners By Tapping Into Indigenous Legends: A Pathway Towards Inclusive Education, Nahid Golafshani

Journal of Global Education and Research

This study explored the use of Indigenous storytelling in the planning and teaching of mathematical content. In collaboration with Indigenous and non-Indigenous educators, a culturally inclusive mathematical lesson was developed, implemented, and reviewed in an elementary school in Northern Ontario. This study used a culturally authentic approach to address the current educational issue of diversity within the Ontario curriculum and education system. The results of this study suggested that utilizing Indigenous storytelling for teaching mathematical curricular expectations could benefit both Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. Storytelling can allow students to relate abstract mathematical concepts to their own lived experiences, to be …


Improving Global Competence In Classroom-Based Experiential Learning Activities, Juyoung Lee, Caroline Kobia, Jihyeong Son Jul 2023

Improving Global Competence In Classroom-Based Experiential Learning Activities, Juyoung Lee, Caroline Kobia, Jihyeong Son

Journal of Global Education and Research

The purpose of this research was to develop learning activities to improve global competence for a classroom-based course in the field of clothing and textiles and explore how those activities affected the global competence of college students. To achieve this goal, the researchers proposed the following objectives: (a) develop learning activities on global competence and (b) explore the influences of newly proposed learning activities on the global competence of college students. The authors analyzed students’ reflective essays to identify themes through constant comparative analysis. The authors found participants learned about the Japanese culture through diverse aspects of global competence—affective, cognitive, …


Examining The Frequency And Implementation Of Validation Techniques: A Content Analysis Of Edd Dissertations In Educational Leadership, Lester A. C. Archer, Ya-Hsin Hsiao Jul 2023

Examining The Frequency And Implementation Of Validation Techniques: A Content Analysis Of Edd Dissertations In Educational Leadership, Lester A. C. Archer, Ya-Hsin Hsiao

Journal of Global Education and Research

This paper describes a content analysis used to examine educational doctoral degrees (EdD) dissertations in a U.S. university. The purpose of the study was to get a better understanding of the validation techniques utilized in dissertations published by EdD students. Forty-nine dissertations were selected and examined for research methodologies, research design, and elements of vigorous validation techniques. The most frequently found methodology was quantitative (n = 30; 61.22%) followed by qualitative (n = 13; 26.53%). Among the quantitative studies, the most frequently used design was survey (n = 18; 60%). The most frequently used design in qualitative …


Defining Intercultural Competence: How Four Pre-Service Teachers Developed A More Complex Understanding Of Icc, Elizabeth C. Barrow Mar 2023

Defining Intercultural Competence: How Four Pre-Service Teachers Developed A More Complex Understanding Of Icc, Elizabeth C. Barrow

Journal of Global Education and Research

This manuscript is one part of a larger exploratory collective case study of pre-service teachers who participated in a student teaching abroad program for one-month in Germany. The objective was to ascertain if and how pre-service teachers with no prior training in intercultural competence (ICC) developed both their understanding and conceptualization of ICC. Data was collected before, during, and after the experience via focus groups, individual interviews, journal entries, and program evaluations. Data was analyzed using a priori codes compiled from Bennett’s (2008) characteristics of affective, cognitive, and behavioral competencies of ICC. Findings from this study indicated that a short-term …


Exploring The Phenomenon Of Hope In Adult Illiterate Haitians, Donita Grissom, Joyce Nutta, Edwidge Crevecoeur-Bryant, Sherron K. Roberts Mar 2023

Exploring The Phenomenon Of Hope In Adult Illiterate Haitians, Donita Grissom, Joyce Nutta, Edwidge Crevecoeur-Bryant, Sherron K. Roberts

Journal of Global Education and Research

Snyder’s hope theory depicts hope, through the frame of positive psychology, as a cognitive construct with the perceived sense of goal-directed, pathways, and agency thinking (Snyder et al., 1991). Hope levels have been measured in various countries; however, no research to date focused on Haitians. This study, conducted in Petit-Goâve, Haiti, addressed this gap by investigating hope, pathway, and agency levels derived from 135 Haitian-Kreyol adult literacy course participants. This manuscript reports scores of illiterate Haitians’ hope levels utilizing Snyder’s Adult Hope Dispositional Scale; the scores are explained by Snyder’s hope theory taking Haitian cultural and social landscapes into account. …


Perceptions Of Leadership Styles In International Special And General Education Schools In The United Arab Emirates, Kaitlin M. Jackson Mar 2023

Perceptions Of Leadership Styles In International Special And General Education Schools In The United Arab Emirates, Kaitlin M. Jackson

Journal of Global Education and Research

Given that school leadership styles are linked to educational outcomes, this study attempted to identify perceived leadership styles of school leaders in two types of schools in the United Arab Emirates (UAE): (a) international special education schools, which serve exclusively students with disabilities and (b) international general education schools, which serve primarily typically developing students. By utilizing primarily quantitative methods with supplementary qualitative analysis, this study also explored the influence of teacher demographic variables on perceptions of leadership styles. Results indicated a difference in perceptions of transformational and transactional leadership by school type based on teacher education level, as well …


Approach To Problem Solving And Use Of Intuition By Engineering Technology Students, Meher R. Taleyarkhan, Anne M. Lucietto, Natalie L. F. Hobson, Therese M. Azevedo Mar 2023

Approach To Problem Solving And Use Of Intuition By Engineering Technology Students, Meher R. Taleyarkhan, Anne M. Lucietto, Natalie L. F. Hobson, Therese M. Azevedo

Journal of Global Education and Research

Engineering technology students often forgo a methodical approach of solving or answering questions on assignments or exams in favor of an intuition-based approach, emphasizing educated guessing (Broberg et al., 2008). Faculty observations have noted these student solutions often provide explanations, usually sans calculations, to support answers the students believe to be reasonable when in reality deviated from the correct answer. An extensive study was developed to assess several distinctions between student intuition and use of cognition in problem solving, as related to a generalized student population. The study was comprised of a survey and interview. The survey utilized two instruments, …


Live-Learn-Work: Experiential Learning And Cultural Intelligence In The Internship Abroad, Lisa Lambert Snodgrass, Mehdi Ghahremani, Margaret Hass Mar 2023

Live-Learn-Work: Experiential Learning And Cultural Intelligence In The Internship Abroad, Lisa Lambert Snodgrass, Mehdi Ghahremani, Margaret Hass

Journal of Global Education and Research

In response to increasing demand for intercultural competency in global work environments, universities in the United States have expanded opportunities for study and internship abroad. However, there is comparatively little research on the program design for internship abroad programs and how it affects intercultural competency. This study presents a new curriculum model for the internship abroad called Live-Learn-Work (LLW) and evaluates its effects on the cultural intelligence (CQ) of undergraduate student participants in three different settings: Seoul, South Korea; Amsterdam, Netherlands; and Lima, Peru. The design of LLW is unique in that it integrates a theoretical framework from Experiential Learning …


Engaging In Self-Directed Leisure Activities During A Homework-Free Holiday: Impacts On Primary School Children In Hong Kong, Vicky C. Tam, Phoebe Chu, Viola Tsang Mar 2023

Engaging In Self-Directed Leisure Activities During A Homework-Free Holiday: Impacts On Primary School Children In Hong Kong, Vicky C. Tam, Phoebe Chu, Viola Tsang

Journal of Global Education and Research

Homework is a core pedagogical tool used by schools around the world. Yet concern for heavy homework load has been raised regarding stress on students and families and how it may overshadow opportunities for non-academic development. Drawing support from Self-Determination Theory and Hope Theory, an innovative intervention project was designed to create homework-free opportunities for school children to take part in freely chosen self-directed leisure activities. The project was implemented in four primary schools in Hong Kong during the Easter holiday in 2017 and 2018. A mixed-method evaluation was conducted to appraise the experiences of student participants as well as …


Ethno-Pedagogical Expressions In The Ndambu Culture Of The Kimaima Community, Papua, Tobias Tobi Nggaruaka, Endah Tri Priyatni, Heri Suwignyo, Wahyudi Siswanto Jan 2023

Ethno-Pedagogical Expressions In The Ndambu Culture Of The Kimaima Community, Papua, Tobias Tobi Nggaruaka, Endah Tri Priyatni, Heri Suwignyo, Wahyudi Siswanto

The Qualitative Report

The Ndambu culture is one of the local wisdoms of the people of Kimaima, Papua, the eastern part of Indonesia, which must be preserved in today's globalized world because cultural values are now being abandoned by the development of globalization. The current generation is also starting to leave the culture of child initiation, so efforts are needed to preserve culture in traditional ways. Preserving cultural values has importance because it contains an ethno-pedagogy about parenting children to be personally responsible, independent, and autonomous. Even though there have been many studies on the local wisdom system of the community, there lies …


Marrying A Good Story And A Well-Formed Argument: The Metanarrative Of Zyx, Megan X. Schutte Jan 2023

Marrying A Good Story And A Well-Formed Argument: The Metanarrative Of Zyx, Megan X. Schutte

The Qualitative Report

This article uses a metanarrative of a fictional, gender identity minority community college student (named Zyx) to elucidate and humanize the experiences that students in this population undergo throughout the course of their college career. Using a journal entry format, Zyx (they/them) is followed from the day before their first day at school through to their graduation. Their experience includes being first-generation and mixed race, living through COVID-19, coping with academic failure, and ultimately triumphing over adversity. The story is meant to cover some of the myriad obstacles to success faced by gender identity minorities attending community college while also …


Examining Faculty’S Transition To 100% Online Learning During A Pandemic: A Narrative Inquiry, Christa Ann Banton, Jose Garza Jan 2023

Examining Faculty’S Transition To 100% Online Learning During A Pandemic: A Narrative Inquiry, Christa Ann Banton, Jose Garza

The Qualitative Report

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) quickly emerged as an unprecedented pandemic that has impacted communities at every level. Although online teaching is not a new concept, many faculty entered new territory as they transitioned into the online learning environment at the onset of the pandemic. This qualitative, narrative inquiry sought to capture the unique experiences of on-ground faculty during the rapid transition into online learning. Through these twenty interviews, some emerging themes included the instability and usage of technology, changes in engagement and participation, and the need for additional student and faculty support. Emerging themes provide insight to future implications related …


Interaction Between Students With And Without Disabilities In An Inclusive Schools From Their Teachers Perspective., Dr. Basmah Alshahrani Jan 2023

Interaction Between Students With And Without Disabilities In An Inclusive Schools From Their Teachers Perspective., Dr. Basmah Alshahrani

Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities

The success of the inclusion of students with disabilities substantially depends on the collaboration of various social agents, including non-disabled peers, who play a substantial role in the lives of students with disabilities. Peers, as social agent, are responsible for the creation of a favourable social environment, in which one of the key factors is a positive acceptance. This research examined the reality of interactions between non-disabled students and their acceptance to peers with disabilities. A qualitative research approach was employed using interviews with Nine special education teachers. An overall positive attitudes were reported with non-disabled peers being reported as …


Adjusting/Modifying Assignments To Support Students With Learning Disabilities While Engaging In Ngss Science And Engineering Practices And Inquiry-Based Learning, Shannon Morago Dr. Jan 2023

Adjusting/Modifying Assignments To Support Students With Learning Disabilities While Engaging In Ngss Science And Engineering Practices And Inquiry-Based Learning, Shannon Morago Dr.

Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities

Effective science instruction involves opportunities for all students to do science, including engaging in the NGSS Science and Engineering Practices through inquiry-based learning. Many students with learning disabilities have the accommodation of shortened or reduced assignments in their Individualized Educational Programs to allow them equal access to science learning. Science teachers struggle to provide this accommodation. This practice brief provides examples of supports and strategies for implementing this accommodation during an inquiry-based investigation. A vignette is used to follow a science teacher and her students through an investigation; it details how she provides equal access to the learning objectives as …


What Law Schools Must Change To Train Transactional Lawyers, Stephanie Hunter Mcmahon Jan 2023

What Law Schools Must Change To Train Transactional Lawyers, Stephanie Hunter Mcmahon

Pace Law Review

Not all lawyers litigate, but you would not know that from the first-year curriculum at most law schools. Despite 50% of lawyers working in transactional practices, schools do not incorporate its legal doctrines or skills in the foundational first year. That the Progressives pushed through antitrust laws and the New Dealers founded the modern administrative state reframed how people use the law, particularly in transactional practices, and should be given equal weight as the appellate-based common law in any legal introduction. Nevertheless, the law school model created by Christopher Columbus Langdell in the 1870s remains dominant. As this review of …


Complete Issue, Volume 39, Issue 1 Jan 2023

Complete Issue, Volume 39, Issue 1

Journal of the Association for Communication Administration

This is the complete issue for Volume 39, Issue 1 of the Journal of the Association for Communication Administration.


“Listen To Me” – A Systematic Literature Review About Learning From Others’ Failure Narrations, Verena Liszt-Rohlf Jan 2023

“Listen To Me” – A Systematic Literature Review About Learning From Others’ Failure Narrations, Verena Liszt-Rohlf

International Journal for Business Education

The dedicated stream of learning from others’ failure has gained increasing attention in entrepreneurship education research and—because of the COVID-19 crisis—among practitioners. The emerging literature on entrepreneurship education addresses this important phenomenon but lacks specific theoretical underpinnings; its new approaches to and empirical inquiry are one-sided. Therefore, a systematic literature review is warranted to provide a more comprehensive view of learning from others’ entrepreneurial failures and to develop a research model. Unprecedentedly, the author explores the type of research streams and gaps that can be included in a research model for entrepreneurship education research in the area of learning from …


Role Play: Actualizing The Iep Meeting For Pre-Service Teachers, Courtney A. Toledo Jan 2023

Role Play: Actualizing The Iep Meeting For Pre-Service Teachers, Courtney A. Toledo

The Qualitative Report

Teacher preparation programs provide numerous teaching and learning opportunities for pre-service teachers; however, participating in an Individualized Education Program (IEP) meeting is not an experience that can be guaranteed. Leading and participating in IEP meetings are a responsibility that all special education teachers will be held accountable for, but many pre-service teachers will never be able to observe a real IEP meeting before entering the field. In this qualitative case study, the researcher utilizes a simulated IEP meeting to provide pre-service teachers with experience in participating in an IEP meeting prior to entering the profession. The case study method is …


The Role Of School Administration In Developing Health Awareness Among Primary School Students In Bani Kinana District In Irbid Governorate From The Point Of View Of Teachers, Lana Rateb Mohammad Obiedat Jan 2023

The Role Of School Administration In Developing Health Awareness Among Primary School Students In Bani Kinana District In Irbid Governorate From The Point Of View Of Teachers, Lana Rateb Mohammad Obiedat

Journal of the Association of Arab Universities for Research in Higher Education (مجلة اتحاد الجامعات العربية (للبحوث في التعليم العالي

The study aimed to identify the role of school administration in developing health awareness among primary school students in Bani Kenana District, Irbid Governorate, from the teachers’ point of view. To achieve the aim of the study, the descriptive method was used. A sample of (200) primary school teachers in Bani Kenana District, Irbid Governorate, was selected. A questionnaire was applied to measure the role of school administration in developing health awareness among primary school students. The results concluded that The role of school administration in developing health awareness among primary school students in the Bani Kinana District in Irbid …


The Impact Of Practicing Physical Activity On Promoting The Disabled From Their Perspective, Mo'tasim Mahmoud Shatnawi Jan 2023

The Impact Of Practicing Physical Activity On Promoting The Disabled From Their Perspective, Mo'tasim Mahmoud Shatnawi

Journal of the Association of Arab Universities for Research in Higher Education (مجلة اتحاد الجامعات العربية (للبحوث في التعليم العالي

The study aimed at identifying the impact of practicing physical activity on promoting the disabled from their perspective as well as identifying the impact of practicing physical activity on promoting the disabled from their perspective according to the variables of (gender, degree of disability). The researchers used the descriptive approach due to its compatibility to the study nature. The study sample consisted of (60) disabled individuals who were chosen using the simple random way. The questionnaire was used as the study instrument for data collection. (SPSS) was used for data analysis. The results showed that the impact of practicing physical …


The Extent To Which Extra-Curricular School Activities Contribute To Combating Extremism, Khalid Mohammad Abdelljalil Taqatqah Jan 2023

The Extent To Which Extra-Curricular School Activities Contribute To Combating Extremism, Khalid Mohammad Abdelljalil Taqatqah

Journal of the Association of Arab Universities for Research in Higher Education (مجلة اتحاد الجامعات العربية (للبحوث في التعليم العالي

The study aimed to identify the extent to which school extracurricular activities contribute to combating extremism by identifying the nature and types of extracurricular activities, recognizing the importance of extra-curricular activities in the learning process, and highlighting the importance of extra-curricular activities in combating extremism. To achieve these goals, the study relied on the descriptive analytical approach. The study revealed that extracurricular activities have an important and effective role in confronting extremism through creating harmony and social interaction among the students participating in those activities, Raising their self-confidence and the ability to deal with others, facing different social conditions and …