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Are We At A Watershed Moment For The Quantitative Literacy Movement?: Review Of Shifting Context, Stable Core: Advancing Quantitative Literacy In Higher Education, By Luke Tunstall, Gizem Karaali, And Victor Piercey, Eds., Maura Mast Jul 2019

Are We At A Watershed Moment For The Quantitative Literacy Movement?: Review Of Shifting Context, Stable Core: Advancing Quantitative Literacy In Higher Education, By Luke Tunstall, Gizem Karaali, And Victor Piercey, Eds., Maura Mast

Numeracy

Luke Tunstall, Gizem Karaali, and Victor Piercey, eds. 2019. Shifting Concepts, Stable Core: Advancing Quantitative Literacy in Higher Education. Math Notes 88. (Mathematics Association of America, MAA Press). Print ISBN 978-0-88385-198-2. Electronic ISBN 978-1-61444-324-7.

The thematic approach of the edited MAA Notes volume Shifting Contexts, Stable Core: Advancing Quantitative Literacy in Higher Education is that the “construct” of quantitative literacy is now fairly stable, but the contexts in which quantitative literacy is taught (and practiced) continue to change. Several chapters give the reader much to consider regarding what constitutes the foundation of this stable core and, relatedly, how quantitative literacy ...


Parts Of The Whole: Logical Categories Of Learning: Why Teaching Qr Is Hard, Dorothy Wallace Jul 2019

Parts Of The Whole: Logical Categories Of Learning: Why Teaching Qr Is Hard, Dorothy Wallace

Numeracy

This column introduces the reader to an essay by anthropologist Gregory Bateson on the nature of learning. In that essay, he stratifies the learning process into categories based on what aspect of the student’s understanding is required to change in order to accomplish a given learning task. A discussion of the first three categories is followed here by examples from quantitative reasoning tasks and a further example from the ongoing discussion in the community of what numeracy entails. Bateson’s classification of learning into “logical categories” sheds light on what the goals of numeracy ask of both student and ...


The Numbers We Need: Review Of Shifting Contexts, Stable Core: Advancing Education In Higher Education, Edited By Luke Tunstall, Gizem Karaali, And Victor Piercey (2019), John Macinnes Jul 2019

The Numbers We Need: Review Of Shifting Contexts, Stable Core: Advancing Education In Higher Education, Edited By Luke Tunstall, Gizem Karaali, And Victor Piercey (2019), John Macinnes

Numeracy

Luke Tunstall, Gizem Karaali, and Victor Piercey, eds. 2019. Shifting Contexts, Stable Core: Advancing Education in Higher Education. Math Notes 88. (Mathematics Association of America, MAA Press). Print ISBN 978-0-88385-198-2. Electronic ISBN 978-1-61444-324-7.

Mine is a rather UK-centric view. The ability to understand numbers is increasingly vital for citizenship in a world where almost every argument, no matter how bogus, comes with numbers attached. Maths and stats, however, are too important to leave to the mathematicians and statisticians alone. There are as many varieties of application as there are disciplines and interests. Maths faculty are not there to be polymaths ...


Introducing Maa Notes #88: Shifting Contexts, Stable Core: Advancing Quantitative Literacy In Higher Education, Samuel L. Tunstall, Gizem Karaali, Victor Piercey Jul 2019

Introducing Maa Notes #88: Shifting Contexts, Stable Core: Advancing Quantitative Literacy In Higher Education, Samuel L. Tunstall, Gizem Karaali, Victor Piercey

Numeracy

Tunstall, Samuel, Gizem Karaali, and Victor Piercey, eds. 2019. Shifting Contexts, Stable Core: Advancing Quantitative Literacy in Higher Education (Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America) 258 pp. ISBN 978-1614443247.

This brief essay introduces readers to Shifting Contexts, Stable Core: Advancing Quantitative Literacy in Higher Education, a new edited volume published by the Mathematical Association of America. We begin by describing the story behind the volume, and then outline its four major parts: "A Bird’s Eye View," "Curriculum for Quantitative Literacy," "Quantitative Literacy in an Institutional Context," and "Perspectives from the Quantitative Literacy Community." We end with an excerpt from ...


Quantitative Literacy And The Mathematical Association Of America In The 2000’S: Ql Subcommittee Of Cupm , Sigmaa Ql, And Maa Notes #70, Rick Gillman Jul 2019

Quantitative Literacy And The Mathematical Association Of America In The 2000’S: Ql Subcommittee Of Cupm , Sigmaa Ql, And Maa Notes #70, Rick Gillman

Numeracy

This Roots and Seeds article is a partial history of the quantitative literacy movement in the Mathematical Association of America in the first decade of the 21st century. It focuses on the inclusion of QL in the MAA Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics’ CUPM Curriculum Guidelines (2004), the creation of the special interest group for MAA members (SIGMAA QL, 2004), and the work of that body in subsequent years, in particular, the MAA Notes #70, Current Practices in Quantitative Literacy (2006). I discuss some issues that were problematic in the QL movement in the MAA in those years ...


Alignment Between Learning Objectives And Assessments In A Quantitative Literacy Course, Younggon Bae, Samuel L. Tunstall, Kathryn S. Knowles, Rebecca L. Matz Jul 2019

Alignment Between Learning Objectives And Assessments In A Quantitative Literacy Course, Younggon Bae, Samuel L. Tunstall, Kathryn S. Knowles, Rebecca L. Matz

Numeracy

In this analysis, we examine how course assessment items were aligned with learning objectives in a quantitative literacy course at Michigan State University. The alignment analysis consisted of mapping assessment items to a list of operationalized learning objectives from the course. Our analysis shows how often the learning objectives are represented in assessment items, how often they are paired with other learning objectives, and how influential they are in contributing to a student’s course grade. In addition, through comparisons across four assessment types (e.g., exams and homework), we show how each learning objective was assessed differently within each ...


How Do We Change Statistical And Critical Thinking Attitudes In Young People?, Rhys C. Jones Jul 2019

How Do We Change Statistical And Critical Thinking Attitudes In Young People?, Rhys C. Jones

Numeracy

A quasi-experimental design was used to measure the impacts on student attitudes in statistics, mathematics and critical thinking (16-18 years of age) on a group of students who received a 21-week-long contextualised statistics course (called the Pilot Scheme in Social Analytics), in South Wales. This paper will discuss the development and delivery stages of the course as well as the student recruitment strategies employed. This paper will also discuss the changes in attitudes observed after the course had finished. Results suggest the course did lead to changes in the students’ attitudes becoming more positive with respect to statistics, mathematics, and ...


Crossing The Final Frontier: Exploring The Numeracy Demands Of Texts Read In English Language Arts, Ellen C. Agnello, Kevin M. Agnello Jul 2019

Crossing The Final Frontier: Exploring The Numeracy Demands Of Texts Read In English Language Arts, Ellen C. Agnello, Kevin M. Agnello

Numeracy

Incited by the National Assessment of Educational Progress’ 2009 Reading Framework and the Common Core State Standards, recent shifts in national education goals have urged English language arts teachers to make curriculum adjustments. One such adjustment is to shift their focus from fiction, which has traditionally dominated the curriculum, to nonfiction. Doing so has the potential to increase students’ exposure to informational texts which often employ numeric modes to represent quantitative data, thus necessitating numeracy knowledge. This article presents a study of 60 nonfiction texts taught in secondary ELA classrooms. Through analysis of these texts, it addresses the questions: Which ...


The Ultimatum Game: An Introduction To Quantitative Literacy In A Social Justice Context, Robert G. Root Jul 2019

The Ultimatum Game: An Introduction To Quantitative Literacy In A Social Justice Context, Robert G. Root

Numeracy

The Ultimatum Game is a two-person, multiple-strategy game widely used in the experimental social sciences to demonstrate the human propensity for costly punishment in response to inequitable treatment. The game serves to provide quantitative evidence for a diversity of fairness norms across cultures. The play of the game and its interpretation offer nuanced views of the nature and importance of quantitative literacy. Its use in a writing seminar connecting quantitative literacy and social justice is described.


Embedded Remediation Is Not Necessarily A Pathway For Equitable Access To Quantitative Literacy And College Algebra: Results From A Pilot Study, Rebecca L. Matz, Samuel L. Tunstall Jul 2019

Embedded Remediation Is Not Necessarily A Pathway For Equitable Access To Quantitative Literacy And College Algebra: Results From A Pilot Study, Rebecca L. Matz, Samuel L. Tunstall

Numeracy

Courses in developmental and introductory mathematics are changing. Because nearly all students need mathematics coursework to graduate from a postsecondary institution, yet institutions consistently struggle to ensure that students of all demographics succeed in credit-bearing mathematics courses, student success in such courses may be viewed as an issue of social justice. In particular, there is a need for institutions to provide pathways through college-level mathematics courses that meet the needs of students with a wide array of incoming mathematical knowledge and skills. In light of questions about pedagogy, pass rates, and effects on degree completion time, some institutions have moved ...


Paired Measures Of Competence And Confidence Illuminate Impacts Of Privilege On College Students, Rachel M. Watson, Edward Nuhfer, Kali Nicholas Moon, Steven Fleisher, Paul Walter, Karl Wirth, Christopher Cogan, Ami Wangeline, Eric Gaze Jul 2019

Paired Measures Of Competence And Confidence Illuminate Impacts Of Privilege On College Students, Rachel M. Watson, Edward Nuhfer, Kali Nicholas Moon, Steven Fleisher, Paul Walter, Karl Wirth, Christopher Cogan, Ami Wangeline, Eric Gaze

Numeracy

We seek to understand how the experiences of groups that differ in gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation produce college-level educational performances that differ from the experiences of the dominant majority group. We employ two datasets: a National Database of 24,701 participants and a Paired-Measures Database with 3,323 participants. Both datasets provide demographic information, socioeconomic conditions of status as first-generation student, English as a first language, and interest in majoring in science, and competency scores on understanding science as a way of knowing obtained from the Science Literacy Concept Inventory. The Paired-Measures Database includes additional self-assessed competence ratings that ...


Roots And Seeds: Finding Our Place In The Social Practice Nexus That Is Quantitative Literacy, H. L. Vacher, Nathan D. Grawe Jul 2019

Roots And Seeds: Finding Our Place In The Social Practice Nexus That Is Quantitative Literacy, H. L. Vacher, Nathan D. Grawe

Numeracy

The purpose of our new Roots and Seeds feature is to provide an open-access space to archive first-hand accounts of QL activities that have preceded our journal (2008). The first two contributions in the collection appeared last issue: Linda Sons on the making of what has come to be known as the 1994 Sons Report (Mathematics Association of America), and Dorothy Wallace on her path to the Quantitative Literacy Design Team for Mathematics and Democracy (2001), and the questions that bedeviled them then – and us now. In this issue, we get Rick Gillman’s account of how the committee that ...


An Uncommon Textbook: Review Of Common Sense Mathematics By Ethan Bolker And Maura Mast, Bernard Madison Jan 2019

An Uncommon Textbook: Review Of Common Sense Mathematics By Ethan Bolker And Maura Mast, Bernard Madison

Numeracy

Ethan D. Bolker and Maura B. Mast. 2016. Common Sense Mathematics.(Washington DC.: Mathematics Association of America) ISBN-13: 978-1-93951-210-9.

Common Sense Mathematics is an integrative quantitative reasoning (QR) textbook that is built around scores of exercises derived from authentic circumstances from public media and other public sources. The exercises elicit responses from students requiring extensive communication and analyses and distinguish the book from ones typically encountered in a mathematics or science course. Responses to exercises often require one-half page or more of writing and can occupy considerable class time in discussion. The book has material for a one- or two-semester ...


Investigating Levels Of Graphical Comprehension Using The Locus Assessments, Charlotte A. Bolch, Tim Jacobbe Jan 2019

Investigating Levels Of Graphical Comprehension Using The Locus Assessments, Charlotte A. Bolch, Tim Jacobbe

Numeracy

Statistical literacy refers to two interrelated components: people’s ability to interpret and critically evaluate statistical information, and their ability to discuss or communicate their reactions to statistical information. The ability to read and interpret graphical displays is part of statistical literacy because much of the statistical information people encounter in their everyday lives are graphical displays or tables of data. The purpose of this study was to investigate college-level students’ graphical comprehension. Students’ graphical comprehension was assessed using items from the Levels of Conceptual Understanding in Statistics (LOCUS) assessments. Much can be learned about students’ graphical comprehension based on ...


The Gini Index: A Lens For Analyzing Inequality In An Interdisciplinary College Classroom, Jared Warner, Vivian Lim Jan 2019

The Gini Index: A Lens For Analyzing Inequality In An Interdisciplinary College Classroom, Jared Warner, Vivian Lim

Numeracy

The Gini index is one of the most commonly used indicators of income inequality, and its computation and interpretation require a thorough understanding of various quantitative literacy concepts. In this article, we describe a unit for an interdisciplinary quantitative literacy course at a community college that treats concepts of ratio and proportion, percentages, and mathematical modeling through an exploration of income inequality and the Gini index. The broader theme of the interdisciplinary course is immigration, so the unit also invites students to explore connections between the Gini index and immigration. Employing in-class simulations, interactive online applets, and real-world data sets ...


Developing Mathematics Teachers’ Attention To Quantitative Reasoning In Task Design: A Modeling Approach, David Glassmeyer Jan 2019

Developing Mathematics Teachers’ Attention To Quantitative Reasoning In Task Design: A Modeling Approach, David Glassmeyer

Numeracy

This study examines how a models-and-modeling perspective affected teachers' attention to quantitative reasoning in task design. A Model-Eliciting Activity (MEA) was implemented with 21 teachers over four weeks, challenging teachers to design a quantitative reasoning task for their students. Teachers’ initial quantitative reasoning tasks did not incorporate quantities or quantitative relationships, two essential components of quantitative reasoning. As teachers revised their tasks through the MEA, most teachers began attending to these components. This article details how a modeling approach to teacher education provided a method to describe and support teachers to incorporate quantitative reasoning in their classroom tasks, though attending ...


The Second Decade Of Numeracy: Entering The Seas Of Literacy, H. L. Vacher Jan 2019

The Second Decade Of Numeracy: Entering The Seas Of Literacy, H. L. Vacher

Numeracy

This multipurpose editorial explores and tries to count the many types of literacy that are referred to by name in Wikipedia and Numeracy. Wikipedia’s Category:Literacy page identifies 44 kinds of literacy that are the subject of articles, ranging from numeracy and graphicacy to braille literacy and diaspora literacy. In addition, searching Google finds more than 30 adjective-literacy or noun-literacy collocations, including quantitative literacy, adult literacy, and document literacy, that do not have Wikipedia pages of their own but are mentioned on other Wikipedia pages. The sum puts this modest literacy count in line with the more than 70 ...


Numeracy And Social Justice: A Wide, Deep, And Longstanding Intersection, Kira Hamman, Victor Piercey, Samuel L. Tunstall Jan 2019

Numeracy And Social Justice: A Wide, Deep, And Longstanding Intersection, Kira Hamman, Victor Piercey, Samuel L. Tunstall

Numeracy

We discuss the connection between the numeracy and social justice movements both in historical context and in its modern incarnation. The intersection between numeracy and social justice encompasses a wide variety of disciplines and quantitative topics, but within that variety there are important commonalities. We examine the importance of sound quantitative measures for understanding social issues and the necessity of interdisciplinary collaboration in this work. Particular reference is made to the papers in the first part of the Numeracy special collection on social justice, which appear in this issue.


Brave Spaces: Augmenting Interdisciplinary Stem Education By Using Quantitative Data Explorations To Engage Conversations On Equity And Social Justice, John R. Jungck, Jon Manon Jan 2019

Brave Spaces: Augmenting Interdisciplinary Stem Education By Using Quantitative Data Explorations To Engage Conversations On Equity And Social Justice, John R. Jungck, Jon Manon

Numeracy

In workshops and courses involving in-service teachers, participating teachers can engage in problem posing and exploration of difficult issues when they are asked to quantitatively model alternative scenarios, statistically analyze complex data, and visualize these data in multiple formats. Subsequent to these activities, discussions of sensitive issues, some even considered taboo in classrooms, can open up “brave spaces” in these teachers’ classrooms. Without coaching through elaborate facilitation strategies, the in-service teachers grappled openly with the nuances of such difficult issues and raised many alternatives involving quantitative reasoning as well as considering biological, cultural, economic, social, and political factors influencing social ...


Introducing Information Literacy To Mathematics Classrooms: A Cross-Case Analysis, Ander W. Erickson Jan 2019

Introducing Information Literacy To Mathematics Classrooms: A Cross-Case Analysis, Ander W. Erickson

Numeracy

This study employs a cross-case analysis to explore the demands and opportunities that arise when information problem-solving tasks are introduced into college mathematics classes. Mathematics teachers at three universities developed and introduced tasks that required students to seek out, evaluate, and synthesize quantitative claims from disparate information sources. The results focus on a comparison of how the teachers balanced content-specific instructional demands with the information literacy goals of the tasks that they created. Three tensions were identified through this analysis: the need to balance mathematical content with opportunities for students to engage in a realistic approximation of the information problem-solving ...


Quantitative Literacy In The Core Curriculum Of Hood College: Chapter Ii, Outcomes And Assessment, Betty Mayfield, Ann Stewart Jan 2019

Quantitative Literacy In The Core Curriculum Of Hood College: Chapter Ii, Outcomes And Assessment, Betty Mayfield, Ann Stewart

Numeracy

In a previous article, we described our college’s new core curriculum, which included a Quantitative Literacy (QL) component for the first time. We explained how we defined QL in the college catalog, and how we used that definition to choose courses to satisfy the new requirement. We then discussed our early efforts at assessing the effectiveness of the QL program and described our plans for the future. Here we report on our progress towards those goals, including working with faculty from other departments and with our institutional research office to develop a more sophisticated assessment plan, as well as ...


Actual And Self-Assessed Financial Literacy Among Employees Of A South African University, Gizelle D. Willows Jan 2019

Actual And Self-Assessed Financial Literacy Among Employees Of A South African University, Gizelle D. Willows

Numeracy

This study examines the level of financial literacy and self-assessed financial literacy amongst members of a South African tertiary institution’s retirement fund. Based on surveys of the fund’s members, I employ descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses to examine differences in financial literacy within and across groups. The results show that, despite working for an employer implementing many best practices identified by financial literacy advocates, respondents from all demographic subgroups possess relatively low levels of financial knowledge. Men, White respondents, and those with a higher cost of employment or higher educational attainment were more likely to have a ...


The Sons Report (1989-1994, Mathematical Association Of America): The Way It Was, Linda R. Sons Jan 2019

The Sons Report (1989-1994, Mathematical Association Of America): The Way It Was, Linda R. Sons

Numeracy

Recollections and commentary by Linda R. Sons on a 1994 national report entitled Quantitative Reasoning for College Graduates: A Complement to the Standards. Professor Sons chaired the committee which wrote the report and championed its use.

This paper traces the development of the 1994 MAA report Quantitative Reasoning for College Graduates: A Complement to the Standards--a report which is still surprisingly relevant. The paper highlights some major parts of the report, describing the context in which its conclusions were made. Additionally, it challenges and encourages those continuing the quest for QL in the nation by noting progress made since ...


Three Formative Questions In The Quantitative Literacy Movement, Dorothy Wallace Jan 2019

Three Formative Questions In The Quantitative Literacy Movement, Dorothy Wallace

Numeracy

In this essay we remember early discussions attempting to answer three questions that played a formative role in our understanding of and approach to numeracy, quantitative literacy, and quantitative reasoning: (1) What is numeracy? (2) Should the QL movement promote any specific kind of pedagogy? (3) What organizational structure will best support QL?

As the QL movement has progressed, these three questions continue to be difficult to answer. As a result, they have been useful formative guides for institutions and organizations seeking to improve the quantitative reasoning of students. Now that the quantitative literacy movement has a firmer standing in ...


On "Icky" Data, The Political Classroom, And Towards Equity And Social Justice In Mathematics Education: A Conversation With Tonya Bartell, Samuel L. Tunstall, Oyemolade Osibodu, Tonya Gau Bartell Jan 2019

On "Icky" Data, The Political Classroom, And Towards Equity And Social Justice In Mathematics Education: A Conversation With Tonya Bartell, Samuel L. Tunstall, Oyemolade Osibodu, Tonya Gau Bartell

Numeracy

Tonya G. Bartell, ed. 2018. Towards Equity and Social Justice in Mathematics Education (Switzerland: Springer International Publishing) 341 pp. ISBN 978-3319929064.

This brief interview with Tonya Bartell introduces Towards Equity and Social Justice in Mathematics Education to the Numeracy audience. The interviewers also discuss with Tonya connections between quantitative literacy and mathematics for social justice, particularly in the context of US K-12 schooling. Tonya shares her perspective on topics ranging from the placement of quantitative literacy in K-12 mathematics education and how one might get started in incorporating a social justice lens into their teaching to paradigms for research ...


Review Of Towards Equity And Justice In Mathematics Education, Edited By Tonya Gau Bartell, Emily Lardner Jan 2019

Review Of Towards Equity And Justice In Mathematics Education, Edited By Tonya Gau Bartell, Emily Lardner

Numeracy

Tonya Grau Bartell, editor. 2018.Toward Equity and Social Justice in Mathematics Education. (Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing). 341 pp. ISBN 978-3-319-92906-4 (also available as an e-book).

Toward Equity and Social Justice in Mathematics Education is a welcome addition to ongoing conversations about what mathematics should be taught and how it should be taught at both the college and pre-college level. Although the primary audience for the volume will be math educators and researchers, readers of this journal will discover intersecting interests, concerns, and strategies.


Calculus Of The Impossible: Review Of The Improbability Principle (2014) By David Hand And The Logic Of Miracles (2018) By Lásló Mérő, Samuel L. Tunstall Jul 2018

Calculus Of The Impossible: Review Of The Improbability Principle (2014) By David Hand And The Logic Of Miracles (2018) By Lásló Mérő, Samuel L. Tunstall

Numeracy

David J. Hand. 2014. The Improbability Principle: Why Coincidences, Miracles, and Rare Events Happen Every Day (New York, NY: Scientific American/Farrar, Straus and Giroux) 288 pp. ISBN: 978-0374175344.

Lásló Mérő. 2018. The Logic of Miracles: Making Sense of Rare, Really Rare, and Impossibly Rare Events (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) 288 pp. ISBN: 978-0300224153.

David Hand and Lásló Mérő both grapple with the occurrence of seemingly impossible events in these two popular science books. In this comparative review, I describe the two books, and explain why I prefer Hand's treatment of the impossible.


Forewarned Is Forearmed: Review Of Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards And Risk Reduction In The Modern World By Timothy H. Dixon (2017), Jason Makansi Jul 2018

Forewarned Is Forearmed: Review Of Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards And Risk Reduction In The Modern World By Timothy H. Dixon (2017), Jason Makansi

Numeracy

Timothy H. Dixon. 2017. Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards and Risk Reduction in the Modern World. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press) 300 pp. ISBN 978-1108113663.

Curbing Catastrophe for the most part lives up to what is claimed in the foreword: “…a compelling account of recent and historical disasters, both natural and human-caused, drawing on common themes and providing a holistic understanding of hazards, disasters, and mitigation for anyone interested in this important and topical subject.” This is a pretty thorough treatment of an extraordinarily complex subject, and the gaps identified in this review should be considered explications more than criticisms.


Lynn Steen's Imprint On Demographic Change And The Demand For Higher Education, Nathan D. Grawe Jul 2018

Lynn Steen's Imprint On Demographic Change And The Demand For Higher Education, Nathan D. Grawe

Numeracy

Nathan D. Grawe. 2018. Demographic Change and the Demand for Higher Education (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press) 192 pp. ISBN 978-1421424132.

This essay introduces and excerpts my Demographic Change and the Demand for Higher Education, published by Johns Hopkins University Press. The book reflects Lynn Steen's vision of quantitative reasoning as more to do with the quality of thought than the impressiveness of the mathematical tools involved. The excerpt lays out the basic demographic challenge facing higher education and how a refinement of simple headcount forecasts can support institutions of higher education as they make preparations.


The Connection Between Financial Literacy And Numeracy: A Case Study From India, J.D Jayaraman, Saigeetha Jambunathan, Kenneth Counselman Jul 2018

The Connection Between Financial Literacy And Numeracy: A Case Study From India, J.D Jayaraman, Saigeetha Jambunathan, Kenneth Counselman

Numeracy

Making financial decisions involves mathematical calculations, both simple and complex. It is a well-documented fact that financial literacy levels among young people all over the world are quite low and that these low levels contribute to various undesirable outcomes with respect to personal financial well-being and the economy as a whole. This study explores the relationship between financial literacy and numeracy by measuring and modeling the relationship between financial literacy and numeracy levels among high school students (N = 586) in India. The results show a strong relationship between numeracy and financial literacy skills. Low numeracy is associated with a 4 ...