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Hitting The Ground Running: The Social Transition Of Community College Transfer Students In An Admissions Partnership Program, Kevin J. White Jan 2012

Hitting The Ground Running: The Social Transition Of Community College Transfer Students In An Admissions Partnership Program, Kevin J. White

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the background characteristics and experiences of participants and non-participants of Iowa State University's Admissions Partnership Program. The Laanan Transfer Student Questionnaire was used to collect data concerning the background characteristics as well as the community college and university experiences of the community college transfer students. A hypothetical conceptual framework based on Laanan, Egggleston, and Starobin's (2010) concept of transfer capital was utilized to examine community college transfer students. Selected variables of background characteristics, community college experiences, and university experiences were utilized for the hypothesized conceptual framework. An examination of the ...


Seamless Transfer Or Crooked Seams? The Differentiated Outcomes Of Associate's Degree Types Completing The Baccalaureate Degree, J. Phillip Thomas Jan 2012

Seamless Transfer Or Crooked Seams? The Differentiated Outcomes Of Associate's Degree Types Completing The Baccalaureate Degree, J. Phillip Thomas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this study academic outcomes for Associate of Applied Science and Associate of Applied Arts degree students who transferred to a large public midwestern research university were examined. A group with transcripted technical credits of 16 hours at transfer were compared and contrasted with a peer group of college-parallel associate's degree students and a group with a combination of career technical plus college-parallel credits. Each group's academic performance measured by first semester grade point average (GPA), GPA at graduation, and time to degree was examined and a demographic profile was developed. Using GPA at graduation, three groups were ...


Examining Student Achievement And Curriculum In A Nursing Program At A Midwestern Community College, Sandra Elaine Cooper Jan 2012

Examining Student Achievement And Curriculum In A Nursing Program At A Midwestern Community College, Sandra Elaine Cooper

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the pathway model of a nursing curriculum and evaluate the relationship and predictive ability of demographic and academic variables on the success or failure of those taking the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RNĀ®) and to determine the impact of noncognitive role variables to student outcomes. A retrospective exploratory study was conducted using a purposive sample of 225 students admitted between 2007 and 2009 to an associate degree nursing program at a large Midwestern community college. Demographic and academic variables of age, prior degrees, Test of Essential Academic Skills ...


A Qualitative Assessment Of Preservice Elementary Teachers' Formative Perceptions Regarding Engineering And K-12 Engineering Education, Dennis Eugene Culver Jan 2012

A Qualitative Assessment Of Preservice Elementary Teachers' Formative Perceptions Regarding Engineering And K-12 Engineering Education, Dennis Eugene Culver

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Current teacher education programs provide limited instruction for preservice elementary teachers regarding the incorporation or teaching of engineering concepts and skills in their classrooms. Few studies have been conducted that focus specifically on preservice elementary teachers' formative perceptions and receptivity towards engineering

education. That is, not enough is known about what preservice teachers know and think about engineering.

The purpose of this qualitative research study was to investigate how forty-four preservice elementary teachers' from a large Midwestern university approached engineering design, the perceptions of engineering and K-12 engineering education that they possessed,

and their level of receptiveness with regards to ...


School Communications 2.0: A Social Media Strategy For K-12 Principals And Superintendents, Daniel Dean Cox Jan 2012

School Communications 2.0: A Social Media Strategy For K-12 Principals And Superintendents, Daniel Dean Cox

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative, multiple-case study was two-fold: 1) to describe, analyze, and interpret the experiences of school principals and superintendents who use multiple social media tools such as blogs, microblogs, social networking sites, podcasts, and online videos with stakeholders as part of their comprehensive communications practices, and 2) to examine why the principals and superintendents have chosen to communicate with their stakeholders through social media. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 12 principals and 12 superintendents purposefully selected from four regions of the United States and Canada were conducted. Social CRM served as the framework for the study. Findings revealed ...


The Effect Of Selected Campus Connection Programs On Gpa And Retention, Craig M. Chatriand Jan 2012

The Effect Of Selected Campus Connection Programs On Gpa And Retention, Craig M. Chatriand

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has shown that participation in programs designed to connect students to campus can increase student success and retention. However, very little of this research has controlled for selections bias. The purpose of this study was to use propensity score matching to control for selection bias while analyzing three campus connection programs for their relationship to academic performance, measured by GPA after the first and second year and measured by retention to the second and third year. The campus connection programs analyzed were membership in a Greek organization, participation in a learning community, and enrollment in an academic skills ...


Work Life Balance And Job Satisfaction Among Faculty At Iowa State University, Farah Mukhtar Jan 2012

Work Life Balance And Job Satisfaction Among Faculty At Iowa State University, Farah Mukhtar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study utilized the existing database from the Iowa State University 2009-2010 COACHE Tenure-Track Job Satisfaction Survey Report to explore faculty work life balance and job satisfaction among academic disciplines at Iowa State University. The articulation of work and life, cast as work life balance, has become a key feature of much current government, practitioner and academic debate (Eikhof, Warhurst, & Haunschild, 2007). It is believed that balancing a successful career with a personal or family life can be challenging and impact on a person's satisfaction in their work and personal life's roles (Broers, 2005).

This research sought to ...


How Multiple Roles Influence Adult College Women's Online Student Experiences In A Rural Community College Context, Lisa Carol Hetzel Jan 2012

How Multiple Roles Influence Adult College Women's Online Student Experiences In A Rural Community College Context, Lisa Carol Hetzel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how adult college women attending rural community colleges experience being an online student. A study of this nature was warranted as enrollment in online courses continues to increase (Allen & Seaman, 2010) and as women are more likely to enroll in online courses (Kramarae, 2001; van Prummer, 2011). Femininst standpoint theory guided the study while identity theory (Stryker, 1968) was applied to findings. Online research methods were used to collect data. Four themes characterized participants online student experience: 1) motivation to enroll in online courses, 2) expectations and realities about online experience, 3) impact of identity (ies) on experience, and 4) meaning of being an online student ...


Faculty Perspectives On Facilitating Holistic Learning For Engaged Citizenship, Melissa Sturm-Smith Jan 2012

Faculty Perspectives On Facilitating Holistic Learning For Engaged Citizenship, Melissa Sturm-Smith

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the experiences of professors participating in an institution-wide effort to educate students for engaged citizenship at Drake University, a Midwestern private institution that explicitly claims to prepare students for citizenship as part of the university mission statement. The institutional effort embeds civic learning into the general education curriculum and also includes a connected co-curricular component. In the study I sought to address deficits in the current research literature regarding faculty motivation to participate in institutionally driven civic education and faculty perceptions of the role of co-curricular learning in civic education ...


Habits-Of-Mind And Practices Of High-Functioning Public Baccalaureate And Comprehensive Universities, Steven Manchester Carignan Jan 2012

Habits-Of-Mind And Practices Of High-Functioning Public Baccalaureate And Comprehensive Universities, Steven Manchester Carignan

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Abstract

This study provides better understanding of the practices and habits of thought of two high-functioning public institutions. Both schools, New England College and Midwest State University have received consistently high rankings from commercial ratings publications like U.S. News and World Report, and consistently high and often improving scores on the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). Both schools studied had consistent success despite the economic challenge of their baccalaureate focus and the rapidly changing higher education marketplace.

Both Midwest State University and New England College underwent significant change in mission and culture. Despite the disruption inherent in a ...


Exploring The Effect Of Addressing Social Injustices As A Student Affairs Professional, Laura Lynn Bestler Jan 2012

Exploring The Effect Of Addressing Social Injustices As A Student Affairs Professional, Laura Lynn Bestler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This autoethnographic study is an intimate exploration of how student affairs professionals may be affected by working with students experiencing social injustices on campus. As subject and researcher, I used my unique story, along with interview responses from three university community members, to guide the reader through an examination of the culture of student affairs. This study illustrates how student affairs professionals may be transformed personally and professionally while advocating for students' equitable rights. To collect the stories, I transcribed the university community members' responses and my personal experience from audio voice digital recordings. In addition, data collection methods included ...


Training Development For Pavement Preservation: Chip Sealing And Fog Sealing, Angel Daniel Morandeira Jan 2012

Training Development For Pavement Preservation: Chip Sealing And Fog Sealing, Angel Daniel Morandeira

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The benefits of pavement preservation are only achieved if properly selected, designed, and applied. In some cases there is a lack of training when conducting one of these steps and the objective of applying pavement preservation techniques gets hampered. Literature on pavement preservation is extensive, but from a training point of view there is no structured approach on how to train people for selecting, designing, and applying pavement preservation techniques.

The objective of the research is to develop a training learning management system that addresses pavement preservation treatments (chip seals, fog seals, slurry systems, and crack seals and fills) as ...


Bicultural Competence And Education Among Latino, Raquel Botello Zamarron Jan 2012

Bicultural Competence And Education Among Latino, Raquel Botello Zamarron

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Latino student's educational attainment beyond a high school diploma continues to be a societal struggle and topic of research in academia. Enrollment rates continue to increase, however, gaps between initiation and completion of higher education degrees are still prevalent (Fry, 2010). The three dimensions of educational commitment (i.e. Affective, Continuance and Normative) had not been explored among Latino college students despite noted discrepancies between their intended goal and actual persistence (Hellman & Williams-Miller, 2005; Rendon & Nora, 1997). Minority stress has been identified as one of the potential stressors that influence minority students in higher education. This study examined the relationship between ...


Perceptions Of The Other: Voices Of Adjunct And Fulltime Community College Faculty, William Wayne Backlin Jan 2012

Perceptions Of The Other: Voices Of Adjunct And Fulltime Community College Faculty, William Wayne Backlin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The practice of hiring adjunct instructors was initially considered to be an anomalous event (Todd, 2004). Community college employment of adjunct instructors, however, witnessed a 50% increase during the 1970s (Cain, 1999) and, by 1984, adjunct instructor utilization in community colleges rose dramatically with an additional 80% growth. Over a 33-year period, 1970-2003, the employment of adjunct faculty in the academe increased 422% (Bouton, 2010). With such a strong adjunct presence within the community college, one question came to mind: How do adjunct and fulltime faculty perceive the other?

The purpose of this study was to investigate adjunct perceptions of ...


Learning Communities: Understanding The Transfer Student Experience, Jennifer R. Leptien Jan 2012

Learning Communities: Understanding The Transfer Student Experience, Jennifer R. Leptien

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Increasing numbers of students are transferring from two-year to four-year higher education institutions. Existing research indicates that transfer students often encounter multiple academic and social challenges during the transition (Duggan & Pickering, 2008; Laanan, 2004; Townsend & Wilson, 2009). Learning Communities (LC) are one way in which the receiving institution can offer academic and social support to transfer students. LC provide small cohorts with an opportunity to take courses together, engage in out-of-class activities, receive peer mentoring from upper-division students, and are proven to positively influence student retention (Shapiro & Levine, 1996). Furthermore, Bandura (1994) asserts that four domains of self-efficacy: mastery experiences; vicarious experiences; social persuasion; and somatic influences are critical to shaping individual motivation. Self-efficacy can provide a lens through which transfer student LC experiences and persistence can be understood. Through interviews and focus groups, this qualitative study explores the insights of twelve transfer LC participants and four LC program coordinators; investigates the challenges of, and opportunities for, transfer LC design; and identifies the role of self-efficacy in ...


East Asian Students' Negotiation Of Silence In A University Intensive English Reading Class: An Examination Of Cross-Cultural Transition Within A Project-Oriented Call Approach, Migyu Kang Jan 2012

East Asian Students' Negotiation Of Silence In A University Intensive English Reading Class: An Examination Of Cross-Cultural Transition Within A Project-Oriented Call Approach, Migyu Kang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

abstract

English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom learning demonstrates a dynamic situation in that learners encounter adjustment issues in relation to linguistic and cultural differences. This study incorporated a technology-mediated language teaching method, called project-oriented computer-assisted language learning (PrOCALL), into the research framework to gain an understanding of how the PrOCALL approach to ESL reading instruction facilitates East Asian students' cross-cultural transition. To investigate the influence of this approach on the target students' learning and transition to the target classroom norms and practices, the study drew on New Literacy Studies, sociocultural theory, and transactional theory. This study relied on ...


A Qualitative Study Of The Perceptions Of First Year College Students Regarding Technology And College Readiness., Trent Anthony Grundmeyer Jan 2012

A Qualitative Study Of The Perceptions Of First Year College Students Regarding Technology And College Readiness., Trent Anthony Grundmeyer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

College ready students have the skills and knowledge to be successful in college without remedial classwork. High schools strive to graduate students who meet this standard. However, recent college readiness indicators routinely contend that high schools are not meeting college readiness standards. Some high schools have adopted a 1:1 laptop initiative in an effort to promote college readiness.

Early computers were seldom used in education because of their impracticality. Since the cost, size, and functionality of computers and evolved in the last 50 years, computers have found a place in education along with mainstream adoption. Laptops are now used ...


Effect Of Supplemental Instruction On Student Success, Maria Pavlovna Vorozhbit Jan 2012

Effect Of Supplemental Instruction On Student Success, Maria Pavlovna Vorozhbit

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Supplemental instruction (SI) was developed in the late 1970s but many institutions still do not realize academic benefits of this program. The analysis of the data collected at a large public research university in the Midwest, demonstrated that the final course grade for all three courses is higher for SI-participants than for non-participants. At the same time, the

SI participants on average have lower ACT score than the non-participants. Moreover, the final course grade positively correlates with the number of SI sessions attended meaning that the more SI sessions the students attend the higher grade they receive for the course.


Malaysian Polytechnic Lecturers' Teaching Practices With Ict Utilization To Promote Higher-Order Thinking Skills, Siti Noridah Ali Jan 2012

Malaysian Polytechnic Lecturers' Teaching Practices With Ict Utilization To Promote Higher-Order Thinking Skills, Siti Noridah Ali

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been having a significant impact in the field of education, and as a result drawing considerable attention. The advent of the digital and information age has made the development of critical and creative thinking, and higher-order thinking skills (HOTs) vital to future success. Thus, experiences that expose students at higher levels of Bloom's Taxonomy in constructivist-based learning environments are becoming an increasing practice. Take for example a country like Malaysia where ICT is becoming more and more pervasive in today's polytechnic institutions; however, very little is understood of polytechnic ...


Academic And Social Integration Variables Influencing The Success Of Community College Transfer Students In Undergraduate Engineering Programs, Marcia Rae Laugerman Jan 2012

Academic And Social Integration Variables Influencing The Success Of Community College Transfer Students In Undergraduate Engineering Programs, Marcia Rae Laugerman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

The goal of this dissertation is to collect and analyze data to determine success strategies for community college (CC) transfers to engineering. It does so by analyzing transcript level data collected longitudinally over a 10-year period as community college transfer students' progress before and after transfer into an engineering program. Characteristics of successful students are identified in terms of the academic and social integration variables using descriptive and inferential statistics. In addition to providing data analysis, the results determine distinctive strategies to increase the success of community college transfers in engineering.

The research was funded by the National Science ...


Engineering Transfer Student Leavers: Voices From The Sidelines Of The Engineering Playing Field, Mary Elizabeth Darrow Jan 2012

Engineering Transfer Student Leavers: Voices From The Sidelines Of The Engineering Playing Field, Mary Elizabeth Darrow

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand and illuminate the experiences and stories of Midwestern Community College transfer students who entered and left engineering at a large Midwestern research university. Participants were invited based the following selection criteria: (1) Midwestern Community College transfer students who enter engineering; (2) completion of Calculus I and II, Physics, Chemistry, English I and II prior to transferring; (3) stayed in engineering at least 2 semesters; and (4) left engineering in the Fall 2010, Spring 2011, or Fall 2011 semesters for another major.

Eight students participated in this qualitative study. The researcher encouraged ...


Mentoring Influence On Socially Responsible Leadership Capacity Based On Institutional Carnegie Classification, Michael Carl Gleason Jan 2012

Mentoring Influence On Socially Responsible Leadership Capacity Based On Institutional Carnegie Classification, Michael Carl Gleason

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Higher education institutions are being called to provide leaders capable of operating in increasingly complex environments (Astin & Astin, 2000; Daloz Parks, 2005; Longo & Gibson, 2011; Rost & Barker, 2000). As immersion into these complex environments has been found to assist students in developing leadership capacities, mentoring is needed to help support students during these immersion experiences. Researchers have explored how mentoring influences leadership development (Campbell, Smith, Dugan & Komives, in press; Collins-Shapiro, 2006; Gleason, 2009; Jabaji, Slife, Komives, & Dugan, 2008), but it is valuable to study mentoring effects within different institution types based on Carnegie Classification, as different environments have different influences on student effects and outcomes. There currently exists a lack of literature in this area.

This post-positivist, quantitative study utilized a secondary data set, the 2009 Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership (National Center for Leadership Programs, 2011) to understand how mentoring and leadership development compare among institutions of different Carnegie Classifications. Respondents in this data set attended 101 institutions in the United States that had responded to an open call in the summer of 2008. A subsample of 57,713 of the original 115,632 cases contained responses related to mentoring for this study. The Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership utilized the Socially Responsible Leadership Scale as its primary scale, which was developed by Tyree (1998) and measures the core values of the Social Change Model.

Seven research questions provided the foundation of the study, which was operationalized in Astin's (1993) Input-Environment-Output (I-E-O) Model. Variables in the study were analyzed utilizing descriptive statistics; inferential statistics, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA); and multiple sequential hierarchical regression analyses. The findings of this study provide insightful information for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. Understanding how mentoring influences leadership development in different institution types can help improve practice and provide insight for additional research.


How Graduates Make Meaning Of Their On-Campus Employment: A Retrospective View, Margaret Jane Empie Jan 2012

How Graduates Make Meaning Of Their On-Campus Employment: A Retrospective View, Margaret Jane Empie

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and understand how recent college graduates made meaning of their on-campus work experience. The author interviewed graduates from a private liberal arts institution regarding how their on-campus employment impacted their academic success, overall student experience, and beginning careers.

The participants believed that supervisors arranging their work schedules for them when they began working, and the time management skills they developed because they worked, positively contributed to their academic success. They said they would not have studied more even if they had had more time. Solid work ethics got the participants to ...


Student Professional Development: Competency-Based Learning And Assessment In An Undergraduate Industrial Technology Course, Jacqulyn Baughman Jan 2012

Student Professional Development: Competency-Based Learning And Assessment In An Undergraduate Industrial Technology Course, Jacqulyn Baughman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Student professional development attempts to address the gap between academic experiences and employer expectations. This study examined student professional development utilizing competency-based development and assessment within an academic environment. An undergraduate course in lean/cellular manufacturing at Iowa State University served as the site for this mixed methods study. Degree program outcomes linked to workplace competencies were the foundation for implementation of a 360-degree assessment process. A pre-course survey showed that students had no prior experience with the 360-degree process. The workplace competencies' key action items were assessed during the semester using pre- and post-assessment formats. Analysis utilized paired t-testing ...


Guided-Inquiry Based Laboratory Instruction: Investigation Of Critical Thinking Skills, Problem Solving Skills, And Implementing Student Roles In Chemistry, Tanya Gupta Jan 2012

Guided-Inquiry Based Laboratory Instruction: Investigation Of Critical Thinking Skills, Problem Solving Skills, And Implementing Student Roles In Chemistry, Tanya Gupta

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Dissertation Abstract

Recent initiatives in the laboratory curriculum have encouraged an inquiry-based approach to learning and teaching in the laboratory. It has been argued that laboratory instruction should not just be hands-on, but it should portray the essence of inquiry through the process of experiential learning and reflective engagement in collaboration with peers and in facilitation by the instructor. A student-centered active learning approach may be an effective way to enhance student understanding of concepts in the laboratory. The dissertation research work explores the impact of laboratory instruction and its relevance for college-level chemistry. Each chapter is different from the ...


Schoolgirls In Cyberspace: A Cross-Case Analysis Of The Literacy Practices Of Three Fifth-Grade Girls In A Social Network Site, Denise Lorraine Lindstrom Jan 2012

Schoolgirls In Cyberspace: A Cross-Case Analysis Of The Literacy Practices Of Three Fifth-Grade Girls In A Social Network Site, Denise Lorraine Lindstrom

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is an exploratory study of the literacy practices of three fifth-grade girls as they used a social network site (SNS) for school related purposes. SNSs are widely used by adolescents, and because communication in these sites is accomplished mainly through writing, it is important to improve our understanding of what this kind of writing might mean for school-based writing instruction. Best practices in adolescent literacy instruction suggest that teachers need to build on the literacy practices adolescents develop in their homes, communities and peer networks to improve their motivation to engage with school-based writing. However, many educators tend ...


Redefining Transfer Student Success: Transfer Capital And The Laanan-Transfer Students' Questionnaire (L-Tsq) Revisited, Kristin Moser Jan 2012

Redefining Transfer Student Success: Transfer Capital And The Laanan-Transfer Students' Questionnaire (L-Tsq) Revisited, Kristin Moser

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many researchers have examined the factors that affect student success in college, and some have generated conflicting results when exploring the role of various student characteristics on success in higher education settings (Baker & Velez, 1996). In addition, others have raised concerns about the lack of a strong reliance on theory in much of the student success research, pointing to a reliance on empirical data over theoretical models (Smart, Feldman & Ethington, 2006). The issue becomes even more complicated when one factors in community college transfer status (i.e., vertical transfer students, transferring from a 2-year to a 4-year institution) when attempting ...


Utilizing The Composite Financial Index As Strategic Financial Analysis For Measuring Financial Health And Student Success Rates Among Iowa Community Colleges, Dawn Ann Humburg Jan 2012

Utilizing The Composite Financial Index As Strategic Financial Analysis For Measuring Financial Health And Student Success Rates Among Iowa Community Colleges, Dawn Ann Humburg

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

The phrase "survival of the fittest" is coming to fruition in higher education today. Less than strategic financial moves have no place in post-secondary education. Facing the realities of our current economy is dictating major changes in how colleges are "doing business."

These changes present enormous challenges to community college administrators. Two of these challenges are meeting the demands of faculty associations and ever-increasing budgets for remedial education. A trend of waning state support is also exacerbating these challenges while major changes occurring at the legislative level have also intensified the need for extremely competent leaders--leaders with a much ...


Rational Choice And Moral Intent In The Responsible Conduct Of Research, Anita M. Gordon Jan 2012

Rational Choice And Moral Intent In The Responsible Conduct Of Research, Anita M. Gordon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Academic misconduct among students has been the focus of a tremendous amount of literature for a number of decades (Crown & Spiller, 1998). However, academic misconduct among faculty has received much less empirical attention (Steneck, 2006). This research was designed to contribute to the literature by empirically examining the possible effects of rational and moral judgments on faculty research misconduct, with a focus on the social sciences. The purpose of the study was to explore the application of a particular theory of human behavior - Rational Choice Theory - to the phenomenon of misconduct in research and to do so in the context ...


The Situational Analysis Of The Language Needs At The Bp Language Center In Basra, Iraq., Lana Abdulmahdi Al Mudhaffar Jan 2012

The Situational Analysis Of The Language Needs At The Bp Language Center In Basra, Iraq., Lana Abdulmahdi Al Mudhaffar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In 2003 Iraq faced a variety of abrupt sociocultural changes following the advent of war and the end of the Sadaam Hussein regime. The subsequent ten years of reconstruction brought about new needs and demands for Iraq and its population. These challenges came to light with Iraq's sudden thrust into a global environment, where English is becoming increasingly important. This study examines the evolving language needs of Rumaila Operation Organization (ROO) employees based in Basra. Specifically, the need for course work that will improve English language skills and enhance performance in the work place is critical. Due to the ...