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Exploring Spanish Heritage Language Learning And Task Design For Virtual Worlds, Brandon J. King Apr 2018

Exploring Spanish Heritage Language Learning And Task Design For Virtual Worlds, Brandon J. King

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this exploratory case study, I take a constant comparative methods type approach to exploring a shift in second language acquisition (SLA) away from approaches built on the assumption that language participants in the U.S. are monolingual English speakers (Block, 2003; Ortega, 2009, 2013; Thompson, 2013; Valdés, 2005), with little initial investment in the language or its culture (Rivera-Mills, 2012; Valdés, Fishman, Chavéz, & Pérez, 2006). This bias has entrenched a monolingual speaker baseline for statistical analysis within many experimental designs (Block, 2003; Ortega, 2009, 2013; Thompson, 2013; Valdés, 2005). Further, I redress this methodological bias by applying sociocultural theoretical (SCT) (Vygotsky, 1986) approaches to investigating Spanish heritage language learners (SHLLs). Heritage Language Acquisition (HLA) has an established tradition ...


Intersecting Stories: Cultural Reflexivity, Digital Storytelling, And Personal Narratives In Language Teacher Education, Julie Vivienne Dell-Jones Apr 2018

Intersecting Stories: Cultural Reflexivity, Digital Storytelling, And Personal Narratives In Language Teacher Education, Julie Vivienne Dell-Jones

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This narrative inquiry dissertation explores stories from three students over a two-year trajectory as they develop into language educators in diverse contexts. The study begins in a teacher education course focused on technology for language teaching in English as a second language (ESOL) and foreign language education (FLE) classrooms. As instructor, I implemented a digital storytelling (DS) project with the pedagogical goal of supporting the much-needed practice of reflexivity, and specifically, reflexivity of intercultural competence (IC) and culturally-responsive pedagogy (CRP). The DS, as an autoethnographic multimodal narrative activity, provided a creative outlet for undergraduate and master’s level students to ...


"We're Not Going To Talk About That:" A Qualitative Case Study Of Three Elementary Teachers' Experiences Integrating Literacy And Social Studies, Rebecca L. Powell Apr 2018

"We're Not Going To Talk About That:" A Qualitative Case Study Of Three Elementary Teachers' Experiences Integrating Literacy And Social Studies, Rebecca L. Powell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this interpretive, qualitative multi-case study (Merriam, 2001; Stake, 1995) was to describe the experiences of three elementary classroom teachers as they integrated literacy and social studies during their literacy instruction. This study was grounded in an interpretivist paradigm and a theoretical lens of symbolic interactionism. The guiding questions were: What are the experiences of three elementary teachers when integrating literacy and social studies instruction? What information do teachers use when making decisions about integrated instruction? How do teachers’ beliefs align with their practices? How do teachers organize, plan for, and provide integrated instruction, including how they use ...


An Intersectional Examination Of Disability And Lgbtq+ Identities In Virtual Spaces, Justine E. Egner Apr 2018

An Intersectional Examination Of Disability And Lgbtq+ Identities In Virtual Spaces, Justine E. Egner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is a multi-methodological project that examines the experiences of being both LGBTQ+ and disabled from an intersectional perspective through narratives constructed in virtual spaces. In this project, I address the question ‘how do individuals who identify as both disabled/chronically ill and LGBTQ+ negotiate these often contradictory identities?’ I also complexify this intersectional analysis by examining how LGBTQ+/disabled identities are constructed in relation to race, class, and gender. Additionally, by conducting virtual ethnography as the primary method of data collection, I explore questions pertaining to how members of LBGTQ+ and disability online communities engage in virtual identity ...


The Making Of A Nationally Recognized Band In A Small, Private Liberal Arts University: The Historical Significance Of The Bobby L. Adams Years, 1987-2012, Joshua David Blair Mar 2018

The Making Of A Nationally Recognized Band In A Small, Private Liberal Arts University: The Historical Significance Of The Bobby L. Adams Years, 1987-2012, Joshua David Blair

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify and detail the contributions and methods, decisions and specific techniques that Dr. Bobby Adams used while President of the Florida Bandmasters Association and Director of Bands at Stetson University to build and maintain a nationally recognized collegiate wind band program and a strong music education division at a private liberal arts university. Through historical documentation from the archives at Stetson University, interviews, phone calls, and emails, a brief overview of the United States wind band and its development at the tertiary level was discussed. To identify why Adams was considered a successful ...


A Queer And Crip Grotesque: Katherine Dunn's, Megan Wiedeman Mar 2018

A Queer And Crip Grotesque: Katherine Dunn's, Megan Wiedeman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The grotesque has long been utilized in literature as a means for subverting societal constraints and inverting constructions of normalcy. Unfortunately, in many instances, it has been constructed at the expense of disabled characters using their embodiment as metaphorical plot devices rather than social and political agents. Criticism of the grotesque’s use of bodily difference has prompted this analytical project in order to rethink disability as socially and politically positioned within texts, rather than simply aesthetics for symbolic means. The aim of this paper is to explore the ways the literary grotesque can be reread using queer theory and ...


Once Upon A Genre: Distant Reading, The Newbery Medal, And The Affordances Of Interdisciplinary Paradigms For Understanding Children’S Literature, Melanie Griffin Mar 2018

Once Upon A Genre: Distant Reading, The Newbery Medal, And The Affordances Of Interdisciplinary Paradigms For Understanding Children’S Literature, Melanie Griffin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Typical critical patterns for studying children’s literature, defined in this study as a written text intended for a reader up to the age of 14, make it difficult to chart generic change across a large corpus of texts. Traditionally, criticism of children’s literature focuses on cherry picked archetypes, exemplars, and the standout extraordinary. This study employs interdisciplinary methods and data sources from library science, education, and literary studies to create a method for analyzing a sample corpus of children’s literature more holistically vis-à-vis distant, macroscopic reading techniques.

In this dissertation, I macroscopically read the corpus of Newbery ...


Discerning Disciples: A Mixed Methods Study On Attitudes Toward And Practices Of Evaluation Among Lay Catechetical Leaders, Anthony Dallas Paz Jan 2018

Discerning Disciples: A Mixed Methods Study On Attitudes Toward And Practices Of Evaluation Among Lay Catechetical Leaders, Anthony Dallas Paz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite the work of catechetical leaders to help fellow Catholics deepen their relationship with Jesus Christ, the Catholic Church in the US continues to lose members at an alarming rate. In other educational and professional settings, practices of assessment and evaluation have been employed to determine whether and how their missions are achieved. The literature reveals that there is very little research on evaluative practices and attitudes among professional catechetical leaders and suggests that there is a great lack of evaluation in the field of catechesis and religious education in the US. This study utilized an explanatory sequential mixed methods ...


The Effect Of Delivery Mode On L2 Students' Listening Comprehension Skills: Context Versus Animated Videos, Leyla Karatay Jan 2018

The Effect Of Delivery Mode On L2 Students' Listening Comprehension Skills: Context Versus Animated Videos, Leyla Karatay

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the effect of different delivery modes on L2 students’ listening

comprehension. A mixed-methods explanatory research design was used to identify whether

animated videos or context videos facilitated better listening comprehension. Fifty-seven ESL undergraduate/graduate students were recruited from an academic speaking and pronunciation course offered at Iowa State University. The effectiveness of the delivery modes was assessed by the participant’s ability to orally summarize the videos. Two trained raters were recruited to rate participants’ audio-recorded summaries. A one-way ANOVA was used to test for a significant difference between mean scores of the two groups. Also, students ...


The Systematic Subjugation Of Women And The Environment In The Hunger Games And The Windup Girl, Rachel Grotzke Jan 2018

The Systematic Subjugation Of Women And The Environment In The Hunger Games And The Windup Girl, Rachel Grotzke

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This analysis focuses on the system of subjugation present in the 21st century dystopian narratives The Hunger Games and The Windup Girl to show the dual entrapment of women and nature. The first step of the system of subjugation, lack of resources, manifests in both of the texts and points to the environmental justice underpinnings of the texts. Through close analysis of the type and breadth of the environmental injustices suffered, this lack of resources leads to the second step in the system of subjugation: objectification. Because of the need of resources those in power exploit, women are then seen ...


Lexical Stress Features Affecting The Recognition Of English Loanwords In Korean By Native English Hearers, Yunhyun Lee Nov 2017

Lexical Stress Features Affecting The Recognition Of English Loanwords In Korean By Native English Hearers, Yunhyun Lee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Unlike some Asian languages (e.g., Korean), English has lexical stress manifested by four acoustic features: duration, intensity, F0 (pitch), and vowel quality. Lexical stress has been known to have significant influences on native English speakers’ recognition of spoken words. According to Cutler (2015), lexical stress has both suprasegmental and segmental features: Suprasegmental features include duration, intensity, and F0 while vowel quality is considered a segmental feature. However, it is still unclear which lexical features are more responsible for spoken word recognition. This study examined which features, suprasegmental features or vowel quality of English, are a more significant influencer in ...


Latino Mothers’ Responsiveness And Bilingual Language Development In Young Children From 24 Months To 36 Months, Rica Ramirez Jul 2017

Latino Mothers’ Responsiveness And Bilingual Language Development In Young Children From 24 Months To 36 Months, Rica Ramirez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This longitudinal study examined the role maternal responsiveness had on shaping Spanish and English language development in bilingual two year-old children. Because children who are bilingual language learners are oftentimes coming from low socioeconomic families it is essential that we investigate the ways in which they develop language in order to better serve this population. Maternal responsiveness is one source in which we can examine early language development of young bilingual children. Eight Latino mother-child dyads were observed and assessed at three time points. Each observation was coded for maternal responsive behaviors. Regression and multilevel modeling was used in order ...


(Age)Ncy In Composition Studies, Alaina Tackitt Mar 2017

(Age)Ncy In Composition Studies, Alaina Tackitt

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The number of adult learners entering or returning to institutions of higher education is increasing in general and in relation to the traditional student population, and projections suggest that the trend will continue. As automation and technology impact the labor force, educational access is becoming a national concern and a necessity for more adult learners. Access to higher education impacts minority and economically depressed populations disproportionally and increases the personal and professional success of adult students and the long-term prosperity of their families. Although Composition Studies has a history of recognizing and facilitating student populations as they enter the Academy ...


Science In The Sun: How Science Is Performed As A Spatial Practice, Natalie Kass Mar 2017

Science In The Sun: How Science Is Performed As A Spatial Practice, Natalie Kass

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study analyzes how spatial organization impacts science communication at the St. Petersburg Science Festival in Florida. Through map analysis, qualitative interviews, and a close reading of evaluation reports, the author determines that sponsorship, logistics, exhibitor ambience, and map usability and design are the factors most affecting the spatial performance of science. To mitigate their effects, technical communicators can identify these factors and provide the necessary revisions when considering how science is communicated to the public.


User Data Spectrum Theory: Collecting, Interpreting, And Implementing User Data In Organizations, Andrea J. Peer Jan 2017

User Data Spectrum Theory: Collecting, Interpreting, And Implementing User Data In Organizations, Andrea J. Peer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Organizations interested in increasing their user experience (UX) capacity lack the tools they need to know how to do so. This dissertation addresses this challenge via three major research efforts: 1) the creation of User Data Spectrum theory and a User Data Spectrum survey for helping organizations better invest resources to grow their UX capacity, 2) a new UX method and model for organizations that want to capitalize on spoken words from end users called Rapid Meaningful Scenarios (RMS), and 3) a recommendation for UX education in response to the current ACM SIGCHI education Living Curriculum initiative. The User Data ...


A Liberal Arts Education In Film Production: Instructional Assessment Of Student Film Projects, Troy Daniel Mckay Jan 2017

A Liberal Arts Education In Film Production: Instructional Assessment Of Student Film Projects, Troy Daniel Mckay

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the educational process of instructors teaching film and video production in higher education. Little research has been dedicated to this field of study. As technology advances and the cost of equipment recedes, educational programs in film and video production will experience growth, transformation, and population. Educational leadership and faculty responsible for these programs experience pressure to stay current with trends and technology while building and maintaining these types of programs; thus, the examination of these programs’ structures and practices are worthwhile endeavors. In addition, expanded markets for educated professionals in film and video production are being sought ...


The Fine Arts In Midwestern Community Colleges: Six Case Studies Portraying A Cross-Case Analysis Of Sustainability, Meghan Ruth Schumacker Jan 2017

The Fine Arts In Midwestern Community Colleges: Six Case Studies Portraying A Cross-Case Analysis Of Sustainability, Meghan Ruth Schumacker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The fine arts in Midwestern community colleges:

Six case studies portraying a cross-case analysis of sustainability

by

Meghan R. Schumacker

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore the sustainability of the fine arts programs in community colleges. This dissertation research focused on the concept of sustainability in community college fine arts programs to uncover features that aid in the support of these programs. As posited by Hibnere (1998, as cited by Slahova et al., 2007), sustainable fine arts programs “promote the development of a creative, emotionally and intellectually educated personality and also give a personality the strength of ...


Challenges African-American Graduate Students Face At Iowa State University, Darryl Austin Jan 2017

Challenges African-American Graduate Students Face At Iowa State University, Darryl Austin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

African-American students continue to face high attrition rates in graduate education. The goal of this thesis project was to gauge perceptions of the challenges those students face in graduate school at Iowa State University, a major land-grant institution in the Midwest. Focus groups were conducted and revealed several important themes, as follows: communication, funding and resources, peer/faculty mentoring, connectivity vs isolation, contributions from fellow graduate students and drive and expectations of self. Two key concepts that emerged from the focus group discussions were self-efficacy and social capital. The participants recommended better communication with university executives, department faculty as well ...


L2 Learners’ Perceptions And Preferences Of Automated Corrective Feedback, Nawaf Alsallami Jan 2017

L2 Learners’ Perceptions And Preferences Of Automated Corrective Feedback, Nawaf Alsallami

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Form-focused automated Corrective Feedback (CF) is widely used in general-purpose and specialized writing software and research indicates a positive effect for automated CF on second language (L2) learning (AbuSeileek, 2013; AbuSeileek & Abualsha’r, 2014). As any educational practice, preferences and perceptions of learners are expected to influence how automated CF is used by L2 learners (Amrhein & Nassaji, 2010; Brown, 2009; Schulz, 2001). However, preferences and perceptions of automated CF are poorly understood due to paucity of relevant research. This study contributes to this line of investigation by exploring three pertinent topics. First, it explores L2 learners’ preferences and perceptions of automated CF and four different CF strategies: identification, direct correction, metalinguistic CF, and graduated CF. Second, it examines learners’ preferences between different CF timings and frequency choices ...


A Game-Based Design Studio: An Exploration Of An Interior Design Studio Environment For Implementing Game-Based Learning, Zina Alaswad Jan 2017

A Game-Based Design Studio: An Exploration Of An Interior Design Studio Environment For Implementing Game-Based Learning, Zina Alaswad

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The design studio is an active, participatory, and experimental learning environment. Since the 19th century, the studio has been a place for learning through doing with a community of peers seeking knowledge, skills, and a space for unleashing creativity. The advancement in teaching and learning has shown to address a variety of instructional issues in a variety of fields using digital technology and innovative pedagogies. The design studio, despite its many affordances, has been criticized over the past decade for multiple reasons. This three-article dissertation focuses on using the game-based learning (GBL) pedagogy to address three instructional issues in interior ...


Vowel Variations Among Speakers Of Malaysian English, Sock Wun Phng Jan 2017

Vowel Variations Among Speakers Of Malaysian English, Sock Wun Phng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The language policies in Malaysia, having been controlled by the ethnic Malays ever since Independence Day in 1957, have hence dictated which language influences each major ethnic group is exposed to. With the official language as well as the language of instruction in public schools being Malay, ethnic Malays who speak it as a first language (L1) are typically monolingual speakers of Malay. The ethnic Chinese and Indians who usually speak Mandarin or Tamil as an L1 respectively are typically bilingual or trilingual. These different language influences might play a role in how speakers of each ethnic group produce Malaysian ...


Creation And Evaluation Of Multimedia Materials To Promote Development Of Current And Prospective International Students’ Pragmatic Competence In Academic Settings, Ananda Astrini Muhammad Jan 2017

Creation And Evaluation Of Multimedia Materials To Promote Development Of Current And Prospective International Students’ Pragmatic Competence In Academic Settings, Ananda Astrini Muhammad

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Literature on communicative language ability has identified pragmatic competence as a crucial aspect of second language (L2) communicative language ability. However, current literature has employed varied definitions of pragmatic competence, and little effort has been made to synthesize pragmatics studies in order to come up with a comprehensive list of components that comprise pragmatic competence. This effort was recently undertaken by Laughlin, Wain, and Schmidgall (2015), who conducted a systematic literature review of many different models, principles, and theories of pragmatics. The result was a construct of pragmatic competence which included five components, namely sociocultural knowledge, pragmatic-functional knowledge, grammatical knowledge ...


The Influence Of An Online Pronunciation Teacher’S Manual On Teachers’ Cognitions, Sinem Sonsaat Jan 2017

The Influence Of An Online Pronunciation Teacher’S Manual On Teachers’ Cognitions, Sinem Sonsaat

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite their importance, teacher’s manuals (TM) have never drawn much attention in language teaching research, and therefore they have not been researched from the perspective of pronunciation teaching. It may be that they have not been perceived as having a role more than being an answer key for student materials (Sheldon, 1987). However, TMs deserve attention since curriculum materials - including TMs - have a positive impact on teachers’ learning and professional development (Grossman & Thompson, 2008). TMs may especially be crucial in supporting teachers in pronunciation teaching since many teachers find this skill challenging because of lack of training (Foote, Holtby, & Derwing, 2011), lack of experience (Burns, 2006), lack of knowledge (Baker & Murphy, 2011), and lack of confidence (Bernat, 2008).

This study investigated native and non-native English-speaking teachers’ (NEST and NNEST) cognitions – mainly knowledge –in relation to (1) pronunciation teaching and (2) pronunciation teaching materials. In addition, the study explored (3) how teachers used an online teacher’s manual (OTM) and (4) what kind of influences the OTM had on pronunciation teachers’ cognitions about and confidence in pronunciation teaching. Data of this study for the first two research questions came from the survey responses of 54 teachers (NEST=34; NNEST=20) and interview responses of 24 teachers (NEST=14; NNEST=10). Data for the third and fourth research questions came from the weekly journal responses and ...


Modes Of Feedback In Esl Writing: Implications Of Shifting From Text To Screencast, Kelly J. Cunningham Jan 2017

Modes Of Feedback In Esl Writing: Implications Of Shifting From Text To Screencast, Kelly J. Cunningham

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

For second language writing (SLW) instructors, decisions regarding technology-mediated feedback are particularly complex as they must also navigate student language proficiency, which may vary across different areas such as reading or listening. Yet technology-mediated feedback remains an underexplored realm in SLW especially with regard to how modes of technology affect feedback and how students interact with and understand it. With the expanding pervasiveness of video and increased access to screencasting (screen recording), SLW instructors have ever-growing access to video modes for feedback, yet little research to inform their choices. Further, with video potentially requiring substantial investment from institutions through hosting ...


Spanish Listening Comprehension Test Development Project: Considering Learner L2 Listening Comprehension In The Course Placement Equation, Jennifer Elise Musgrove Jan 2017

Spanish Listening Comprehension Test Development Project: Considering Learner L2 Listening Comprehension In The Course Placement Equation, Jennifer Elise Musgrove

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Second language (L2) placement exams utilized towards course placement decisions at higher-level educational institutions are considered “high-stakes” relative to the impact that the assessment outcome has on the individual student level as well consequences at the institutional level. Therefore, providing reliable second language assessments that effectively determine L2 learner language proficiency can lower course placement error issues. I argue that assessing a learner’s L2 listening comprehension is an integral part of the learner’s L2 experience within the Target Language Use (TLU) and that it could improve course placement accuracy. Furthermore, I argue for a listening construct that includes ...


Indistinct Boundaries And Intersections: The Role Of Threshold Concepts And Disposition In Students With Early College Credit, Kathy Sanders Rose Jan 2017

Indistinct Boundaries And Intersections: The Role Of Threshold Concepts And Disposition In Students With Early College Credit, Kathy Sanders Rose

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative study investigates knowledge transfer in college students

whose high school Advanced Placement (AP) or dual credit (DC) English courses

enabled them to opt out of the first level of composition at Iowa State University

(ISU). Although early college credit (ECC) students’ university writing

performances have been studied, writing transfer has not been adequately

studied in this population before. The influence of these students’ lived

experiences require more consideration from scholars because of the growing

number of students who enter advanced university classes by virtue of credits

earned in high school.

Thirteen students from a variety of backgrounds, majors ...


Peer Response In L1 Writing: Impact On Revisions And Student Perceptions, Altay Ozkul Jan 2017

Peer Response In L1 Writing: Impact On Revisions And Student Perceptions, Altay Ozkul

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Peer response is a strategy frequently used for improving the quality of students’ writing both in L1 and L2 writing context (Paulus, 1999; Baker, 2016). Studies has investigated how peer response impacts students’ writing influence of peer response on revisions in student writing in ESL context (e.g. Paulus, 1999; Min, 2006; Ting & Qian, 2010; Baker, 2016). However, most of the literature focuses on how peer-response influences student revisions in second-language learning context (Baker, 2016). This study addressed the gap in the literature by analyzing student revisions after peer-response in a writing classroom adopting multiple-draft approach in L1 writing context. The study ...


Engagement Experiences: Adult English Language Learner Students In Advanced Manufacturing At A Midwestern Community College, Ahmed Kwasi Onwona-Agyeman Jan 2017

Engagement Experiences: Adult English Language Learner Students In Advanced Manufacturing At A Midwestern Community College, Ahmed Kwasi Onwona-Agyeman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore and gain an in-depth understanding of the day-to-day lived engagement experiences of six adult ELL students enrolled in an advanced-manufacturing program at a midwestern community college. Specifically, this study collected the rich engagement stories andmeaning participants assignedto their stories and experiences. The essence of these experiences was solicited by asking two questions: (a) What are the perceived on-campus engagement experiences and social networks that support and promote success amongadult ELL students in advanced manufacturing and(b) Are there perceived engagement experience issues and barriers for adult ELL students? Two theories, Alexander ...


A Computer-Adaptive Test Of Productive And Contextualized Academic Vocabulary Breadth In English (Cat-Pav): Development And Validation, Victor Dias De Oliveira Santos Jan 2017

A Computer-Adaptive Test Of Productive And Contextualized Academic Vocabulary Breadth In English (Cat-Pav): Development And Validation, Victor Dias De Oliveira Santos

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation study aimed, first and foremost, to address the current scarcity of assessments of productive and contextualized academic vocabulary in English, and thus contribute to the Applied Linguistics and Language Assessment field, by developing what seems to be the first IRT-based computer-adaptive test of productive and contextualized breadth of academic vocabulary in English (henceforth, CAT-PAV), which will be made freely available online to any researchers, ESL instructors, or other interested parties who believe the test can potentially be useful for their specific scenarios. A second aim of the present study was to validate the interpretation of scores from the ...


Millennial Pedagogy: Towards Understanding Millennial Myths And Identity, Bryan Alan Lutz Jan 2017

Millennial Pedagogy: Towards Understanding Millennial Myths And Identity, Bryan Alan Lutz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Scholars who have embraced the social (Berlin, 1988) and the global (Hesford, 2006) turns in rhetoric and composition are seeking comparative-historical frames for understanding how communication mediates social roles within sites of conflict. Since the publication of Millennials Rising: The Next Generation, it is my observation that communication about Millennials is a significant site of conflict in the United States. While scholars in rhetoric have explored how age bias affects non-traditional students who enter college later in adulthood (Bowen, 2011; Crow, 2006; Grabill and Pigg, 2012; Swacha, 2017), I am curious about age bias against the young, where scholars and ...