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Graduate Research Papers

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Analysis Of Assessments On Secondary Students' Development And Interpretation Of Models, Alaina L. Appley Jan 2021

Analysis Of Assessments On Secondary Students' Development And Interpretation Of Models, Alaina L. Appley

Graduate Research Papers

As districts are making the shift to three-dimensional learning the development of a coherent set of high-quality task-based assessments has been a challenge. For this research I collected and analyzed twelve of my district's assessments over the scientific skill of modeling from grades seven through 12. The analysis involved two tools developed by NGSS and Achieve.org to determine the extent to which the assessments ask students to perform tasks that are driven by phenomena and use the three-dimensional in service of sense-making, the Task Screener and the Framework to Evaluate Cognitive Complexity in Science Assessments. The findings support ...


Accuracy Of Self-Assessment In A Ninth Grade Earth Science Classroom, Alyssa Jacobson Jan 2021

Accuracy Of Self-Assessment In A Ninth Grade Earth Science Classroom, Alyssa Jacobson

Graduate Research Papers

Student engagement is a constant struggle teachers and schools work to address. Students who are not engaged are more likely to drop out of school and participate in risky behaviors that negatively impact themselves and society as a whole. As a means to combat student disengagement, school districts have begun to implement The New Art and Science of Teaching, a framework meant to engage students by involving them in the learning process through self-assessment.

The purpose of this study is to determine how accurately high school aged students can self-assess and how students make decisions when they self-assess. To determine ...


Effects Of Stepwise Guided Inquiry On Students' Attitudes And Depth Of Knowledge From Written Lab Reflections In High School Chemistry, Melissa Rae Campbell Johnson Jan 2021

Effects Of Stepwise Guided Inquiry On Students' Attitudes And Depth Of Knowledge From Written Lab Reflections In High School Chemistry, Melissa Rae Campbell Johnson

Graduate Research Papers

Many teachers find it challenging to embed guided inquiry into high school chemistry courses. Although guided inquiry provides excellent opportunities for students to engage in data analysis, misconceptions and loss of class time are teacher stated problems with guided inquiry. A stepwise inquiry project can slowly introduce students to the inquiry process of data analysis in high school chemistry.

This stepwise inquiry project examined three different inquiry labs designed around the anchoring phenomenon, “ Which toothpaste protects our teeth the best?”Each lab progressed in inquiry level. Lab one was written at inquiry level one,confirmation. The second lab was written ...


The Impact Of The Use Of Mobile Computing On Vocabulary Learning In The Language Classroom, Lorena Harger May 2020

The Impact Of The Use Of Mobile Computing On Vocabulary Learning In The Language Classroom, Lorena Harger

Graduate Research Papers

Mobile computers offer accessibility anytime and anywhere, and they are being used more and more for teaching and learning. The purpose of this review is to explore the impact of using mobile applications and devices in vocabulary learning among language learners. The review also addresses the perceptions of students and teachers regarding the use of mobile computers in the classroom. In this paper, thirty peer-reviewed journal articles published in the last eleven years were critically analyzed. From the reviewed research, it was found that using mobile computers not only enhances vocabulary learning and retention but also contributes to students’ motivation ...


Using Adapted Primary Science Literature To Enhance Argumentation And Reasoning Skills In Middle School Students, Betsy Wiederin Lemus Apr 2020

Using Adapted Primary Science Literature To Enhance Argumentation And Reasoning Skills In Middle School Students, Betsy Wiederin Lemus

Graduate Research Papers

Adapted primary literature is literature adapted from primary scientific literature for the purpose of using it with school age students. The process begins with teachers finding an appropriate primary scientific literature article, written by scientists for scientists, and rewriting the article to meet the reading level and understanding of the students being taught. In the newly created article, a teacher focuses only on the part of the original article that is important to the students learning and the writer may add background information, graphics, or edit existing graphics to make them more student friendly. The goal of this project is ...


Using Mentor Texts To Enhance The Teaching Of Reading Comprehension And Writing, Alexandra Jordyn Cushman Jan 2020

Using Mentor Texts To Enhance The Teaching Of Reading Comprehension And Writing, Alexandra Jordyn Cushman

Graduate Research Papers

This project is an instructional unit designed to teach knowledge of both the Civil Rights Movement and racial/social injustices across multiple curricular areas and academic settings using mentor texts. The academic areas that will be addressed are reading, language arts, and writing. This unit includes lesson plans and materials that accompany mentor texts and provide additional information to students in the classroom.


Making The Water Cycle Accessible And Relevant For English Language Learners, Summer Teed Jan 2020

Making The Water Cycle Accessible And Relevant For English Language Learners, Summer Teed

Graduate Research Papers

Students with limited English-proficiency present many unique challenges for educators and schools. These challenges multiply as both the number of students requiring services and the diversity of languages spoken increases. In Iowa’s 335 public school districts, the number of students classified as English-language learners (ELL) has nearly tripled in the last 15 years, jumping from 2.1% of the student population during the 1999-2000 school year to 5.7% in 2015- 2016 (Iowa Department of Education (IDOE), 2013; IDOE, 2015). Individual districts currently range from 0 to 57.4% of students requiring ELL services, with 25 of Iowa’s ...


The Impact Of Confidence-Based Marking On Unit Exam Achievement In A High School Physical Science Course, Casey Clark Jan 2020

The Impact Of Confidence-Based Marking On Unit Exam Achievement In A High School Physical Science Course, Casey Clark

Graduate Research Papers

High school teachers begin each year with a plethora of content standards to teach, however, instructing students how to learn is hardly ever considered. Metacognition and learning how to learn are not present in high school science content standards. The ability to self-regulate our knowledge is essential to assumptions about learning (Cubukcu, 2009). Students are expected to use metacognitive strategies, even if they do not have them. When students work through problems, it is common to expect them to go back and recheck their work. This is a form of metacognition and self-regulation. Asking students apply metacognition can help them ...


Three Cases Of Makerspace Integration In School Library Programs In Conjunction With District Initiatives: Steam, Design Thinking, And Literacy, Lisa Tegels Jan 2020

Three Cases Of Makerspace Integration In School Library Programs In Conjunction With District Initiatives: Steam, Design Thinking, And Literacy, Lisa Tegels

Graduate Research Papers

Note: This study refers to three co-researchers who each collected data in their respective schools and collaborated in reviewing that data, but each separately authored a paper using that data; the co-researchers are Kris Baldwin and Sara Pflughaupt.

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine whether makerspace or STEAM activities can support inquiry learning and meet specific American Association of School Library (AASL), Next Generation Science (NGSS) and Common Core Literacy (CCSS ELA) Standards. For purposes of this study, the three co-researchers were also focused on how this type of learning activity can support district initiatives in ...


Identification Of Trends In Scientific Communication By Minority Students In An Integrated And Advanced Ninth Grade Science Curriculum, Loren Thalacker Jan 2020

Identification Of Trends In Scientific Communication By Minority Students In An Integrated And Advanced Ninth Grade Science Curriculum, Loren Thalacker

Graduate Research Papers

In the United States, the population of minorities is rapidly increasing. Our nation is facing a shortage in students pursuing STEM careers and it is vital to improve all students’ scientific communication abilities. As our population of minority students is also growing, it is especially important to tap into our potential STEM resources. While the Midwest is less diverse than the rest of the nation, the Waterloo Community School District in Waterloo, Iowa has a large population of minority students. When the district implemented the Next Generation Science Standards it created a problem for students wanting to take advanced science ...


Student Engagement Within The Use Of Graphic Novels, Melissa Felsenthal Jan 2019

Student Engagement Within The Use Of Graphic Novels, Melissa Felsenthal

Graduate Research Papers

Student engagement in novels is a key factor in whether or not a student can be successful in reading. The purpose of this study was to analyze student engagement with graphic novels and traditional novels, and to describe any preferences students had when selecting novels to read independently. The study was centered around two questions: How does the reading of graphic novels impact the level of reading engagement? Do students prefer the use of graphic novels over traditional novels within their own independent reading? The study consisted of interviewing eleven sixth grade students about a graphic novel that they picked ...


Using Critical Literacy And Emotionally Responsive Teaching To Discuss Racism In A Literature Circle Unit, Autumn Rose Den Boer Jan 2019

Using Critical Literacy And Emotionally Responsive Teaching To Discuss Racism In A Literature Circle Unit, Autumn Rose Den Boer

Graduate Research Papers

This paper contains an instructional unit designed to create space in the classroom for open and honest conversations about racism through enhancing the literature circle format with the incorporation of critical literacy and emotionally-responsive teaching. The unit utilizes strategies that are research-based and referenced in the paper. Detailed lessons as well as all additional needed materials are included.


The Effect Of Digital Game-Based Learning On Student Learning: A Literature Review, Katrina Serrano Jan 2019

The Effect Of Digital Game-Based Learning On Student Learning: A Literature Review, Katrina Serrano

Graduate Research Papers

Digital game-based learning can be used by educators to support students in developing skills. This review examined the effect of digital game-based learning on student learning at the K-12 level. Sixteen peer-reviewed research studies, two meta-analysis studies, and two literature reviews published between 2011-2019 were selected for analysis. The reviewed research indicated that when digital game-based learning is used that includes key game design elements (collaboration, choice, feedback) as well as instructional design, there typically is a positive impact on student engagement. Research also indicated that digital game-based learning along with collaboration can have a significant effect on student motivation ...


Best Practices In Assessment And Evaluation Of Literacy At The Secondary Level, Meaghan Kathleen Johnson Jan 2019

Best Practices In Assessment And Evaluation Of Literacy At The Secondary Level, Meaghan Kathleen Johnson

Graduate Research Papers

Research over the century has shown that grading practices in schools, especially at the secondary level, are commonly inconsistent, unreliable, and invalid amongst teachers. Grades have a large impact on students’ futures, determining scholarships, colleges, and career paths. Therefore, it is important that assessment and evaluation practices are consistent, reliable, and fair. This paper contains a review of research on the reasons for discrepancies in grading practices, followed by what research suggests is best practice for fair and reliable assessment and evaluation practices. Finally, these findings have been combined to develop a presentation on best practices in assessment and evaluation ...


Is There A Correlation Between Oral Reading Rate And Social Conversational Speaking Rate?, Sarah C. Mason Jan 2019

Is There A Correlation Between Oral Reading Rate And Social Conversational Speaking Rate?, Sarah C. Mason

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this research was to determine if there was a correlation between oral reading rates and social conversational speaking rates. This research was conducted using a sample size of 25 students, ages 8-12, in one elementary building in Southern Iowa. Student data were collected from a previous district’s fall assessment in the area of oral reading rate. Students were given specific prompts when providing their social conversational speaking. When comparing oral reading rate with their social conversational speaking rate, it was found that there was a correlation when measured in words per minute suggesting that students’ reading ...


Computer Science Is Elementary: Comprehensive Plan For Computer Science Implementation At The Elementary Level, Erin Chute Jan 2019

Computer Science Is Elementary: Comprehensive Plan For Computer Science Implementation At The Elementary Level, Erin Chute

Graduate Research Papers

Teaching students computer science in the classroom can have many benefits. Several students in today's education system will go into career fields that do not yet exist and the skills taught through computer science can prepare them for the future. This project outlines the steps for planning a computer science initiative at the elementary level. A literature review examining the effect of teaching computer science on student achievement at the elementary level is used to support an award proposal for funding a high quality computer science curriculum in a rural, underserved district. This project can serve as a model ...


The Effects Of A Makerspace Curriculum On The 4c'S In Education, Staci Novak Jan 2019

The Effects Of A Makerspace Curriculum On The 4c'S In Education, Staci Novak

Graduate Research Papers

Makerspaces are becoming more common in schools K-12 as well as at the university level and encourage educators to think differently about learning. This review examines how a makerspace curriculum impacts the way in which learners apply the 4 C’s (creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, and communication). Thirteen peer-reviewed research studies published between 2014 and 2018 were selected for analysis. The reviewed research studies indicated that students who participate in makerspaces tend to use their creativity to problem-solve, are communicative and collaborative with other makers, and tend to use critical thinking skills when presented with an obstacle. Recommendations for implementation ...


The Effects Of Text-To-Speech On Students With Reading Disabilities, Melissa Oberembt Jan 2019

The Effects Of Text-To-Speech On Students With Reading Disabilities, Melissa Oberembt

Graduate Research Papers

Text-to-speech (TTS) is becoming a common accommodation/support for students with reading disabilities to improve reading skills. This review examines the effects TTS has on reading comprehension, reading rate, written language, as well as the social validity of students with reading disabilities and other print disabilities. Twenty-eight peer-reviewed studies published between 2002 and 2019 were selected for analysis in this review. The reviewed research indicates that reading rate increased, while reading comprehension had mixed results, and writing skills did not significantly improve when TTS was used. Research also confirmed the social validity of TTS. Future research into the effects of ...


Teacher Perceptions Of Understaffed School Libraries, Amanda Bonjour Jan 2019

Teacher Perceptions Of Understaffed School Libraries, Amanda Bonjour

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this mixed methods study is to learn what classroom teachers perceive the effects of improper staffing of school libraries to be. It asks: What do classroom teachers perceive are the effects of improper staffing or the cutting of a school librarian? Through the qualitative analysis of survey responses, the study found that teachers perceived teacher librarians to have a positive impact on student achievement through collaboration and to be a valuable asset in providing resources for staff and students. Qualitatively, results from two school districts, one with and one without a certified librarian staffed in their middle ...


The Effectiveness Of Using Intelligent Tutoring Systems To Increase Student Achievement, Tedi Swanson Jan 2019

The Effectiveness Of Using Intelligent Tutoring Systems To Increase Student Achievement, Tedi Swanson

Graduate Research Papers

Intelligent Tutoring Systems could be used to provide differentiated instruction. This review examines qualities of Intelligent Tutoring Systems and their impact on student achievement. Thirty peer-reviewed research studies published from 1997 to 2019 were selected for analysis. This review considers how intelligent tutoring systems compare with other methods of instruction, and how an intelligent tutoring system’s on-screen tutor impacts student achievement. Finally, this review considers methods of ITS personalization and how those methods impact student achievement. The reviewed research studies indicated that ITS was more effective than all forms of instruction except small group and individualized instruction. Additionally, on-screen ...


Blended Learning In Credit Recovery, Robin Kuhn Jan 2018

Blended Learning In Credit Recovery, Robin Kuhn

Graduate Research Papers

This project is to create a blended learning module for students who need to recover course credit in order to stay on track to graduate on time from a small rural district with limited teachers and face-to-face time. This project will eliminate the need for the district to pay for online credit recovery services and help avoid scheduling issues that may prevent completion of the high school curriculum by students who fail a class. The project will be tested with students within the district and, if successful, will be implemented for all students who need to recover course credit.


Genetics Unit Lesson Plan For The Next Generation Science Standards, Erin Hogan Jan 2018

Genetics Unit Lesson Plan For The Next Generation Science Standards, Erin Hogan

Graduate Research Papers

In 2015, Iowa’s adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) compelled the Waterloo Community Schools to set a goal of complete alignment to those standards by the 2018-2019 school year. In order to prepare for this transition, I chose to focus my creative component on the development and implementation of a NGSS aligned unit on Genetics for a sophomore level biology course. The unit focused on the Performance Expectation (PE) HS-LS3-3: Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population and incorporated all three dimensions of the NGSS: Science ...


Development Of Curriculum For Next Generation Science Standards In High School Chemistry, Jennifer L. Brown Jan 2018

Development Of Curriculum For Next Generation Science Standards In High School Chemistry, Jennifer L. Brown

Graduate Research Papers

The aim of this project is to develop a unit relevant to students, aligned with three-dimensional performance expectations, and beneficial to teachers in helping students to meet those standards. To effectively meet those goals, an understanding of what curriculum is and how to develop it is needed. Curriculum is “the high-quality delivery system for ensuring that all students achieve the desired end – the attainment of their desired grade- or course-specific standards” (Ainsworth, 2010, p. 4). Without a clear goal for student performance and a detailed plan for how to get them there, lasting, meaningful learning is not likely to happen.


Parent Perspectives On Inclusive Bookclubs, Amy Bucciferro Jan 2018

Parent Perspectives On Inclusive Bookclubs, Amy Bucciferro

Graduate Research Papers

An inclusive book club was created to examine the effectiveness of incorporating literacy enhancing techniques and art to aid comprehension. This study focused on the parent perspective of their child participating in the book club and how it affected their child’s life at home. Two parents were interviewed after their child participated in a 3-month book club. The significance of this study is to show educators and families the benefits of having their children participate in inclusive environments. The study also explored how inclusive book clubs can benefit students with different comprehension levels and how families viewed the outcome ...


The Role Of Virtual Environment And Virtual Reality For Knowledge Transfer, Michelle Rice Jan 2018

The Role Of Virtual Environment And Virtual Reality For Knowledge Transfer, Michelle Rice

Graduate Research Papers

Virtual Reality (VR) is a technology tool for workplace training that can lessen the total training time needed to learn complex cognitive tasks and aids a learner in converting abstract ideas into practical understanding. This review explores the use of VR training and its role in assisting a learner with knowledge transfer. A comprehensive literature search was conducted of peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2003-2018 and then 44 sources were selected for analysis. The reviewed research studies indicated that immersive VR training can provide a learner with a highly engaging virtual learning environment VE and stimulating experience that accommodates self-paced ...


Evaluation Of A Flipped Classroom On Student Achievement In A Low Income School District, Michael Yeoman Jan 2018

Evaluation Of A Flipped Classroom On Student Achievement In A Low Income School District, Michael Yeoman

Graduate Research Papers

This purpose of this research is to determine whether using a flipped classroom is as effective for students in low-income schools as it is for students in wealthy school districts. A review of the literature is performed to determine what is the underlying philosophy of using a flipped classroom as well as determining barriers that may inhibit its effectiveness.

Control and treatment groups were determined so that data could be compared between a “traditional” classroom and a “flipped” classroom. The students in the treatment group were given a Pre-Unit Survey to determine a baseline of their perceptions of flipped learning ...


Blended Learning And Second Language Acquisition In The Classroom, Victoria R. Hamilton Jan 2018

Blended Learning And Second Language Acquisition In The Classroom, Victoria R. Hamilton

Graduate Research Papers

This review investigates using a blended learning environment within a second language setting. The literature review presented three main themes to be considered as these two contexts were united: learner engagement in differing environments and with different activities, learner perceptions, and the outcomes found from such combinations. Twenty-eight peer-reviewed journal articles were analyzed. It is found that blended environments seem to add novelty and increase motivation and engagement of students in these settings. However, the pedagogical implementation of active learning such as collaboration, providing feedback, and using activities that have a communicative purpose seems to yield the best results. Learner ...


Invented Spelling And Its Effect On Kindergarten Students' Reading And Writing Abilities, Kelli A. Daly Jan 2017

Invented Spelling And Its Effect On Kindergarten Students' Reading And Writing Abilities, Kelli A. Daly

Graduate Research Papers

This review investigated the effects of invented spelling on kindergarten students and how it can affect their phonemic awareness, as well as how it can affect his or her reading and spelling in kindergarten. In addition, this review compared different writing instruction techniques and how they differ and impact a child's writing and spelling in kindergarten. Several articles compare the use and acceptance of invented spelling in comparison to conventional spelling. Findings from the review propose that invented spelling is a beneficial technique to helping young children learn to read and write and has a positive influence on their ...


The Value Of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction For Elementary Students, Jessica Renae Enger Jan 2017

The Value Of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction For Elementary Students, Jessica Renae Enger

Graduate Research Papers

This review examined the academic benefits of using inquiry-based science instruction in elementary classrooms. It also examined different ways teachers integrate inquiry-based instruction. Several studies identified increases in science content knowledge, concepts, and process skills as outcomes associated with inquiry-based instruction. Other studies in this review showed mixed or negative results for academic benefits of inquiry-instruction. This review also highlights hands-on investigations, discourse, and literacy as three ways teachers integrate inquiry. Findings of this review suggest inquiry-based instruction allows students to understand difficult science concepts, justify their ideas, and can create positive attitudes toward science.


Visual Phonics : Its Impact As An Instructional Tool To Promote Literacy Development In Kindergarten Students, Lori J. Bower Jan 2017

Visual Phonics : Its Impact As An Instructional Tool To Promote Literacy Development In Kindergarten Students, Lori J. Bower

Graduate Research Papers

This review of literature examined the impact of See The Sound/Visual Phonics (STSNP), a supplemental instructional strategy, on kindergarten students, especially those at risk for future reading challenges. STSNP is an instructional strategy originally designed for use with children who are deaf/hard of hearing, that utilizes the multi-sensory tool of gesture to focus on the development of phonemic awareness skills. Research reviewed for this study first examined the importance of phonemic awareness in overall literacy development. Additional studies reviewed establish support for the use of multi-sensory instructional approaches, including the specific use of gesture to help efficiently encode ...