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Self-Reported Nutrition Education Received By Australian Midwives Before And After Registration, Jamila Arrish, Heather Yeatman, Moira J. Williamson Jan 2017

Self-Reported Nutrition Education Received By Australian Midwives Before And After Registration, Jamila Arrish, Heather Yeatman, Moira J. Williamson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Educating midwives to provide nutrition advice is essential. Limited research focuses on midwives' nutrition education. This paper explores self-reported nutrition education received by Australian midwives before and after registration. It draws on quantitative and qualitative data from a larger online survey conducted with the members of the Australian College of Midwives (response rate = 6.9%, n=329). Descriptive and content analyses were used. Of the midwives, 79.3% (n=261) reported receiving some nutrition education during, before, and/or after registration. However, some described this coverage as limited. It lacked sufficient focus on topics such as weight management, nutrition assessment, and nutrition for vulnerable …


Serum Adiponectin Levels And Cardiorespiratory Fitness In Nonoverweight And Overweight Portuguese Adolescents: The Labmed Physical Activity Study, César Agostinis-Sobrinho, Carla Moreira, Sandra Abreu, Luis Lopes, José Oliveira-Santos, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Jorge Mota, Rute Santos Jan 2017

Serum Adiponectin Levels And Cardiorespiratory Fitness In Nonoverweight And Overweight Portuguese Adolescents: The Labmed Physical Activity Study, César Agostinis-Sobrinho, Carla Moreira, Sandra Abreu, Luis Lopes, José Oliveira-Santos, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Jorge Mota, Rute Santos

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Purpose: This study examined the independent associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and circulating adiponectin concentration in adolescents, controlling for several potential covariates.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in Portuguese adolescents. A sample of 529 (267 girls) aged 12-18 years were included and categorized as overweight and nonoverweight. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by 20 meters shuttle run test. We measured serum adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting glucose, insulin and HDL-cholesterol.

Results: After adjustment for age, sex, pubertal stage, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, socioeconomic status, body fat percentage, insulin resistance, HDL-cholesterol and C-reactive protein, regression analysis showed a significant …


Eeg Differences Between Eyes-Closed And Eyes-Open Resting Remain In Healthy Ageing, Robert J. Barry, Frances M. De Blasio Jan 2017

Eeg Differences Between Eyes-Closed And Eyes-Open Resting Remain In Healthy Ageing, Robert J. Barry, Frances M. De Blasio

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

In young adults and children, the eyes-closed (EC) resting state is one of low EEG arousal, with the change to eyes-open (EO) primarily involving an increase in arousal. We used this arousal perspective to interpret EC/EO differences in healthy young and older adults. EEG was recorded from 20 young (Mage=20.4years) and 20 gender-matched older (Mage=68.2years) right-handed adults during two 3min resting conditions; EC then EO. Older participants displayed less delta and theta, some reduction in alpha, and increased beta. Global activity in all bands reduced with opening the eyes, but did not differ with age, indicating that the energetics of …


Exposure To Digital Marketing Enhances Young Adults' Interest In Energy Drinks: An Exploratory Investigation, Li Min Buchanan, Bridget Kelly, Heather Yeatman Jan 2017

Exposure To Digital Marketing Enhances Young Adults' Interest In Energy Drinks: An Exploratory Investigation, Li Min Buchanan, Bridget Kelly, Heather Yeatman

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Young adults experience faster weight gain and consume more unhealthy food than any other age groups. The impact of online food marketing on "digital native" young adults is unclear. This study examined the effects of online marketing on young adults' consumption behaviours, using energy drinks as a case example. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion was used as the theoretical basis. A pre-test post-test experimental research design was adopted using mixed-methods. Participants (aged 18-24) were randomly assigned to control or experimental groups (N = 30 each). Experimental group participants' attitudes towards and intended purchase and consumption of energy drinks were …


With Moonlight's Oscar Win, Hollywood Begins To Right Old Wrongs, Scott J. Mckinnon Jan 2017

With Moonlight's Oscar Win, Hollywood Begins To Right Old Wrongs, Scott J. Mckinnon

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

When Faye Dunaway, standing next to a puzzled-looking Warren Beatty, announced that La La Land had won Best Picture at Monday's Oscars, I doubt many people were surprised. Sure, pretty much all of the queer film fans, writers and academics I follow on Twitter were hoping for a win by the new gay classic Moonlight, but we are a crowd that has been disappointed before.


Perceived Public Transport Infrastructure Modifies The Association Between Public Transport Use And Mental Health: Multilevel Analyses From The United Kingdom, Xiaoqi Feng, Zhiqiang Feng, Thomas E. Astell-Burt Jan 2017

Perceived Public Transport Infrastructure Modifies The Association Between Public Transport Use And Mental Health: Multilevel Analyses From The United Kingdom, Xiaoqi Feng, Zhiqiang Feng, Thomas E. Astell-Burt

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Aims Investments to promote public transport utilisation are being championed to achieve sustainable development, but the potential co-benefits for mental health are comparatively under-researched. We hypothesised that frequent users of public transport would be more likely to have better mental health (possibly due to increased levels of physical activity), but among the more frequent users, less favourable perceptions of public transport infrastructure (PPTI) could have a negative influence on mental health. Methods Multilevel linear and logistic regressions were fitted on 30,214 participants in the UK Household Longitudinal Study with lagged PPTI and confounder measures at baseline and indicators of active …


Crossing Rivers, Revisiting Trauma, And Contemplating The Geo: Thinking Into The Anthropocenic, Justin Westgate Jan 2017

Crossing Rivers, Revisiting Trauma, And Contemplating The Geo: Thinking Into The Anthropocenic, Justin Westgate

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The irony of the Anthropocene-an idea grounded in earth sciences-is that it acts to unground some of the foundational ideas about the world. It asks us to reevaluate and rethink the human-nature binary, to inhabit a world less hospitable and malleable than we dared to believe. I explore this notion of groundlessness by returning to a personally traumatic event that literally swept me off my feet-crossing a river. I argue that the experience of such corporeal vulnerability can provide fertile ground for reorienting our own perception. Delving into such experiences may be used to provoke and expand thinking with a …


Beyond The Academic Precariat: A Collective Biography Of Poetic Subjectivities In The Neoliberal University, Catherine Hartung, Nicoli Barnes, Rosie Kate Welch, Gabrielle H. O'Flynn, Jonnell Uptin, Samantha Mcmahon Jan 2017

Beyond The Academic Precariat: A Collective Biography Of Poetic Subjectivities In The Neoliberal University, Catherine Hartung, Nicoli Barnes, Rosie Kate Welch, Gabrielle H. O'Flynn, Jonnell Uptin, Samantha Mcmahon

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The ‘neoliberal turn’ in the higher education sector has received significant intellectual scrutiny in recent times. This scrutiny, led by many established academics working within the sector, has highlighted the negative repercussions for teaching and research staff, often referred to as the ‘academic precariat’ due to their tenuous employment prospects within an increasingly market-driven system. This critique of the modern university can also inadvertently position academics as either resisting or complying with neoliberal governance. This does not adequately account for the nuanced and poetic ways in which professional, personal and gendered subjectivities are formulated, intertwined and negotiated. In this paper …


Randomized Controlled Trial And Economic Evaluation Of Nurse-Led Group Support For Young Mothers During Pregnancy And The First Year Postpartum Versus Usual Care, Jacqueline Barnes, Jane Stuart, Elizabeth Allen, Stavros Petrou, Joanna Sturgess, Jane Barlow, Garry Macdonald, Helen Spiby, Dipti Aistrop, Edward Melhuish, Sungwook Kim, Diana Elbourne Jan 2017

Randomized Controlled Trial And Economic Evaluation Of Nurse-Led Group Support For Young Mothers During Pregnancy And The First Year Postpartum Versus Usual Care, Jacqueline Barnes, Jane Stuart, Elizabeth Allen, Stavros Petrou, Joanna Sturgess, Jane Barlow, Garry Macdonald, Helen Spiby, Dipti Aistrop, Edward Melhuish, Sungwook Kim, Diana Elbourne

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Child maltreatment is a significant public health problem. Group Family Nurse Partnership (gFNP) is a new intervention for young, expectant mothers implemented successfully in pilot studies. This study was designed to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of gFNP in reducing risk factors for maltreatment with a potentially vulnerable population.


Inhibition Of Retrieval In Hypnotic Amnesia: Dissociation By Upper-Alpha Gating, Graham A. Jamieson, Marios D. Kittenis, Ruxandra I. Tivadar, Ian Evans Jan 2017

Inhibition Of Retrieval In Hypnotic Amnesia: Dissociation By Upper-Alpha Gating, Graham A. Jamieson, Marios D. Kittenis, Ruxandra I. Tivadar, Ian Evans

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Hypnotic amnesia is a functional dissociation from awareness during which information from specific neural processes is unavailable to consciousness. We test the proposal that changes in topographic patterns of cortical oscillations in upper-alpha (10–12 Hz) band selectively inhibit the recall of memories during hypnotic amnesia by blocking availability of locally processed information at specific points in retrieval. Participants were prescreened for high or low hypnotic susceptibility. Following hypnotic induction, participants were presented with a series of 60 face stimuli and were required to identify affective expressions. Participants received a suggestion for amnesia for these faces. They were then presented with …


Electroencephalogram Theta/Beta Ratio And Spectral Power Correlates Of Executive Functions In Children And Adolescents With Ad/Hd, Dawei Zhang, Hui Li, Zhanliang Wu, Qihua Zhao, Yan Song, Lu Liu, Qiujin Qian, Yufeng Wang, Steven J. Roodenrys, Stuart J. Johnstone, Frances M. De Blasio, Li Sun Jan 2017

Electroencephalogram Theta/Beta Ratio And Spectral Power Correlates Of Executive Functions In Children And Adolescents With Ad/Hd, Dawei Zhang, Hui Li, Zhanliang Wu, Qihua Zhao, Yan Song, Lu Liu, Qiujin Qian, Yufeng Wang, Steven J. Roodenrys, Stuart J. Johnstone, Frances M. De Blasio, Li Sun

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

OBJECTIVE: The electroencephalogram (EEG) has been widely used in AD/HD research. The current study firstly aimed to replicate a recent trend related to EEG theta/beta ratio (TBR) in children and adolescents. Also, the study aimed to examine the value of resting EEG activity as biomarkers for executive function (EF) in participants with AD/HD. METHOD: Fifty-three participants with AD/HD and 37 healthy controls were recruited. Resting EEG was recorded with eyes closed. Participants with AD/HD additionally completed EF tasks via the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. RESULTS: TBR did not differ between groups; however, TBR was positively correlated with inattentive symptoms …


A Brief Historical Perspective On The Advent Of Brain Oscillations In The Biological And Psychological Disciplines, Sirel Karakas, Robert J. Barry Jan 2017

A Brief Historical Perspective On The Advent Of Brain Oscillations In The Biological And Psychological Disciplines, Sirel Karakas, Robert J. Barry

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

We aim to review the historical evolution that has led to the study of the brain (body)-mind relationship based on brain oscillations, to outline and illustrate the principles of neuro-oscillatory dynamics using research findings. The paper addresses the relevant developments in behavioral sciences after Wundt established the science of psychology, and developments in the neurosciences after alpha and gamma oscillations were discovered by Berger and Adrian, respectively. Basic neuroscientific studies have led to a number of principles: (1) spontaneous EEG is composed of a set of oscillatory components, (2) the brain responds with oscillatory activity, (3) poststimulus oscillatory activity is …


Results Of The First Steps Study: A Randomised Controlled Trial And Economic Evaluation Of The Group Family Nurse Partnership (Gfnp) Programme Compared With Usual Care In Improving Outcomes For High-Risk Mothers And Their Children And Preventing Abuse, Jacqueline Barnes, Jane Stuart, Elizabeth Allen, Stephen Petrou, Joanna Sturgess, Jane Barlow, Geraldine Macdonald, Helen Spiby, Dipti Aistrop, Edward Melhuish, Sungwook Kim, Joshua Pink, Jessica Datta, Diana Elbourne Jan 2017

Results Of The First Steps Study: A Randomised Controlled Trial And Economic Evaluation Of The Group Family Nurse Partnership (Gfnp) Programme Compared With Usual Care In Improving Outcomes For High-Risk Mothers And Their Children And Preventing Abuse, Jacqueline Barnes, Jane Stuart, Elizabeth Allen, Stephen Petrou, Joanna Sturgess, Jane Barlow, Geraldine Macdonald, Helen Spiby, Dipti Aistrop, Edward Melhuish, Sungwook Kim, Joshua Pink, Jessica Datta, Diana Elbourne

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Structured Physical Activity On Glycaemic Control In Diabetes Prevention Programs: A Systematic Review, Joseph Edwards, Hassan Hosseinzadeh Jan 2017

The Impact Of Structured Physical Activity On Glycaemic Control In Diabetes Prevention Programs: A Systematic Review, Joseph Edwards, Hassan Hosseinzadeh

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background: Seven landmark randomised controlled trials, with some that began as early as the 1990s, observed the prediabetic state, namely, impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose conditions, against the impact of lifestyle interventions such as physical activity, to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to the landmark trials, this systematic review examines 14 studies that retained a focus on prediabetic individuals and measured the efficacy of physical activity on improving glucose tolerance. Results: Type, duration and intensity of structured physical activity can have unique benefits to prediabetic individuals. It is posited that diabetes …


The Use Of A Virtual Online Debating Platform To Facilitate Student Discussion Of Potentially Polarising Topics, Paul Mcgreevy, Vicky Tzioumis, Christopher J. Degeling, Jane Johnson, Robert Brown, Mike Sands, Melissa Starling, Clive J. C Phillips Jan 2017

The Use Of A Virtual Online Debating Platform To Facilitate Student Discussion Of Potentially Polarising Topics, Paul Mcgreevy, Vicky Tzioumis, Christopher J. Degeling, Jane Johnson, Robert Brown, Mike Sands, Melissa Starling, Clive J. C Phillips

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The merits of students exchanging views through the so-called human continuum exercise (HCE) are well established. The current article describes the creation of the virtual human continuum (VHC), an online platform that facilitates the same teaching exercise. It also reports feedback on the VHC from veterinary science students (n = 38). First-year Doctor of Veterinary Medicine students at the University of Sydney, Australia, trialed the platform and provided feedback. Most students agreed or strongly agreed that the VHC offered: a non-threatening environment for discussing emotive and challenging issues; and an opportunity to see how other people form ideas. It also …


Measured, Opportunistic, Unexpected And Naïve Quitting: A Qualitative Grounded Theory Study Of The Process Of Quitting From The Ex-Smokers' Perspective, Andrea L. Smith, Stacy M. Carter, Sally M. Dunlop, Becky Freeman, Simon Chapman Jan 2017

Measured, Opportunistic, Unexpected And Naïve Quitting: A Qualitative Grounded Theory Study Of The Process Of Quitting From The Ex-Smokers' Perspective, Andrea L. Smith, Stacy M. Carter, Sally M. Dunlop, Becky Freeman, Simon Chapman

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background To better understand the process of quitting from the ex-smokers' perspective, and to explore the role spontaneity and planning play in quitting. Methods Qualitative grounded theory study using in-depth interviews with 37 Australian adult ex-smokers (24-68 years; 15 males, 22 females) who quit smoking in the past 6-24 months (26 quit unassisted; 11 used assistance). Results Based on participants' accounts of quitting, we propose a typology of quitting experiences: measured, opportunistic, unexpected and naïve. Two key features integral to participants' accounts of their quitting experiences were used as the basis of the typology: (1) the apparent onset of quitting …


Eliminating Latent Tuberculosis In Low-Burden Settings: Are The Principal Beneficiaries To Be Disadvantaged Groups Or The Broader Population?, Christopher J. Degeling, Justin Denholm, Paul Mason, Ian Kerridge, Angus Dawson Jan 2017

Eliminating Latent Tuberculosis In Low-Burden Settings: Are The Principal Beneficiaries To Be Disadvantaged Groups Or The Broader Population?, Christopher J. Degeling, Justin Denholm, Paul Mason, Ian Kerridge, Angus Dawson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the burdens of this disease continue to track prior disadvantage. In order to galvanise a coordinated global res ponse, WHO has recently launched the End TB Campaign that aims to eliminate TB by 2050. Key to this is the introduction of population screening programmes in low-burden settings to identify and treat people who have latent TB infection (LTBI). The defining features of LTBI are: that it is not an active disease but confers an increased risk of disease; the socially disadvantaged are those most in danger and uncertainty …


The Create Critical Appraisal Tool: Establishing The Validity, Reliability And Feasibility Of A Tool To Appraise Research From Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Perspective, Stephen Harfield, O Gibson, Kathryn Anne Morey, Elaine Kite, Karla Canuto, K Glover, Judith Streak Gomersall, Carol Davy, D Carter, Edoardo Aromataris, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer Jan 2017

The Create Critical Appraisal Tool: Establishing The Validity, Reliability And Feasibility Of A Tool To Appraise Research From Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Perspective, Stephen Harfield, O Gibson, Kathryn Anne Morey, Elaine Kite, Karla Canuto, K Glover, Judith Streak Gomersall, Carol Davy, D Carter, Edoardo Aromataris, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Abstract presented at the Global Evidence Summit: Using evidence. Improving lives, 13-16 September 2017, Cape Town, South Africa


Psa Testing For Men At Average Risk Of Prostate Cancer, Bruce Armstrong, Michael Barry, Mark Frydenberg, Robert A. Gardiner, Ian Haines, Stacy M. Carter Jan 2017

Psa Testing For Men At Average Risk Of Prostate Cancer, Bruce Armstrong, Michael Barry, Mark Frydenberg, Robert A. Gardiner, Ian Haines, Stacy M. Carter

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing of men at normal risk of prostate cancer is one of the most contested issues in cancer screening. There is no formal screening program, but testing is common - arguably a practice that ran ahead of the evidence. Public and professional communication about PSA screening has been highly varied and potentially confusing for practitioners and patients alike. There has been much research and policy activity relating to PSA testing in recent years. Landmark randomised controlled trials have been reported; authorities - including the 2013 Prostate Cancer World Congress, the Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia, Cancer Council …


What Is Overdiagnosis And Why Should We Take It Seriously In Cancer Screening?, Stacy M. Carter, Alexandra Barratt Jan 2017

What Is Overdiagnosis And Why Should We Take It Seriously In Cancer Screening?, Stacy M. Carter, Alexandra Barratt

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Overdiagnosis occurs in a population when conditions are diagnosed correctly but the diagnosis produces an unfavourable balance between benefits and harms. In cancer screening, overdiagnosed cancers are those that did not need to be found because they would not have produced symptoms or led to premature death. These overdiagnosed cancers can be distinguished from false positives, which occur when an initial screening test suggests that a person is at high risk but follow-up testing shows them to be at normal risk. The cancers most likely to be overdiagnosed through screening are those of the prostate, thyroid, breast and lung. Overdiagnosis …


Overdiagnosis: An Important Issue That Demands Rigour And Precision; Comment On "Medicalisation And Overdiagnosis: What Society Does To Medicine", Stacy M. Carter Jan 2017

Overdiagnosis: An Important Issue That Demands Rigour And Precision; Comment On "Medicalisation And Overdiagnosis: What Society Does To Medicine", Stacy M. Carter

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Van Dijk and colleagues present three cases to illustrate and discuss the relationship between medicalisation and overdiagnosis. In this commentary, I consider each of the case studies in turn, and in doing so emphasise two main points. The first is that it is not possible to assess whether overdiagnosis is occurring based solely on incidence rates: it is necessary also to have data about the benefits and harms that are produced by diagnosis. The second is that much is at stake in discussions of overdiagnosis in particular, and that it is critical that work in this area is conceptually rigorous, …


Retention In Enhanced Team Based Learning Course: Retain Or Refrain?, Janil Puthucheary, Sok H. Goh, Tam C. Ha, Doyle G. Graham, Sandy Cook Jan 2017

Retention In Enhanced Team Based Learning Course: Retain Or Refrain?, Janil Puthucheary, Sok H. Goh, Tam C. Ha, Doyle G. Graham, Sandy Cook

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Students’ ability to retain content in medical school has always been a concern. At Duke-NUS Medical School, we modified our Team-Based Learning (TBL) classes known as TeamLEAD, a learning strategy for first year basic science content, to include an open/closed-book option in the readiness assurance phase to engage teams in deeper discussion. We hypothesize that the open-book option allows students to engage in deeper learning in their teams, which leads to an improvement in retention ability for each individual student at the end of their first year basic science curriculum.

Methods: A total of 115 MCQs used throughout first year …


Using Film In Social Work Education: A Medium For Critical Analysis, Mim Fox Jan 2017

Using Film In Social Work Education: A Medium For Critical Analysis, Mim Fox

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Whilst developing an undergraduate social work subject this year in group work practice I started to reflect on the number of films I had seen over the years where support groups or group process had been depicted as a component of the protagonist's life journey. Modern films such as Ruben Guthrie (2015) and Thankyou for Sharing (2012) came to mind, along with the classic One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975). As I started to think about this the list grew and I realised that social work students already had a wealth of representations to draw on when beginning to …


Who Is At Risk Of Chronic Disease? Associations Between Risk Profiles Of Physical Activity, Sitting And Cardio‐Metabolic Disease In Australian Adults, Lina Engelen, Joanne Gale, Josephine Chau, Louise L. Hardy, Martin Mackey, Nathan A. Johnson, Debra Shirley, Adrian E. Bauman Jan 2017

Who Is At Risk Of Chronic Disease? Associations Between Risk Profiles Of Physical Activity, Sitting And Cardio‐Metabolic Disease In Australian Adults, Lina Engelen, Joanne Gale, Josephine Chau, Louise L. Hardy, Martin Mackey, Nathan A. Johnson, Debra Shirley, Adrian E. Bauman

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Objective: To examine the associations of physical activity (PA) and sitting time (sit) with cardio‐metabolic diseases. Methods: Cross‐sectional data from the Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011-2012 (n=9,435) were used to classify adults into low and high risk groups based on their physical activity and sitting behaviour profiles. Logistic regression models examined associations between low and high risk classifications (high PA‐low sit; high PA‐high sit; low PA‐low sit; low PA‐high sit;) and socio‐demographic factors, and associations between low and high risk classifications and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Results: These results characterise …


Sydney Playground Project: A Cluster‐Randomized Trial To Increase Physical Activity, Play, And Social Skills, Anita C. Bundy, Lina Engelen, Shirley Wyver, Paul Tranter, Jo Ragen, Adrian E. Bauman, Louise A. Baur, Wendy Schiller, Judy Simpson, Anita Niehues, Gabrielle Perry, Glenda Jessup, Geraldine A. Naughton Jan 2017

Sydney Playground Project: A Cluster‐Randomized Trial To Increase Physical Activity, Play, And Social Skills, Anita C. Bundy, Lina Engelen, Shirley Wyver, Paul Tranter, Jo Ragen, Adrian E. Bauman, Louise A. Baur, Wendy Schiller, Judy Simpson, Anita Niehues, Gabrielle Perry, Glenda Jessup, Geraldine A. Naughton

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

BACKGROUND

We assessed the effectiveness of a simple intervention for increasing children's physical activity, play, perceived competence/social acceptance, and social skills.

METHODS

A cluster‐randomized controlled trial was conducted, in which schools were the clusters. Twelve Sydney (Australia) primary schools were randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions, with 226 children (5‐7 years old) selected randomly to participate. Data were collected at baseline and after 13 weeks. The intervention consisted of introducing recycled materials without an obvious play purpose into school playgrounds and a risk‐reframing workshop for parents and teachers.

RESULTS

Children from the intervention schools increased physical activity and reduced …


Trends In Prevalence Of Leisure Time Physical Activity And Inactivity: Results From Australian National Health Surveys 1989 To 2011, Josephine Chau, Tien Chey, Sarah Burks-Young, Lina Engelen, Adrian E. Bauman Jan 2017

Trends In Prevalence Of Leisure Time Physical Activity And Inactivity: Results From Australian National Health Surveys 1989 To 2011, Josephine Chau, Tien Chey, Sarah Burks-Young, Lina Engelen, Adrian E. Bauman

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Objective: To examine trends in leisure time physical activity and inactivity in Australians aged 15 years or older from 1989 to 2011.

Method: We used data from six Australian National Health Surveys conducted from 1989/90 to 2011/12 in which physical activity was assessed using comparable questions. Analyses examined trends in the prevalence of sufficient physical activity (≥150 minutes/week moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity) and of inactivity (<30 minutes/week moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity).

Results: The proportion of sufficiently active adults was 39.2% in 1989 and 40.7% in 2011 with an overall declining trend of 0.2% per year (p=0.012). The prevalence of inactivity was 38.7% in 1989 …


Opioid Agonist Treatment For Patients With Dependence On Prescription Opioids, Suzanne Nielsen, Briony K. Larance, Nicholas Lintzeris Jan 2017

Opioid Agonist Treatment For Patients With Dependence On Prescription Opioids, Suzanne Nielsen, Briony K. Larance, Nicholas Lintzeris

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Clinical Question Are different opioid agonist treatments (eg, methadone vs buprenorphine) associated with differences in efficacy for treating prescription opioid dependence, and is long-term maintenance of opioid agonist treatment associated with differences in efficacy compared with opioid taper or psychological treatments alone? Bottom Line For patients who are dependent on prescription opioids, long-term maintenance of opioid agonists is associated with less prescription opioid use and better adherence to medication and psychological therapies for opioid dependence compared with opioid taper or psychological treatments alone. Methadone maintenance was not associated with differences in therapeutic efficacy compared with buprenorphine maintenance treatment. Evidence quality …


What Factors Contribute To The Continued Low Rates Of Indigenous Status Identification In Urban General Practice? - A Mixed-Methods Multiple Site Case Study, Heike Schutze, Lisa Jackson Pulver, Mark Fort Harris Jan 2017

What Factors Contribute To The Continued Low Rates Of Indigenous Status Identification In Urban General Practice? - A Mixed-Methods Multiple Site Case Study, Heike Schutze, Lisa Jackson Pulver, Mark Fort Harris

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background Indigenous peoples experience worse health and die at younger ages than their non-indigenous counterparts. Ethnicity data enables health services to identify inequalities experienced by minority populations and to implement and monitor services specifically targeting them. Despite significant Government intervention, Australia's Indigenous peoples, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, continue to be under identified in data sets. We explored the barriers to Indigenous status identification in urban general practice in two areas in Sydney. Methods A mixed-methods multiple-site case study was used, set in urban general practice. Data collection included semi-structured interviews and self-complete questionnaires with 31 general practice …


Stunting And Severe Stunting Among Children Under-5 Years In Nigeria: A Multilevel Analysis, Blessing Akombi, Kingsley E. Agho, John J. Hall, Dafna Merom, Thomas E. Astell-Burt, Andre Renzaho Jan 2017

Stunting And Severe Stunting Among Children Under-5 Years In Nigeria: A Multilevel Analysis, Blessing Akombi, Kingsley E. Agho, John J. Hall, Dafna Merom, Thomas E. Astell-Burt, Andre Renzaho

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background

Stunting has been identified as one of the major proximal risk factors for poor physical and mental development of children under-5 years. Stunting predominantly occurs in the first 1000 days of life (0–23 months) and continues to the age of five. This study examines factors associated with stunting and severe stunting among children under-5 years in Nigeria.

Methods

The sample included 24,529 children aged 0–59 months from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Height-for-age z-scores (HFAz), generated using the 2006 World Health Organisation (WHO) growth reference, were used to define stunting (HFAz < −2SD) and severe stunting (HFAz < −3SD). Multilevel logistic regression analyses that adjusted for cluster and survey weights were used to determine potential risk factors associated with stunting and severe stunting among children under-5 years in Nigeria.

Results

The prevalence of stunting …


Impact Of A Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis On Mental Health, Quality Of Life, And Social Contacts: A Longitudinal Study, Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas E. Astell-Burt Jan 2017

Impact Of A Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis On Mental Health, Quality Of Life, And Social Contacts: A Longitudinal Study, Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas E. Astell-Burt

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Aims The aim was to examine whether a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis increases the odds of psychological distress, a worsening in overall quality of life, and a potential reduction in social contacts.

Method Longitudinal data were obtained from the 45 and Up Study (baseline 2006–2008; 3.4±0.95 years follow-up time). Fixed effects logistic and negative binomial regression models were fitted on a complete case on outcome sample that did not report T2DM at baseline (N=26 344), adjusted for time-varying confounders. The key exposure was doctor-diagnosed T2DM at follow-up. Outcome variables examined included the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, self-rated quality …